Information technology -- Guidance on information security management system processes

This document defines a process reference model (PRM) for the domain of information security management, which is meeting the criteria defined in ISO/IEC 33004 for process reference models (see Annex A). It is intended to guide users of ISO/IEC 27001 to: — incorporate the process approach as described by ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 4.3, within the ISMS; — be aligned to all the work done within other standards of the ISO/IEC 27000 family from the perspective of the operation of ISMS processes — support users in the operation of an ISMS ? this document is complementing the requirements-oriented perspective of ISO/IEC 27003 with an operational, process-oriented point of view.

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Published
Publication Date
10-Mar-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
23-Feb-2021
Completion Date
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TS
SPECIFICATION 27022
First edition
2021-03
Information technology — Guidance
on information security management
system processes
Reference number
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Structure and usage of this document ........................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Management processes ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Information security governance/management interface process ........................................................... 7

7 Core processes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Security policy management process .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Requirements management process .................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Information security risk assessment process .........................................................................................................13

7.5 Information security risk treatment process.............................................................................................................14

7.6 Security implementation management process .....................................................................................................17

7.7 Process to control outsourced services ..........................................................................................................................19

7.8 Process to assure necessary awareness and competence ..............................................................................21

7.9 Information security incident management process ..........................................................................................22

7.10 Information security change management process .............................................................................................25

7.11 Internal audit process ....................................................................................................................................................................27

7.12 Performance evaluation process ..........................................................................................................................................29

7.13 Information security improvement process ...............................................................................................................31

8 Support processes ............................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2 Records control process ...............................................................................................................................................................33

8.3 Resource management process .............................................................................................................................................35

8.4 Communication process ..............................................................................................................................................................37

8.5 Information security customer relationship management process.......................................................39

Annex A (informative) Statement of conformity to ISO/IEC 33004 ...................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 27, Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Introduction

An information security management system (ISMS) includes a collection of interacting processes and

is operated by performing those processes. This document provides a process reference model (PRM)

for information security management, which differentiates between ISMS processes and measures/

controls initiated by them.

A PRM is a model comprising definitions of processes described in terms of process purpose and results,

together with an architecture describing the relationships between the processes. Using the PRM in a

practical application can require additional elements suited to the environment and circumstances.

The PRM specified in this document describes the ISMS processes implied by ISO/IEC 27001. The PRM

is intended to be used as a process implementation and operation guide.

Any organization can define processes with additional elements in order to tailor it to its specific

environment and circumstances. Some processes cover general management aspects of an organization.

These processes have been identified in order to support organizations in addressing the requirements

of ISO/IEC 27001.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Information technology — Guidance on information
security management system processes
1 Scope

This document defines a process reference model (PRM) for the domain of information security

management, which is meeting the criteria defined in ISO/IEC 33004 for process reference models (see

Annex A). It is intended to guide users of ISO/IEC 27001 to:

— incorporate the process approach as described by ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 4.3, within the ISMS;

— be aligned to all the work done within other standards of the ISO/IEC 27000 family from the

perspective of the operation of ISMS processes

— support users in the operation of an ISMS – this document is complementing the requirements-

oriented perspective of ISO/IEC 27003 with an operational, process-oriented point of view.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 27000, Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management

systems — Overview and vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 27000 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
core process

process that delivers apparent and direct customer value and is derived from the core competencies

(3.1) of the management systems

Note 1 to entry: This definition relies on and extends the definitions in ISO 9000:2015 and ISO 38500:2015.

Note 2 to entry: In this definition, "core competency" is understood as the set of skills and know-how present

within a management system, directly aligned with the objectives of the management system, supporting the

achievement of the objectives and not elsewhere present within the organization at a competitive level.

3.2
integrated management system
IMS

management system that integrates all of an organization’s systems – like information security

management and business continuity management – and processes in to one complete framework,

enabling an organization to work as a single unit with unified objectives
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
3.3
key goal indicator
indicator that is an ex-post measure for the achievement of a goal/objective
3.4
key performance indicator

indicator that is an ex-ante measure, which allow a prediction if a goal/objective is achieved in the future

3.5
management process

process that defines the objectives of the management system to achieve the strategic objectives set by

the organization's governing body

Note 1 to entry: This definition relies on and extends the definitions in ISO 9000:2015 and ISO/IEC 38500:2015.

3.6
support process

process that supports core processes by providing and managing necessary resources without

delivering direct customer value

Note 1 to entry: This definition relies on and extends the definitions in ISO 9000:2015 and ISO/IEC 38500:2015.

4 Structure and usage of this document

The objective of this document is to guide the users of ISO/IEC 27001 on the operation of the ISMS. No

additional requirements are defined within this document.

It is not intended to be used “out of the box” without adapting it to the implementing organization and it

should not be used as requirements within ISMS certification audits.

The model architecture specifies a process architecture for the domain and comprises a set of processes,

with each described in terms of process, purpose and results. The PRM is closely aligned to the

information security requirements as contained in ISO/IEC 27001:2013. Processes are differentiated

in core, management and supporting processes. The PRM is also meeting the criteria defined in

ISO/IEC 33004 for process reference models.
Each process of this PRM is described in terms of:
— process category;
— brief description;
— process flowchart;
— objective/purposes;
— input and results;
— activities/functions;
— references.

The PRM does not attempt to place the processes in any specific environment nor does it pre-determine

any level of process capability/maturity required to fulfil the ISO/IEC 27001 requirements.

The PRM provides a detailed but generic blueprint regarding the core processes of an ISMS. The PRM is

applicable to all organizations independent of their size, objectives, business model, location, etc. The ISMS

PRM should be used as a prototype for an ISMS, which needs to be tailored to the objectives, needs and

individual requirements of the implementing organization. The tailoring of the PRM can include omission

of some of the listed processes, where they are inapplicable or would be reduced to vestigial form.

2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)

The process orientation of the PRM also supports the transition from designing and implementing an

ISMS (project phase) to the operation of the ISMS (performing the processes). The process orientation

also supports and allows the integration of the ISMS processes in further domains of an integrated

management system, described within the ISO handbook “The Integrated Use of Management System

Standards (IUMSS)”.
5 Overview

The fundamental elements of a PRM are the descriptions of the processes within the scope of the model.

The process descriptions in the PRM incorporate a statement of the purpose of the process, which

describes at a high level the overall objectives of performing the process.

An ISMS incorporates processes, for example shown in Figure 1. The listed processes illustrate key

topics that should be considered during the process design phase when implementing an ISMS.

The PRM should not be used “out of the box” without adapting it to the objectives, needs and individual

requirements of the implementing organization. For every ISMS process, the individual necessary

maturity level should be determined, implemented and operated. A possible result of determining the

necessary maturity level of a process can be, that the process is not needed at all (maturity level zero).

ISMS processes should be individually integrated into existing management systems and processes.

This is not displayed in the figure to ensure readability and due to existing management systems

differing too much in praxis.

Interfaces to the ISMS processes are described within the detailed process profiles and process flow

charts. Interfaces to the records control process and to the security policy management process are

only described within the detailed process profiles to ensure readability of the process flow charts.

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Figure 1 — ISMS process reference model

The information security governance/management interface process should ensure an alignment

of the ISMS with the objectives and needs of the overall organization and its stakeholders.

The security policy management process should be the process for the development, maintenance

and retention of information security policies, standards, procedures and guidelines – referred to as “IS

policies”.
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)

Key to satisfying the ISMS objectives is an up-to-date understanding of the needs and expectations

of interested parties relevant to information security and the ISMS. This should be realized within

the requirements management process, which should identify legal, statutory, regulatory and

contractual requirements for the risk assessment process, the internal audit process and the process to

control outsourced processes.

In the risk assessment process, risks should be identified, analysed and evaluated. The results of

this process should be documented and the evaluated risks captured in a list of prioritized risks with

risk owners, which should be input for the communication process and the information security risk

treatment process.

In the information security risk treatment process, risk treatment options should be identified and

selected, and control objectives/controls should be determined necessary for the chosen risk treatment

options. The results of this process should be lists with determined controls and control objectives, a

risk treatment plan including acceptance of residual risks, a control implementation plan and requests

for changes for the information security change management process, which are used as input in

various ISMS processes.

The security implementation management process should be the process to initiate and verify the

implementation of the risk treatment plan and necessary changes.

As services are outsourced, these services need to be determined and controlled, which should be

realized within the process to control outsourced services.

Within the information security awareness process, an information security awareness, training

and education program should be developed and implemented to ensure that all personnel receive the

necessary security training and/or education.

The information security incident management process should be for detecting, reporting,

assessing, responding to, dealing with and learning from information security incidents. The results

of this process are identified incidents, which should be used in various ISMS processes including the

information security change management process and the process to ensure necessary awareness and

competence.

The implementation of controls always constitutes changes, which should be managed within a

general change management process of the implementing organization or – if the change focuses on

an ISMS element – within the information security change management process. The information

security change management process is the process to control changes of ISMS elements and review the

consequences of unintended changes. This process only focusses on change management of the ISMS.

The results of this process should be necessary changes (for records control process), proposed and

necessary changes as well as results of changes (for and from risk assessment process), initiation of risk

assessment when significant changes are proposed or occur, and the results of changes to information

security incident management process, as that process initiated them.

The performance evaluation process should contain monitoring, measurement, analysis and

evaluation of two main criteria. First, the performance of the security controls and second the

performance of the ISMS processes. Performance measurement differs from performance audit (within

the internal audit process where effectiveness and efficiency of the ISMS and implemented controls

are audited), which should be performed independently.

Results from the performance evaluation process, the internal audit process as well as results from

the service provider audits from the process to control outsourced services should be used to improve

effectiveness, efficiency, suitability and adequacy of the ISMS and the controls. This should be realized

within the information security improvement process.

Within the records control process information determined to be necessary for the effectiveness

and/or the demonstration/provision of documented evidence of the effectiveness of the ISMS should be

identified, created, updated and controlled.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)

To implement the controls as well as to run the ISMS processes resources are needed which should

be identified, allocated and monitored in the resource management process. Results of the resource

management process should be planned/documented resources to implement and run determined

controls, categorization of controls regarding who funds the control, planned and documented

resources to run the ISMS core processes, reports regarding resource usage of ISMS core processes, and

for the information security customer relationship management process: reports on resource usage.

Results of nearly all ISMS processes should be centrally communicated within the communication

process to interested parties outside the ISMS. This should include the communication of risks and

information security management reports. Those reports as well as identified requirements should

serve as input for the information security governance/management interface process.

The information security governance/management interface process forms the interface between the

ISMS and its interested parties. Beside this, the operational management of the customer satisfaction

level as well as the continuous demonstration of the added value of investments in information security

should be realized. This should be done within the information security customer relationship

management process.

All processes have the potential to be designed and implemented as integrated processes within an

IMS. Synergy effects resulting from the integration of processes into an IMS should be identified and

realized wherever possible as suitable.
The processes are described in more detail in Clause 6 to 8 and Tables 1 to 17.
6 Management processes
6.1 General

This clause describes management processes of an ISMS. The concepts and purposes embodied in these

example processes should be considered during the process planning phase of an ISMS implementation

project.
6 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
6.2 Information security governance/management interface process

Table 1 — Process profile — Information security governance/management interface process

Process name Information security governance/management interface process
Process category Management process

This process ensures that information security is managed in a way that meets the

Brief description
needs of the organization.
Objective of this process should be to ensure an alignment of the ISMS with the
Objective/purposes
objectives and needs of the organization.
— From requirements management process: Requirements for approval.
— From communication process: Information security management reports
containing:
— former management reports;
— status of actions from former management reports;
— changes in requirements (external and internal issues as they are relevant
for the ISMS);
Input
— audit reports (including feedback on the information security performance,
including trends in nonconformities and corrective actions, monitoring and
measurement results, audits results and fulfilment of information security
objectives);
— feedback from interested parties;
— results of risk assessment and status of risk treatment plan;
— opportunities for continual improvement; and
— incident reports.
— For requirements management process:
— strategic objectives, goals, vision, restrictions, approved requirements;
— list of interested parties of the ISMS;
— risk criteria;
Results
— existing management systems;
— approved requirements.
— For records control process: Decisions related to the governance of the ISMS.
— For information security change management: Change requests.
— Initiate the ISMS.
— Review reports (measurement, audit reports, results of risk assessment and

Activities/functions status of risk treatment plan and feedback from interested parties).

— Generate and provide feedback to top management, decisions and, if necessary,
change requests.
— ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 5.1 and 9.3
References
— ISO/IEC 27003:2017, 8.4
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)

Figure 2 — Process flow chart — Information security governance/management interface

process
8 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
7 Core processes
7.1 General

This clause describes example core processes that can be found in an ISMS. The concepts and purposes

embodied in these example processes should be considered during the process planning phase of an

ISMS implementation project.
7.2 Security policy management process
Table 2 — Process profile — Security policy management process
Process name Security policy management process
Process category Core process

The security policy management process should be the process to develop, maintain

Brief description and retention of information security policies, standards, procedures and guidelines

(referred to as “IS policies”).

Ensure that appropriate policies, standards, procedures and guidelines (IS policies)

Objective/purposes regarding information security are developed, maintained, available and under-

stood by the target group.

— From all other information security processes (as basis for policies): Results of

the processes.
Input
— From change management process: Necessary changes of policies in form of
change requests.
— For communication process, internal audit process, performance evaluation

Results process, records control process and the process to assure necessary awareness

and competence: Appropriate IS policies.
— Obtain input from ISMS processes and develop IS policies.
— Obtain formal approval of IS policies.
— Distribution of IS policies (via communication process).

Activities/functions — Storage and preservation, including preservation of legibility.

— Control of changes/version control.
— Obtain replaced versions of IS policies.
— Deletion or disposal of IS policies after retention period.
— ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 5.2, 7.4 and 7.5
References
— ISO/IEC 27003:2017, 5.2, 7.4, 7.5 and Annex A
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Figure 3 — Process flow chart — Security policy management process
7.3 Requirements management process
Table 3 — Process profile — Requirements management process
Process name Requirements management process
Process category Core process
Requirements management process should be the process to ensure an up-to-date

Brief description understanding of the needs and expectations of interested parties relevant to infor-

mation security and the ISMS.

Objective/purposes All relevant legislative statutory, regulatory, contractual requirements are met.

10 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Process name Requirements management proce
...

TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TS
SPECIFICATION 27022
First edition
Information technology — Guidance
on information security management
system processes
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Structure and usage of this document ........................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Management processes ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Information security governance/management interface process ........................................................... 7

7 Core processes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Security policy management process .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Requirements management process .................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Information security risk assessment process .........................................................................................................13

7.5 Information security risk treatment process.............................................................................................................14

7.6 Security implementation management process .....................................................................................................17

7.7 Process to control outsourced services ..........................................................................................................................19

7.8 Process to assure necessary awareness and competence ..............................................................................21

7.9 Information security incident management process ..........................................................................................22

7.10 Information security change management process .............................................................................................25

7.11 Internal audit process ....................................................................................................................................................................27

7.12 Performance evaluation process ..........................................................................................................................................29

7.13 Information security improvement process ...............................................................................................................31

8 Support processes ............................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2 Records control process ...............................................................................................................................................................33

8.3 Resource management process .............................................................................................................................................35

8.4 Communication process ..............................................................................................................................................................37

8.5 Information security customer relationship management process.......................................................39

Annex A (informative) Statement of conformity to ISO/IEC 33004 ...................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 27, Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Introduction

An information security management system (ISMS) includes a collection of interacting processes and

is operated by performing those processes. This document provides a process reference model (PRM)

for information security management, which differentiates between ISMS processes and measures/

controls initiated by them.

A PRM is a model comprising definitions of processes described in terms of process purpose and results,

together with an architecture describing the relationships between the processes. Using the PRM in a

practical application can require additional elements suited to the environment and circumstances.

The PRM specified in this document describes the ISMS processes implied by ISO/IEC 27001. The PRM

is intended to be used as a process implementation and operation guide.

Any organization can define processes with additional elements in order to tailor it to its specific

environment and circumstances. Some processes cover general management aspects of an organization.

These processes have been identified in order to support organizations in addressing the requirements

of ISO/IEC 27001.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/IEC TS 27022:2021(E)
Information technology — Guidance on information
security management system processes
1 Scope

This document defines a process reference model (PRM) for the domain of information security

management, which is meeting the criteria defined in ISO/IEC 33004 for process reference models (see

Annex A). It is intended to guide users of ISO/IEC 27001 to:

— incorporate the process approach as described by ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 4.3, within the ISMS;

— be aligned to all the work done within other standards of the ISO/IEC 27000 family from the

perspective of the operation of ISMS processes

— support users in the operation of an ISMS – this document is complementing the requirements-

oriented perspective of ISO/IEC 27003 with an operational, process-oriented point of view.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 27000, Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management

systems — Overview and vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 27000 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
core process

process that delivers apparent and direct customer value and is derived from the core competencies

(3.1) of the management systems

Note 1 to entry: This definition relies on and extends the definitions in ISO 9000:2015 and ISO 38500:2015.

Note 2 to entry: In this definition, "core competency" is understood as the set of skills and know-how present

within a management system, directly aligned with the objectives of the management system, supporting the

achievement of the objectives and not elsewhere present within the organization at a competitive level.

3.2
integrated management system
IMS

management system that integrates all of an organization’s systems – like information security

management and business continuity management – and processes in to one complete framework,

enabling an organization to work as a single unit with unified objectives
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3.3
key goal indicator
indicator that is an ex-post measure for the achievement of a goal/objective
3.4
key performance indicator

indicator that is an ex-ante measure, which allow a prediction if a goal/objective is achieved in the future

3.5
management process

process that defines the objectives of the management system to achieve the strategic objectives set by

the organization's governing body

Note 1 to entry: This definition relies on and extends the definitions in ISO 9000:2015 and ISO/IEC 38500:2015.

3.6
support process

process that supports core processes by providing and managing necessary resources without

delivering direct customer value

Note 1 to entry: This definition relies on and extends the definitions in ISO 9000:2015 and ISO/IEC 38500:2015.

4 Structure and usage of this document

The objective of this document is to guide the users of ISO/IEC 27001 on the operation of the ISMS. No

additional requirements are defined within this document.

It is not intended to be used “out of the box” without adapting it to the implementing organization and it

should not be used as requirements within ISMS certification audits.

The model architecture specifies a process architecture for the domain and comprises a set of processes,

with each described in terms of process purpose and results. The PRM is closely aligned to the

information security requirements as contained in ISO/IEC 27001:2013. Processes are differentiated

in core, management and supporting processes. The PRM is also meeting the criteria defined in

ISO/IEC 33004 for process reference models.
Each process of this PRM is described in terms of:
— process category;
— brief description;
— process flowchart;
— objective/purposes;
— input and results;
— activities/functions;
— references.

The PRM does not attempt to place the processes in any specific environment nor does it pre-determine

any level of process capability/maturity required to fulfil the ISO/IEC 27001 requirements.

The PRM provides a detailed but generic blueprint regarding the core processes of an ISMS. The PRM is

applicable to all organizations independent of their size, objectives, business model, location, etc. The ISMS

PRM should be used as a prototype for an ISMS, which needs to be tailored to the objectives, needs and

individual requirements of the implementing organization. The tailoring of the PRM can include omission

of some of the listed processes, where they are inapplicable or would be reduced to vestigial form.

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The process orientation of the PRM also supports the transition from designing and implementing an

ISMS (project phase) to the operation of the ISMS (performing the processes). The process orientation

also supports and allows the integration of the ISMS processes in further domains of an integrated

management system, described within the ISO handbook “The Integrated Use of Management System

Standards (IUMSS)”.
5 Overview

The fundamental elements of a PRM are the descriptions of the processes within the scope of the model.

The process descriptions in the PRM incorporate a statement of the purpose of the process, which

describes at a high level the overall objectives of performing the process.

An ISMS incorporates processes, for example shown in Figure 1. The listed processes illustrate key

topics that should be considered during the process design phase when implementing an ISMS.

The PRM should not be used “out of the box” without adapting it to the objectives, needs and individual

requirements of the implementing organization. For every ISMS process, the individually necessary

maturity level should be determined, implemented and operated. A possible result of determining the

necessary maturity level of a process can be, that the process is not needed at all (maturity level zero).

ISMS processes should be individually integrated into existing management systems and processes.

This is not displayed in the figure to ensure readability and due to existing management systems

differing too much in praxis.

Interfaces to the ISMS processes are described within the detailed process profiles and process flow

charts. Interfaces to the records control process and to the security policy management process are

only described within the detailed process profiles to ensure readability of the process flow charts.

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Figure 1 — ISMS process reference model

The information security governance/management interface process should ensure an alignment

of the ISMS with the objectives and needs of the overall organization and its stakeholders.

The security policy management process should be the process for the development, maintenance

and retention of information security policies, standards, procedures and guidelines –referred to as “IS

policies”.
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Key to satisfying the ISMS objectives is an up-to-date understanding of the needs and expectations

of interested parties relevant to information security and the ISMS. This should be realized within

the requirements management process, which should identify legal, statutory, regulatory and

contractual requirements for the risk assessment process, the internal audit process and the process to

control outsourced processes.

In the risk assessment process, risks should be identified, analysed and evaluated. The results of this

process should be documented and evaluated risks in a list of prioritized risks (list) and risk owners,

which should be input for the communication process and the information security risk treatment

process.

In the information security risk treatment process, risk treatment options should be identified and

selected, and control objectives/controls should be determined necessary for the chosen risk treatment

options. The results of this process should be lists with determined controls and control objectives, a

risk treatment plan including acceptance of residual risks, a control implementation plan and requests

for changes for the information security change management process, which are used as input in

various ISMS processes.

The security implementation management process should be the process to initiate and verify the

implementation of the risk treatment plan and necessary changes.

As services are outsourced, these services need to be determined and controlled, which should be

realized within the process to control outsourced services.

Within the information security awareness process, an information security awareness, training

and education program should be developed and implemented to ensure that all personnel receive the

necessary security training and/or education.

The information security incident management process should be for detecting, reporting,

assessing, responding to, dealing with and learning from information security incidents. The results

of this process are identified incidents, which should be used in various ISMS processes including the

information security change management process and the process to ensure necessary awareness and

competence.

The implementation of controls always constitutes changes, which should be managed within a

general change management process of the implementing organization or – if the change focuses on

an ISMS element – within the information security change management process. The information

security change management process is the process to control changes of ISMS elements and review the

consequences of unintended changes. This process only focusses on change management of the ISMS.

The results of this process should be necessary changes (for records control process), proposed and

necessary changes as well as results of changes (for and from risk assessment process), initiation of risk

assessment when significant changes are proposed or occur, and the results of changes to information

security incident management process, as that process initiated them.

The performance evaluation process should contain monitoring, measurement, analysis and

evaluation of two main criteria. First, the performance of the security controls and second the

performance of the ISMS processes. Performance measurement differs from performance audit (within

the internal audit process where effectiveness and efficiency of the ISMS and implemented controls

are audited), which should be performed independently.

Results from the performance evaluation process, the internal audit process as well as results from

the service provider audits from the process to control outsourced services should be used to improve

effectiveness, efficiency, suitability and adequacy of the ISMS and the controls. This should be realized

within the information security improvement process.

Within the records control process information determined to be necessary for the effectiveness

and/or the demonstration/provision of documented evidence of the effectiveness of the ISMS should be

identified, created, updated and controlled.
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To implement the controls as well as to run the ISMS processes resources are needed which should

be identified, allocated and monitored in the resource management process. Results of the resource

management process should be planned/documented resources to implement and run determined

controls, categorization of controls regarding who funds the control, planned and documented

resources to run the ISMS core processes, reports regarding resource usage of ISMS core processes, and

for the information security customer relationship management process: reports on resource usage.

Results of nearly all ISMS processes should be centrally communicated within the communication

process to interested parties outside the ISMS. This should include the communication of risks and

information security management reports. Those reports as well as identified requirements should

serve as input for the information security governance/management interface process.

The information security governance/management interface process forms the interface between the

ISMS and its interested parties. Beside this, the operational management of the customer satisfaction

level as well as the continuous demonstration of the added value of investments in information security

should be realized. This should be done within the information security customer relationship

management process.

All processes have the potential to be designed and implemented as integrated processes within an

IMS. Synergy effects resulting from the integration of processes into an IMS should be identified and

realized wherever possible as suitable.
The processes are described in more detail in Clause 6 and Tables 1 to 17.
6 Management processes
6.1 General

This clause describes management processes of an ISMS. The concepts and purposes embodied in these

example processes should be considered during the process planning phase of an ISMS implementation

project.
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6.2 Information security governance/management interface process

Table 1 — Process profile — Information security governance/management interface process

Process name Information security governance/management interface process
Process category Management process

This process ensures that information security is managed in a way that meets the

Brief description
needs of the organization.
Objective of this process should be to ensure an alignment of the ISMS with the
Objective/purposes
objectives and needs of the organization.
— From requirements management process: Requirements for approval.
— From communication process: Information security management reports
containing:
— former management reports;
— status of actions from former management reports;
— changes in requirements (external and internal issues as they are relevant
for the ISMS);
Input
— audit reports (including feedback on the information security performance,
including trends in nonconformities and corrective actions, monitoring and
measurement results, audits results and fulfilment of information security
objectives);
— feedback from interested parties;
— results of risk assessment and status of risk treatment plan;
— opportunities for continual improvement; and
— incident reports.
— For requirements management process:
— strategic objectives, goals, vision, restrictions, approved requirements;
— list of interested parties of the ISMS;
— risk criteria;
Results
— existing management systems;
— approved requirements.
— For records control process: Decisions related to the governance of the ISMS.
— For information security change management: Change requests.
— Initiate the ISMS.
— Review reports (measurement, audit reports, results of risk assessment and

Activities/functions status of risk treatment plan and feedback from interested parties).

— Generate and provide feedback to top management, decisions and, if necessary,
change requests.
— ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 5.1 and 9.3
References
— ISO/IEC 27003:2017, 8.4
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Figure 2 — Process flow chart — Information security governance/management interface

process
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7 Core processes
7.1 General

This clause describes example core processes that can be found in an ISMS. The concepts and purposes

embodied in these example processes should be considered during the process planning phase of an

ISMS implementation project.
7.2 Security policy management process
Table 2 — Process profile — Security policy management process
Process name Security policy management process
Process category Core process

The security policy management process should be the process to develop, maintain

Brief description and retention of information security policies, standards, procedures and guidelines

(referred to as “IS policies”).

Ensure that appropriate policies, standards, procedures and guidelines (IS policies)

Objective/purposes regarding information security are developed, maintained, available and under-

stood by the target group.

— From all other information security processes (as basis for policies): Results of

the processes.
Input
— From change management process: Necessary changes of policies in form of
change requests.
— For communication process, internal audit process, performance evaluation

Results process, records control process and the process to assure necessary awareness

and competence: Appropriate IS policies.
— Obtain input from ISMS processes and develop IS policies.
— Obtain formal approval of IS policies.
— Distribution of IS policies (via communication process).

Activities/functions — Storage and preservation, including preservation of legibility.

— Control of changes/version control.
— Obtain replaced versions of IS policies.
— Deletion or disposal of IS policies after retention period.
— ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 5.2, 7.4 and 7.5
References
— ISO/IEC 27003:2017, 5.2, 7.4, 7.5 and Annex A
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Figure 3 — Process flow chart — Security policy management process
7.3 Requirements management process
Table 3 — Process profile — Requirements management process
Process name Requirements management process
Process category Core process
Requirements management process should be the process to ensure an up-to-date

Brief description understanding of the needs and expectations of interested parties relevant to infor-

mation security and the ISMS.

Objective/purposes All relevant legislative statutory, regulatory, contractual requirements are met.

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