Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques

ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015 defines the Crypto Suite for Grain-128A for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interface standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that might be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015 specifies a crypto suite for Grain-128A for air interface for RFID systems. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015 defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the cipher. A tag and an interrogator might support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

Technologies de l'information -- Techniques automatiques d'identification et de capture de donnees

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 29167-13
First edition
2015-05-15
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques —
Part 13:
Crypto suite Grain-128A security
services for air interface
communications
Technologies de l’information — Techniques automatiques
d’identification et de capture de donnees —
Partie 13: Services de sécurité par suite cryptographique Grain-128A
pour communications par interface radio
Reference number
ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2.1 Claiming conformance ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Interrogator conformance and obligations .................................................................................................................... 1

2.3 Tag conformance and obligations ........................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Cipher introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Parameter definition ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8 State diagram ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Initialization and resetting ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

10 Authentication ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10.2 Tag Authentication (TA) .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

10.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

10.2.2 CryptoAuthCmd(TA.1 Payload for Tag CS) ................................................................................................ 7

10.2.3 CryptoAuthResp(TA.1 Payload for Interrogator CS) ......................................................................... 7

10.2.4 Final Interrogator Processing ............................................................................................................................... 7

10.3 Interrogator Authentication (IA)............................................................................................................................................. 8

10.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

10.3.2 CryptoAuthCmd(IA.1 Payload for Tag CS) .................................................................................................. 8

10.3.3 CryptoAuthResp(IA.1 Payload for Interrogator CS) .......................................................................... 8

10.3.4 CryptoAuthCmd(IA.2 Payload for Tag CS) .................................................................................................. 9

10.3.5 CryptoAuthResp(IA.2 Payload for Interrogator CS) .......................................................................... 9

10.4 Mutual Authentication (MA) ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

10.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

10.4.2 CryptoAuthCmd (MA.1 Payload for Tag CS) ..........................................................................................10

10.4.3 CryptoAuthResp(MA.1 Payload for Interrogator CS) ....................................................................10

10.4.4 CryptoAuthCmd(MA.2 Payload for Tag CS) ............................................................................................10

10.4.5 CryptoAuthResp(MA.2 Payload for Interrogator CS) ....................................................................11

10.4.6 Final Interrogator Processing ............................................................................................................................11

11 Communication ...................................................................................................................................................................................................11

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

11.2 Authenticated Communication ..............................................................................................................................................12

11.3 Secure Authenticated Communication ............................................................................................................................13

12 Key table and key update ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (normative) State transition tables .............................................................................................................................................15

Annex B (normative) Error conditions and error handling ......................................................................................................19

Annex C (normative) Cipher description ......................................................................................................................................................20

Annex D (informative) Test vectors ....................................................................................................................................................................23

Annex E (normative) Protocol specific ............................................................................................................................................................30

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

iv © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, SC 31, Automatic

identification and data capture techniques.

ISO/IEC 29167 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Automatic

identification and data capture techniques:
— Part 1: Security services for RFID air interfaces

— Part 10: Crypto suite AES-128 security services for air interface communications

— Part 11: Crypto suite PRESENT-80 security services for air interface communications

— Part 12: Crypto suite ECC-DH security services for air interface communications

— Part 13: Crypto suite Grain-128A security services for air interface communications

— Part 14: Crypto suite AES OFB security services for air interface communications

— Part 16: Crypto suite ECDSA-ECDH security services for air interface communications

— Part 17: Crypto suite cryptoGPS security services for air interface communications

— Part 19: Crypto suite RAMON security services for air interface communications
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 15: Crypto suite XOR security services for air interface communications
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO/IEC 29167 specifies the security services of a Grain-128A crypto suite that is based

on a lightweight stream cipher. It is important to know that all security services are optional. Every

manufacturer has the liberty to choose which services will be implemented on a Tag (e.g. Tag-only

authentication).

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission

(IEC) draw attention to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this document may involve the use

of patents concerning radio-frequency identification technology given in the clauses identified below.

ISO and IEC take no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of these patent rights.

The holders of these patent rights have assured the ISO and IEC that they are willing to negotiate licences

under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world.

In this respect, the statements of the holders of these patent rights are registered with ISO and IEC.

Information on the declared patents can be obtained from:
Impinj, Inc.
701 N 34 Street, Suite 300
Seattle, WA 98103 USA

The latest information on IP that might be applicable to this part of ISO/IEC 29167 can be found at www.

iso.org/patents.
vi © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
Information technology — Automatic identification and
data capture techniques —
Part 13:
Crypto suite Grain-128A security services for air interface
communications
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 29167 defines the Crypto Suite for Grain-128A for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interface

standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto

suite for security for RFID devices that might be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards

and application standards

This part of ISO/IEC 29167 specifies a crypto suite for Grain-128A for air interface for RFID systems. The

crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces.

This part of ISO/IEC 29167 defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the cipher. A

tag and an interrogator might support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what

is supported.
2 Conformance
2.1 Claiming conformance

To claim conformance with this part of ISO/IEC 29167, an Interrogator or Tag shall comply with all

relevant clauses of this part of ISO/IEC 29167, except those marked as “optional”.

2.2 Interrogator conformance and obligations
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 29167, an Interrogator shall

— implement the mandatory commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 29167 and conform to the

relevant part of ISO/IEC 18000.
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 29167, an Interrogator can

— implement any subset of the optional commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 29167.

To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 29167, the Interrogator shall not
— implement any command that conflicts with this part of ISO/IEC 29167, or

— require the use of an optional, proprietary, or custom command to meet the requirements of this

part of ISO/IEC 29167.
2.3 Tag conformance and obligations
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 29167, a Tag shall

— implement the mandatory commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 29167 for the supported types

and conform to the relevant part of ISO/IEC 18000.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 29167, a Tag can

— implement any subset of the optional commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 29167.

To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 29167, a Tag shall not
— implement any command that conflicts with this part of ISO/IEC 29167, or

— require the use of an optional, proprietary, or custom command to meet the requirements of this

part of ISO/IEC 29167.
3 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19762 (all parts), Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC)

techniques — Harmonized vocabulary

ISO/IEC 29167-1, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques —

Part 1: Security services for RFID air interfaces
4 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 (all parts) apply.

5 Symbols and abbreviated terms
5.1 Symbols
xxxx binary notation
xxxx hexadecimal notation
|| concatenation of syntax elements in the order written
5.2 Abbreviated terms
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CS Cryptographic Suite
CSI Cryptographic Suite Indicator
IA Interrogator Authentication
IV Initialization Vector
LFSR Linear Feedback Shift Register
LSB Least Significant Bit
MA Mutual Authentication
MAC Message Authentication Code
MSB Most Significant Bit
2 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
NFSR Nonlinear Feedback Shift Register
RFU Reserved for Future Use
TA Tag Authentication
6 Cipher introduction

Many stream ciphers have been proposed over the years, and new designs are published as cryptanalysis

[1]

enhances our understanding of how to design safer and more efficient primitives. While the NESSIE

project failed to name a stream cipher “winner” after evaluating several new designs in 2000-2003, the

[2]

eSTREAM project finally decided on two portfolios of promising candidates. One of these portfolios

[3]

was aimed at hardware attractive constructions, and Grain is one of three finalists.

Grain is notable for its extremely small hardware representation. During the initial phase of the

[4]

eSTREAM project, the original version, Grain v0, was strengthened after some observations . The

final version is known as Grain v1.

Like the other eSTREAM portfolio ciphers, Grain v1 is modern in the sense that it allows for public IVs,

yet they only use 80-bit keys. Recognizing the emerging need for 128-bit keys, Grain-128 supporting

[5]

128-bit keys and 96-bit IVs was proposed . The design is akin to that of 80-bit Grain, but noticeably,

the nonlinear parts of the cipher have smaller degrees than their counterparts in Grain v1.

[6]

A new version of Grain-128, namely Grain-128A, has been specified . The new stream cipher has native

support for Message Authentication Code (MAC) generation and is expected to be comparable to the old

version in hardware performance. MAC generation does not affect the keystream generated by Grain-128A.

Grain-128A uses slightly different nonlinear functions in order to strengthen it against the known

attacks and observations on Grain-128. The changes are modest and provide for a high confidence in

Grain-128A, as the cryptanalysis carries over from Grain-128.
7 Parameter definition
Table 1 — Definition of Parameters
Parameter Description

AuthMethod[1:0] Authentication method specified by the Interrogator to be used by the Tag

CSFeatures[7:0] Optional features supported by the Tag
IKeystream Interrogator keystream used for authentication

IRandomNumber[47:0] 48-bit Interrogator random number used for crypto engine initialization

IV[95:0] 96-bit Initialization Vector
KeyID[7:0] Specifies the 128-bit crypto key having the ID number = KeyID
MAC32[31:0] 32-bit Message Authentication Code
MAC64[63:0] 64-bit Message Authentication Code
Method[1:0] Authentication method

Options[3:0] Optional features specified by the Interrogator to be used by the Tag

Step[1:0] Step number in the authentication method
TKeystream Tag keystream used for authentication

TRandomNumber[47:0] 48-bit Tag random number used for crypto engine initialization

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
8 State diagram
external reset
INIT=FALSE
TA =FALSE
IA =FALSE
ERROR =FALSE
CS-Reset
Note 1
[INIT = FALSE and
TA =FALSE and
IA =FALSE and
ERROR = FALSE and
[CryptoAuthCmd(TA.1) or
CryptoAuthCmd(IA.1) or
CryptoAuthCmd(MA.1)]]
CS-Init
CryptoAuthCmd(TA.1) CryptoAuthCmd(MA.1)
INIT =TRUE
CryptoAuthResp(TA.1)
Note 2 CryptoAuthResp(MA.1)
CryptoAuthCmd(IA.1)
CryptoAuthResp(IA.1)
TA.1
IA.1 MA.1
Step 00 Complete
Step 00 Complete Step 00 Complete
b b
TA =TRUE
Note 4 Note 5
Note 3
ERROR = FALSE ERROR= FALSE
If ERROR =FALSE
CryptoAuthCmd(IA.2) CryptoAuthCmd(MA.2)
Generate MAC for CryptoAuthResp(IA.2) CryptoAuthResp(MA.2)
CryptoCommResp
IA.2 MA.2
Step 01 Complete Step 01 Complete
b b
If IA successful, If IA successful,
then IA =TRUE, else then TA =IA= TRUE,
ERROR =TRUE else ERROR = TRUE
Note 6 Note 7
If ERROR =FALSE
Validate MAC for
If ERROR = FALSE
CryptoCommCmd If ERROR = FALSE
Validate MAC for
Decryption of
CryptoCommCmd
CryptoSecCommCmd
CryptoSecCommCmd
Encryption of
Generate MAC for
CryptoSecCommResp
CryptoCommResp
CryptoSecCommResp

Note 1. Any CryptoCommCmd,CryptoSecCommCmd,or CryptoKeyUpdate in this state shall be a Crypto Error condition (ERROR=

TRUE)and cause the state machine to remain in this state.

Note 2. Initialization of the keystream generator and MAC generator shall be performed as described in Section 9.

Note 3. Any CryptoAuthCmd,CryptoSecCommCmd,or CryptoKeyUpdate in this state shall be a Crypto Error condition (ERROR=

TRUE)and cause the state machine to remain in this state.

Note 4. Any CryptoAuthCmd other than IA.2,CryptoCommCmd,CryptoSecCommCmd,or CryptoKeyUpdate in this state shall be a

Crypto Error condition (ERROR =TRUE) and cause the state machine to remain in this state.

Note 5. Any CryptoAuthCmd other than MA.2,CryptoCommCmd,CryptoSecCommCmd,or CryptoKeyUpdate in this state shall be a

Crypto Error condition (ERROR =TRUE) and cause the state machine to remain in this state.

Note 6. Any CryptoAuthCmd,CryptoSecCommCmd,or CryptoKeyUpdate in this state shall be a Crypto Error condition (ERROR=

TRUE)and cause the state machine to remain in this state. A CryptoCommCmd shall generate a MAC and authenticate the

CryptoCommCmd.

Note 7. Any CryptoAuthCmd in this state shall be a Crypto Error condition (ERROR= TRUE)and cause the state machine to remain in

this state.A CryptoCommCmd shall generate a MAC and authenticate the CryptoCommCmd and shall generate a MAC for use in the

CryptoCommResp.A CryptoSecCommCmd shall be decrypted and generate a MAC for authenticating the CryptoSecCommCmd and the

CryptoSecCommResp shall be encrypted and generate a MAC for use in the CryptoSecCommResp.

Figure 1 — Tag Crypto Engine State Diagram
The state-transition tables are provided in Annex A.
4 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
9 Initialization and resetting

The Tag’s air interface protocol logic shall provide an external reset to the Tag crypto engine which shall

set INIT = FALSE, TA = FALSE, IA = FALSE, and ERROR = FALSE before a transition to the CS-Reset state.

The CS-Reset state shall process crypto commands from the Tag’s air interface protocol logic only when

ERROR = FALSE. The Tag shall check the crypto command and payload for any error conditions. An error

condition occurs for any CryptoCommCmd, CryptoSecCommCmd, or CryptoKeyUpdate command. The

Tag shall check a CryptoAuthCmd payload for any error conditions. An error condition in the payload

occurs when Step ≠ 00 , or the KeyID value is not supported by the Tag, or AuthMethod = 00 and the Tag

b b

does not support Tag authentication, or AuthMethod = 00 and the Options selected are not supported

by the Tag CSFeatures, or AuthMethod = 01 and the Tag does not support Interrogator authentication,

or AuthMethod = 01 and Options ≠ 0000 , or AuthMethod = 10 and Options ≠ 0000 , or AuthMethod =

b b b b
11 and the Tag does not support a vendor defined authentication.

If an error condition exists then the Tag crypto engine shall set ERROR = TRUE and remain in the

CS-Reset state.

If no error condition exists, the Tag shall transition to the CS-Init state to start processing the

CryptoAuthCmd and initializes the keystream and MAC generators in the following manner. The key and

the initialization vector (IV) shall be used to initialize the cipher. Denote the bits of the key as k , 0 ≤ i ≤

127 and the IV bits IV , 0 ≤ i ≤ 95. The IV shall be generated using IRandomNumber and TRandomNumber

such that IV[95:0] = TRandomNumber[47:0] || IRandomNumber[47:0]. The 128 NFSR elements are loaded

with the key bits, b = k , 0 ≤ i ≤ 127, and the first 96 LFSR elements are loaded with a one and the IV bits,

i i

s = 1 s = IV , 1 ≤ i ≤ 95. The last 32 bits of the LFSR are filled with 2 bits for authentication information

0 i i

followed by ones and a zero, s = Tag being authenticated, s = Interrogator being authenticated, s =

96 97 i

1, 98 ≤ i ≤ 126, s = 0. Then, the cipher is clocked 256 times without producing any keystream. Instead

127

the pre-output function is fed back and XORed with the input, both to the LFSR and to the NFSR. The

keystream from the pre-output function is ready for use and the cipher is now clocked to initialize the

MAC generator, either 64 times for a 32-bit MAC generator or 128 times for a 64-bit MAC generator. The

Tag crypto engine shall set INIT = TRUE and the keystream and MAC generators are ready for use to

support authentication and communication security services. While INIT = TRUE, the output streams of

the keystream generator and the MAC generator shall retain state information from one crypto engine

operation until the next crypto engine operation.
10 Authentication
10.1 General

A primary use for the Grain-128A CS is to perform authentication of Tags, Interrogators, or both. The

authentication method to be performed shall be specified by the 2-bit value AuthMethod[1:0] which

is defined in Table 2. Some of the authentication methods require multiple steps to be performed in a

specific sequence. The current step in the sequence shall be specified by the 2-bit value Step[1:0] and

represents steps 0, 1, 2, and 3 as defined in Table 3. All authentication methods start with step 0 and

then the step increments sequentially as needed. Step 0 for all authentication methods shall be initiated

by the Interrogator. During step 0 of an authentication method, the Tag shall provide an 8-bit value

CSFeatures[7:0] which is defined in Table 5 and used to indicate which of the optional Grain-128A CS

features are supported by the Tag. During step 0 or 1 of an authentication method, the Interrogator

shall provide a 4-bit value Options[3:0] which is defined in Table 4 and used to indicate which optional

features should be used by the Tag.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
Table 2 — Definition of AuthMethod[1:0]
Value Description
00 Tag authentication
01 Interrogator authentication
10 Mutual authentication
11 Vendor defined
Table 3 — Definition of Step[1:0]
Value Description
00 Step 0
01 Step 1
10 Step 2
11 Step 3
Table 4 — Definition of Options[3:0]
Name Description
Options[3] Vendor defined
Options[2] Vendor defined
Options[1] 0 = Disable Secure Authenticated Communication,
1 = Enable Secure Authenticated Communication
Options[0] 0 = Use MAC32,
1 = Use MAC64
Table 5 — Definition of CSFeatures[7:0]
Name Description
CSFeatures[7] Vendor defined
CSFeatures[6] 0 = Encrypted read of hidden memory not supported,
1 = Encrypted read of hidden memory supported
CSFeatures[5] 0 = Key update not supported,
1 = Key update supported
CSFeatures[4] 0 = Secure authenticated communication not supported,
1 = Secure authenticated communication supported
CSFeatures[3] 0 = MAC64 not supported,
1 = MAC64 supported
CSFeatures[2] 0 = MAC32 not supported,
1 = MAC32 supported
CSFeatures[1] 0 = IA not supported,
1 = IA supported
CSFeatures[0] 0 = TA not supported,
1 = TA supported
6 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015(E)
10.2 Tag Authentication (TA)
10.2.1 General
The
...

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