Electrically propelled vehicles — Test specifications for lithium-ion battery systems combined with lead acid battery or capacitor

ISO 18300:2016 specifies the lithium-ion battery systems combined with lead acid battery or electric double layer capacitor to be used for automotive applications in voltage class A systems. document applies only to combinations of such electric energy storages that are integrated in a common housing. It specifies configurations, test procedures, and requirements for such combinations.

Véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique — Spécifications d'essai pour les systèmes de batteries aux ions lithium couplées à d'autres types de batterie ou condensateur

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Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Nov-2016
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Oct-2021
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ISO 18300:2016 - Electrically propelled vehicles -- Test specifications for lithium-ion battery systems combined with lead acid battery or capacitor
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18300
First edition
2016-11-15
Electrically propelled vehicles — Test
specifications for lithium-ion battery
systems combined with lead acid
battery or capacitor
Véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique — Spécifications d’essai
pour les systèmes de batteries aux ions lithium couplées à d’autres
types de batterie ou condensateur
Reference number
ISO 18300:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18300:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18300:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Type of connection with lithium-ion battery system ..................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Lithium-ion battery pack or system combined with lead acid battery (LIPB) ................................ 3

5.2 Lithium-ion battery pack or system combined with electric double layer capacitor

energy storage system (LICA) .................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Test for LIPB .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Rated capacity .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.3 Micro-cycle test ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3.2 Micro-cycle without regenerative charging .............................................................................................. 6

7.3.3 Micro-cycle with regenerative charging ...................................................................................................... 7

7.4 Cycle life test ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.3 Requirement ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8 Tests for LICA ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.1 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Micro-cycle with regenerative test .....................................................................................................................................10

8.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Cold cranking power .......................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.3 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) LICA and LIPB ...............................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18300:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 37,

Electrically propelled vehicles.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18300:2016(E)
Introduction

High-performance on-board electric energy storage is the main obstacle in developing electric vehicles

available at more affordable prices. In order to ensure high efficiency and good motion properties, there

are many requirements imposed on electrical energy storage sources, such as high power and energy

density, long cycle and calendar life, reliability, wide temperature range and no emission of pollutants.

The most common energy storages/sources in electric vehicles are electrochemical batteries and

electric double layer capacitor. However, installing only one type of energy storage/source could be

insufficient to complement each single type drawbacks. Hybridization of the source enables to solve

some key problems encountered in electric vehicles such as regenerative braking, while the main

source of energy is lithium-ion battery.

Today’s hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs), for example, use rechargeable batteries with gasoline-

powered engines to provide power to a vehicle. This system uses the battery as a power buffer to

support the engine in order to achieve greater gas mileage. While using a battery in an HEV by itself, the

battery is subjected to changes in the amount of power it generates and receives from the load. Since

most rechargeable batteries have low-power densities, their life spans are reduced by constant erratic

oscillation in demand. A solution to this problem can be dual battery system or two batteries system

or combined system with electric double layer capacitor. By using additional energy storage systems,

battery performance improvement can be achieved.

The hybrid lithium-ion battery system can supplement the traditional 12V electrical network with a 48V

electrical system and components, bridging the gap between low-end hybridization based on present-

day 12V start-stop systems. Many hybrids sold will be expected microhybrids, those using start-stop

and brake regeneration technologies that operate either with the existing 12V vehicle electric system

or with a combined 12V and 48V dual battery/dual voltage electric system. These relatively inexpensive

start-stops can provide limited hybrid power assist on launching and also for energy regeneration

during braking.

The purpose of this document is the description of such a voltage class A electric system.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18300:2016(E)
Electrically propelled vehicles — Test specifications for
lithium-ion battery systems combined with lead acid
battery or capacitor
1 Scope

This document specifies the lithium-ion battery systems combined with lead acid battery or electric

double layer capacitor to be used for automotive applications in voltage class A systems. document

applies only to combinations of such electric energy storages that are integrated in a common housing.

It specifies configurations, test procedures, and requirements for such combinations.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 8713 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
assistance battery
battery that temporarily supports the main battery
3.2
assistance capacitor

electric double layer capacitor energy storage system that temporarily supports the role of the

main battery
3.3
battery

one or more cells fitted with devices necessary for use, for example, case, terminals, marking and

protective devices
3.4
battery control unit
BCU

electronic device that controls or manages or measures or calculates electric and thermal functions of

the battery system and that provides communication between the battery system and other vehicle

controllers
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18300:2016(E)
3.5
capacity

total number of ampere-hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged battery under specified

conditions of main battery
3.6
customer

party which is interested to use the battery pack or system and therefore order or perform the test

3.7
device under test
DUT
lithium-ion battery pack or system combined with lead acid battery and capacitor
3.8
electric double layer capacitor
EDLC

device for electrostatic storage of electrical energy achieved by separation of charge in a double layer

3.9
electric double layer capacitor energy storage system

energy storage devices that include capacitors or capacitor assemblies or capacitor packs as well as

electrical circuits and electronics
3.10
lithium-ion cell

secondary single cell whose electrical energy is derived from the insertion/extraction reactions of

lithium ions between the anode and the cathode

Note 1 to entry: The secondary cell is a basic manufactured unit providing a source of electrical energy by direct

conversion of chemical energy. The cell consists of electrodes, separators, electrolyte, container and terminals,

and is designed to be charged electrically.

Note 2 to entry: In this document, cell or secondary cell means the secondary lithium-ion cell to be used for the

propulsion of electric road vehicles.
3.11
lithium-ion battery pack
battery pack

energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies normally connected with cell electronics and

overcurrent shut-off device including electrical interconnections and interfaces for external systems

Note 1 to entry: Examples for interfaces are cooling, high voltage, auxiliary low voltage and communication.

3.12
lithium-ion battery system
battery system

energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies or battery pack(s) as well as electrical

circuits and electronics
EXAMPLE BCU, contactors.
3.13
main battery

lithium-ion battery pack or system that mainly supplies electrical energy continuously

3.14
room temperature
temperature of (25 ± 2) °C
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18300:2016(E)
3.15
micro-cycle
charge and discharge cycle within 60 s
4 Abbreviated terms

LICA Lithium-ion battery pack or system combined with electric double layer capacitor

LIPB Lithium-ion battery pack or system combined with lead acid battery
5 Type of connection with lithium-ion battery system
5.1 Lithium-ion battery pack or system combined with lead acid battery (LIPB)

The lithium-ion battery pack or system combined with lead acid battery (LIPB) is composed of the

lithium-ion battery pack or system as main battery and the lead
...

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