Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

ISO 12647-1:2013 defines and explains the minimum set of primary process control parameters required to uniquely specify the visual characteristics and related technical properties of process-specific production prints and process-independent simulations of fully characterized printing conditions.

Technologie graphique — Maîtrise de procédé pour la production des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages en production — Partie 1: Paramètres et méthodes de mesure

L'ISO 12647-1:2013 définit et explicite l'ensemble minimum de paramètres primaires de contrôle de procédé nécessaires pour spécifier de façon unique les caractéristiques visuelles et les propriétés techniques associées à un procédé d'impression spécifique ainsi que les simulations du rendu d'impression associées à des données de caractérisation et ce indépendamment du procédé de simulation choisi.

Grafična tehnologija - Vodenje procesa izdelave rastriranih barvnih izvlečkov, preskusnih in proizvodnih odtisov - 1. del: Parametri in merilne metode

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Dec-2013
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
05-Mar-2019
Completion Date
05-Mar-2019

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12647-1
Third edition
2013-12-15
Graphic technology — Process
control for the production of half-
tone colour separations, proof and
production prints —
Part 1:
Parameters and measurement methods
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise de procédé pour la production
des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages
en production —
Partie 1: Paramètres et méthodes de mesure
Reference number
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Data files and printing formes ................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Proof or production print .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5 Measurement methods ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Computation of CIELAB colour coordinates and CIELAB colour differences ................................11

5.2 Control strip ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Screen angles of prints ..................................................................................................................................................................12

5.4 Gloss ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Apparent ink trap ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Doubling and slur ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.7 Density or relative density of a process colour solid ..........................................................................................13

5.8 Variation of the coloration on a single print ...............................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Reporting ..........................................................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12647-1:2004), which has been revised

by an update relating to the extensive usage of digital data in the printing and publishing world and a

general clean-up towards an updated and stringent structure of the multi-part standard.

ISO 12647 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Process control

for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints:
— Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
— Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
— Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint
— Part 4: Publication gravure printing
— Part 5: Screen printing
— Part 6: Flexographic printing
— Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data
— Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Introduction

When producing a colour reproduction, it is important that the people responsible for colour separation,

proofing and printing operations have previously agreed on a minimum set of parameters that uniquely

define the visual characteristics and other technical properties of the planned print product. Such an

agreement enables the correct production of suitable colour separated data (without recourse to “trial-

and-error”) and subsequent production of proof prints from these data. The purpose of digital proof

prints or press proof prints is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as closely

as possible. It should be further noticed that this International Standard provides aims for printing

using typical printing equipment and tools for quality control under the given economical constraints.

It is the purpose of this part of ISO 12647 to list and explain the minimum set of primary process

parameters required for process control to uniquely define the visual characteristics and related

technical properties for the contract or press proof print as well as the production print. Other parts of

ISO 12647 define either specific values for these parameters that are appropriate for specific processes

(such as lithography) or define matching tolerances based on a given characterization data set. Given an

established fully characterized printing condition by means of a set of characterization data, ISO 12647-7

and ISO 12647-8 specify requirements for systems in order to produce a “Contract proof” or, at a less

stringent level, a “Validation print”.

For some processes certain parameters are more significant than others and may be specified as

mandatory while the remainder are optional. However, in this part of ISO 12647, all parameters are

treated equally.

Primary process parameters are defined here as having a direct bearing on the visual characteristics

of the image. They depend on the pertinent printing process but typically comprise printing sequence,

press, ink, the print substrate and the screening. Those parameters constitute a printing condition to be

defined in the pertinent parts of this International Standard. Such a printing condition is characterized

by means of associated colorimetric and/or densitometric process control aims. This is usually facilitated

by means of defined solid colorations (to be named here colorant descriptions) and tone response curves.

A printing condition is therefore understood to refer to a set of primary process parameters and the

resulting colorimetric and/or densitometric characterization.

Subordinate, formerly secondary, parameters are defined as those which may influence the image

indirectly by changing the values of primary parameters. They are highly dependent on the relevant

printing process. In case of offset printing typical influencing factors are speed, printing additives,

blankets, and fountain solution types. Depending on the given combination of materials and machine

setup, a press adjustment (also known as process calibration) might be necessary to achieve the

colorimetric and/or densitometric process control aims of the printing condition of interest. This is

typically accomplished using one-dimensional curve adjustments.

Even under standard conditions, i.e. a suitable data preparation that accounts for the different strengths

and weaknesses of the individual printing conditions and a reproducible printing process that has minimal

variations both within a run and between runs, it is practically not possible to hit a given set of primary

parameters exactly. Differences due to typical production tolerances or due to differences in press, ink

or substrate are generally unavoidable and have to be accepted by the print buyer. On the other hand,

for global data exchange and colour separation purposes, an elaborate colorimetric characterization

of every printing condition is required. Such data can be extracted from one or more prints that were

produced under carefully and tightly controlled (nearly laboratory) conditions followed by mathematical

correction procedures that are specifically designed to compensate for the differences remaining, i.e.

zero tolerance toward given aim values. Such a fully characterized printing condition is suitable to

evaluate and examine the colour gamut and should not be confused with the colorant description that

only comprises colorimetric definitions of the solids (typically CMYK; MY, CY, CM and CMY).

By facilitating modern methods of electronic data manipulation it is possible, as described, to establish

characterization data sets that fully reflect the aim values of a given set of primary process parameters.

This allows both process control aims for printing operations (to be connected with a general printing

condition) as well as colorimetric aims for digital proofing processes in the prepress arena to be in concert.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)

Given a fully characterized printing condition and a definition of the achromatic perception (see 3.11) it

is possible to extract the exact grey condition, namely the colorimetric values needed (under specified

viewing conditions). Such a grey condition (not to be confused with the grey balance that represents the

needed tone values for cyan, magenta and yellow in order to achieve a neutral grey) might be used both

for process calibration and monitoring the printing process.

The general principles of this International Standard can be easily extended to printing conditions

not defined in ISO 12647, e.g. printing with high pigmented inks or the usage of substrates not fully

addressed by the relevant parts of ISO 12647.

In order to facilitate communication between prepress, print buyer and printer, it is recommended to use a

press proof or digital print compliant to ISO 12647-7 (“Contract proof”) or ISO 12647-8 (“Validation print”).

The proof print reliably shows the quality of the prepress work and serves as the colour reference for the

production run and, if necessary, may be used in case of a dispute between the print buyer and printer.

vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Graphic technology — Process control for the production of
half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints —
Part 1:
Parameters and measurement methods
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12647 defines and explains the minimum set of primary process control parameters

required to uniquely specify the visual characteristics and related technical properties of process-specific

production prints and process-independent simulations of fully characterized printing conditions.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5-3, Photography and graphic technology — Density measurements — Part 3: Spectral conditions

ISO 5-4, Photography and graphic technology — Density measurements — Part 4: Geometric conditions for

reflection density

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts images

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE For quantities, the preferred unit is given together with the definition. By definition, the unit of the

so-called dimensionless quantities is 1.
3.1
achromatic colour
perceived colour devoid of hue, in the perceptual sense

Note 1 to entry: The colour names white, grey and black are commonly used or, for transmitting objects,

colourless and neutral.

Note 2 to entry: In printing practice, achromatic colours can be produced either by a single black ink or three

chromatic (and one achromatic) inks suitably balanced.
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-02-26]
3.2
axis of a screen

one of the two directions in which the half-tone pattern shows the highest number of image elements,

such as dots or lines, per unit length
3.3
chromatic colour
perceived colour possessing hue, in the perceptual sense

Note 1 to entry: The process inks cyan, magenta and yellow are the chromatic colour inks.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-02-27]
3.4
CIEDE2000 colour difference
CIEDE2000 total colour difference ΔE as defined in ISO 13655
3.5
CIELAB chromaticness difference

difference ΔC between two colour stimuli of approximately the same lightness projected onto a constant

lightness plane in the CIELAB colour space
Note 1 to entry: This is calculated the same way as ΔEc stipulated in ISO 12646.
3.6
CIELAB colour difference
CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour difference

difference between two colour stimuli defined as the Euclidean distance between the points representing

them in L*, a*, b* space
Note 1 to entry: The unit is 1.
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-03-55]
3.7
CIELAB colour space
CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour space

three-dimensional, approximately uniform colour space produced by plotting L*, a*, b* in rectangular

coordinates
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-03-56]
3.8
control patch
area produced for control or measurement purposes

Note 1 to entry: Important control patches are doubling/slur patches for the assessment of the true rolling

condition or ink trap control patches, a relative measure for the average amount of colorant per unit area of the

second-down colorant layer that is deposited on to the first down colorant layer.

3.9
control strip

one or two-dimensional array of control patches used for characterization and proof control

3.10
digital proof print
digital proof produced as a reflection copy on a proofing substrate

Note 1 to entry: It usually serves as the reference in dispute, as the colour reference for the production print and

as an indicator of the image quality of the content data; also known as Contract Proof.

3.11
grey balance

set of tone values of the data set that appears as an achromatic colour under specified viewing conditions

if printed under specified printing conditions

Note 1 to entry: There are three practical definitions for grey: “a colour having the same CIELAB a* and b* values

as the print substrate”, “a colour that has the same CIELAB a* and b* values as a half-tone tint of similar L* value

printed with black ink” and a functional (linear or nonlinear) combination of both.

2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.12
grey reproduction

set of colorimetric values of the print that appears as an achromatic colour under specified viewing

conditions if printed under specified printing conditions to be used for process control

Note 1 to entry: The printing of composed greys facilitating a fully characterized printing condition, by means

of practically identical tone response curves, might result in slightly achromatic appearance. For process control

means a slightly different set of tone values of the print than in the characterization data set might be necessary

to achieve a neutral reproduction for the specific printing condition.
3.13
ICC colour management

communication, by means of an ICC profile, of the associated data, required for unambiguous

interpretation of colour content data and application of colour data conversions using this profile, as

required, to produce the intended reproductions

Note 1 to entry: Text, line art, graphics, and pictorial images, in raster or vector form can all contain colour data

all of which can be colour managed.

Note 2 to entry: Colour management considers the characteristics of input and output devices in determining

colour data conversions for these devices.
[SOURCE: ISO 15076-1, modified]
3.14
ICC profile
set of colorimetric transforms prepared in accordance with ISO 15076
3.15
image orientation

orientation of text and images, designated right-reading if text appears as it is intended to be read and

images are in the orientation intended for viewing by the end user and wrong-reading for the opposite

3.16
mid-tone spread

difference between maximum and minimum deviations of tone values (print) for chromatic plates and

defined by the equation
S = max[(A −A ),(A −A ),(A −A )] − min[(A −A ),(A −A ),(A −A )]
c c0 m m0 y y0 c c0 m m0 y y0
where
A is the measured tone value of the cyan process colour image;
A is the specified tone value of the cyan process colour image;
A is the measured tone value of the magenta process colour image;
A is the specified tone value of the magenta process colour image;
A is the measured tone value of the yellow process colour image;
A is the specified tone value of the yellow process colour image.

EXAMPLE 1 For measured values A = 22, A 17 and A = 20 and specified values A = 20, A = 20 and A = 18):

c m y c0 m0 y0

EXAMPLE 2 S = max[(22−20),(17−20),(20−18)] − min[(22−20),(17−20),(20−18)] = 2−(−3) = 5

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.17
non-periodic half-tone screen

half-tone screen without a regular half-tone dot pattern; typically known as ‘stochastic’ or ‘frequency

modulated’ screening

Note 1 to entry: The usage of different screenings within a print job is known as cross modulated screening (XM).

3.18
OK print
OK sheet

production print (during production printing) singled out as the reference for the remaining production run

3.19
OK print tolerance

permissible difference between the OK print (3.18) and the values defined by the reference printing condition

Note 1 to entry: The OK print tolerance is often termed as a deviation tolerance.

3.20
press proof print

print produced by press printing (production or conventional proof press) whose purpose is to show the

results of the colour separation process in a way that closely simulates the results on a production press

Note 1 to entry: It usually serves as the reference in dispute, as the colour reference for the production print and

as an indicator of the image quality of the content data; also known as Contract Proof or wet proofs. But it is more

and more replaced by digital proof prints.
3.21
principal axis

axis of a screen that coincides with the direction of the longest diameter of an oblong-shaped (e.g.

elliptical or diamond-shaped) half-tone dot

Note 1 to entry: Circular and square shaped half-tone dots do not have a principal axis.

3.22
print substrate
material bearing the printed image
3.23
printing condition

set of primary process parameters which describe the conditions associated with a specific printed

output, associated with colorimetric and/or densitometric aim values

Note 1 to entry: Such parameters usually include (as a minimum) printing process, print substrate, printing ink,

screening and printing sequence. The aim values typically comprise the colorant description and tone value

increase aims.

Note 2 to entry: For the purposes of colour management, a printing condition is fully characterized by giving the

relationship between the CMYK digital input values (as defined in ISO 12642-2) and the corresponding measured

colorimetric values.

Note 3 to entry: Based on a given set of characterization data according to NOTE 2, and a definition of achromatic

perception, a grey condition might be extracted.
3.24
printing forme

physical medium whose surface is prepared such that some parts transfer printing ink whereas

other parts do not
3.25
process colours
〈four-colour printing〉 cyan, magenta, yellow, black
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.26
production print tolerance

permissible difference between the OK print (3.18) and a specified upper limit of selected production copies

Note 1 to entry: Production print tolerance is often termed as a variation tolerance.

Note 2 to entry: Variation tolerance is calculated by standard deviation.

Note 3 to entry: The number of samples to be taken should be defined in the relevant parts of this multipart standard.

3.27
reference direction
〈image〉 horizontal direction as viewed by the end user
3.28
spectral reflectance factor

ratio of the reflected flux to the absolute reference reflected flux under the same geometrical and

spectral conditions of measurement, as a function of wavelength
Note 1 to entry: The unit is 1.
3.29
reflection densitometer
instrument which measures reflectance factor density (3.30)
3.30
reflection density
reflectance factor density

logarithm to base ten of the reciprocal of the spectral reflectance factor (3.28)

Note 1 to entry: This definition for reflection density is taken from ISO 5-4.

Note 2 to entry: This definition for reflection factor density is taken from CIE 17.4.

Note 3 to entry: The unit is 1.
3.31
relative density

density from which the density of a substrate such as the unprinted print substrate, has been subtracted

Note 1 to entry: The unit is 1.
3.32
sampling aperture size

dimensions of the surface area of a specimen that contributes to the measurement, governed by the

design of the instrument
3.33
screen angle

angle (for oblong-shaped half-tone dots) which the principal axis of the screen makes with the reference

direction (3.27), or the smallest angle (for circular and square dot shapes) which an axis of the screen

makes with the reference direction
Note 1 to entry: Screen angle is expressed in units of degrees.
3.34
screen frequency
screen ruling

number of image elements, such as dots or lines, per unit of length in the direction of screen angle

Note 1 to entry: Screen frequency or screen ruling is expressed in units of reciprocal centimetres or inches.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.35
screen width
reciprocal of screen ruling (3.34)

Note 1 to entry: Screen width is expressed in units of micrometres and also known as period.

3.36
surface finishing

process by which a print is either covered by varnish (lacquer) or laminated with a transparent

polymeric film
3.37
tone value

〈data〉 proportional printing value encoded in a data file and interpreted as defined in the file format

specification
VV−
 
p 0
A =×100
 
VV−
 100 0 
where
V is the integer value of the pixel;
V is the integer value corresponding to a tone value of 0 %;
V is the integer value corresponding to a tone value of 100 %.
100
Note 1 to entry: Tone value is expressed in units of percent.

Note 2 to entry: Most files store these data as 8-bit integer values, i.e. 0 to 255. The tone value of a pixel is typically

computed from the equation.
3.38
tone value

〈colorimetric〉 value encoded in a characterization data set or as a percentage of the surface, which

appears to be covered by primary (or single) colorant calculated from the equation

for cyan:
AX=×100 ()−−XX X )
00ts
AY=×100 ()−−YY Y )
for magenta and black:
00ts
AZ=×100 ()−−ZZ Z )
for yellow:
00ts
where
X , Y , Z are the CIE XYZ tristimulus values of the unprinted print substrate;
0 0 0
X , Y , Z are the CIE XYZ tristimulus values of the half-tone;
t t t
X , Y , Z are the CIE XYZ tristimulus values of the solid.
s s s

Note 1 to entry: The largest differences between the colorimetrical and the densitometrical tone values occur in Cyan.

6 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.39
tone value

〈printing〉 percentage of the surface which appears to be covered by colorant of a primary colorant (if light

scattering in the print substrate and other optical phenomena are ignored), calculated from the equation

−−()DD
 t 0 
11− 0
A =×100  
−−()DD
 
s 0
11− 0
 
where

D is the reflectance factor density of the unprinted print substrate, or the non-printing parts of

the printing forme;
D is the reflectance factor density of the solid;
D is the reflectance factor density of the half-tone.

Note 1 to entry: Formerly also known as apparent, equivalent or total dot area. “Dot area” is a deprecated term.

Note 2 to entry: The synonym dot area can be applied only to half-tones produced by dot patterns.

Note 3 to entry: This definition can be used to provide an approximation of the tone value on certain printing formes.

Note 4 to entry: Tone values can be designated when other modes than M0, stipulated in ISO 13655, are used for

measuring the pertinent densities.

Note 5 to entry: There are other definitions or modifications such as ISO/TS 10128, especially for Cyan.

3.40
tone value increase

difference between a tone value (printing) measured on a printed sheet and the tone value (data) in the

digital data file that corresponds to the same point in an image

EXAMPLE The tone value (printing) of the control strip patch on the print is 55 % that on the data are 40 %.

The tone value increase is 15 %.
Note 1 to entry: Tone value increase is expressed in units of percent.

Note 2 to entry: The synonym dot gain may be applied only to half-tones produced by dot patterns.

Note 3 to entry: Formerly known as dot gain. “Dot gain” is a deprecated term.
3.41
tone value sum
at a given image location, the sum of the tone value (data) of the used colours
Note 1 to entry: Tone value sum is expressed in percent.
Note 2 to entry: Formerly known as the total dot
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
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Graphic technology - Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations,

proof and production prints - Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

Technologie graphique - Maîtrise de procédé pour la production des séparations de

couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages en production - Partie 1: Paramètres

et méthodes de mesure
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12647-1:2013
ICS:
37.100.01 *UDILþQDWHKQRORJLMDQD Graphic technology in
VSORãQR general
SIST ISO 12647-1:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12647-1
Third edition
2013-12-15
Graphic technology — Process
control for the production of half-
tone colour separations, proof and
production prints —
Part 1:
Parameters and measurement methods
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise de procédé pour la production
des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des épreuves et des tirages
en production —
Partie 1: Paramètres et méthodes de mesure
Reference number
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Data files and printing formes ................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Proof or production print .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5 Measurement methods ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Computation of CIELAB colour coordinates and CIELAB colour differences ................................11

5.2 Control strip ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Screen angles of prints ..................................................................................................................................................................12

5.4 Gloss ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Apparent ink trap ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Doubling and slur ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.7 Density or relative density of a process colour solid ..........................................................................................13

5.8 Variation of the coloration on a single print ...............................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Reporting ..........................................................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12647-1:2004), which has been revised

by an update relating to the extensive usage of digital data in the printing and publishing world and a

general clean-up towards an updated and stringent structure of the multi-part standard.

ISO 12647 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Process control

for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints:
— Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
— Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
— Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint
— Part 4: Publication gravure printing
— Part 5: Screen printing
— Part 6: Flexographic printing
— Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data
— Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Introduction

When producing a colour reproduction, it is important that the people responsible for colour separation,

proofing and printing operations have previously agreed on a minimum set of parameters that uniquely

define the visual characteristics and other technical properties of the planned print product. Such an

agreement enables the correct production of suitable colour separated data (without recourse to “trial-

and-error”) and subsequent production of proof prints from these data. The purpose of digital proof

prints or press proof prints is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as closely

as possible. It should be further noticed that this International Standard provides aims for printing

using typical printing equipment and tools for quality control under the given economical constraints.

It is the purpose of this part of ISO 12647 to list and explain the minimum set of primary process

parameters required for process control to uniquely define the visual characteristics and related

technical properties for the contract or press proof print as well as the production print. Other parts of

ISO 12647 define either specific values for these parameters that are appropriate for specific processes

(such as lithography) or define matching tolerances based on a given characterization data set. Given an

established fully characterized printing condition by means of a set of characterization data, ISO 12647-7

and ISO 12647-8 specify requirements for systems in order to produce a “Contract proof” or, at a less

stringent level, a “Validation print”.

For some processes certain parameters are more significant than others and may be specified as

mandatory while the remainder are optional. However, in this part of ISO 12647, all parameters are

treated equally.

Primary process parameters are defined here as having a direct bearing on the visual characteristics

of the image. They depend on the pertinent printing process but typically comprise printing sequence,

press, ink, the print substrate and the screening. Those parameters constitute a printing condition to be

defined in the pertinent parts of this International Standard. Such a printing condition is characterized

by means of associated colorimetric and/or densitometric process control aims. This is usually facilitated

by means of defined solid colorations (to be named here colorant descriptions) and tone response curves.

A printing condition is therefore understood to refer to a set of primary process parameters and the

resulting colorimetric and/or densitometric characterization.

Subordinate, formerly secondary, parameters are defined as those which may influence the image

indirectly by changing the values of primary parameters. They are highly dependent on the relevant

printing process. In case of offset printing typical influencing factors are speed, printing additives,

blankets, and fountain solution types. Depending on the given combination of materials and machine

setup, a press adjustment (also known as process calibration) might be necessary to achieve the

colorimetric and/or densitometric process control aims of the printing condition of interest. This is

typically accomplished using one-dimensional curve adjustments.

Even under standard conditions, i.e. a suitable data preparation that accounts for the different strengths

and weaknesses of the individual printing conditions and a reproducible printing process that has minimal

variations both within a run and between runs, it is practically not possible to hit a given set of primary

parameters exactly. Differences due to typical production tolerances or due to differences in press, ink

or substrate are generally unavoidable and have to be accepted by the print buyer. On the other hand,

for global data exchange and colour separation purposes, an elaborate colorimetric characterization

of every printing condition is required. Such data can be extracted from one or more prints that were

produced under carefully and tightly controlled (nearly laboratory) conditions followed by mathematical

correction procedures that are specifically designed to compensate for the differences remaining, i.e.

zero tolerance toward given aim values. Such a fully characterized printing condition is suitable to

evaluate and examine the colour gamut and should not be confused with the colorant description that

only comprises colorimetric definitions of the solids (typically CMYK; MY, CY, CM and CMY).

By facilitating modern methods of electronic data manipulation it is possible, as described, to establish

characterization data sets that fully reflect the aim values of a given set of primary process parameters.

This allows both process control aims for printing operations (to be connected with a general printing

condition) as well as colorimetric aims for digital proofing processes in the prepress arena to be in concert.

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SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)

Given a fully characterized printing condition and a definition of the achromatic perception (see 3.11) it

is possible to extract the exact grey condition, namely the colorimetric values needed (under specified

viewing conditions). Such a grey condition (not to be confused with the grey balance that represents the

needed tone values for cyan, magenta and yellow in order to achieve a neutral grey) might be used both

for process calibration and monitoring the printing process.

The general principles of this International Standard can be easily extended to printing conditions

not defined in ISO 12647, e.g. printing with high pigmented inks or the usage of substrates not fully

addressed by the relevant parts of ISO 12647.

In order to facilitate communication between prepress, print buyer and printer, it is recommended to use a

press proof or digital print compliant to ISO 12647-7 (“Contract proof”) or ISO 12647-8 (“Validation print”).

The proof print reliably shows the quality of the prepress work and serves as the colour reference for the

production run and, if necessary, may be used in case of a dispute between the print buyer and printer.

vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
Graphic technology — Process control for the production of
half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints —
Part 1:
Parameters and measurement methods
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12647 defines and explains the minimum set of primary process control parameters

required to uniquely specify the visual characteristics and related technical properties of process-specific

production prints and process-independent simulations of fully characterized printing conditions.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5-3, Photography and graphic technology — Density measurements — Part 3: Spectral conditions

ISO 5-4, Photography and graphic technology — Density measurements — Part 4: Geometric conditions for

reflection density

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts images

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE For quantities, the preferred unit is given together with the definition. By definition, the unit of the

so-called dimensionless quantities is 1.
3.1
achromatic colour
perceived colour devoid of hue, in the perceptual sense

Note 1 to entry: The colour names white, grey and black are commonly used or, for transmitting objects,

colourless and neutral.

Note 2 to entry: In printing practice, achromatic colours can be produced either by a single black ink or three

chromatic (and one achromatic) inks suitably balanced.
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-02-26]
3.2
axis of a screen

one of the two directions in which the half-tone pattern shows the highest number of image elements,

such as dots or lines, per unit length
3.3
chromatic colour
perceived colour possessing hue, in the perceptual sense

Note 1 to entry: The process inks cyan, magenta and yellow are the chromatic colour inks.

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[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-02-27]
3.4
CIEDE2000 colour difference
CIEDE2000 total colour difference ΔE as defined in ISO 13655
3.5
CIELAB chromaticness difference

difference ΔC between two colour stimuli of approximately the same lightness projected onto a constant

lightness plane in the CIELAB colour space
Note 1 to entry: This is calculated the same way as ΔEc stipulated in ISO 12646.
3.6
CIELAB colour difference
CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour difference

difference between two colour stimuli defined as the Euclidean distance between the points representing

them in L*, a*, b* space
Note 1 to entry: The unit is 1.
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-03-55]
3.7
CIELAB colour space
CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour space

three-dimensional, approximately uniform colour space produced by plotting L*, a*, b* in rectangular

coordinates
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-03-56]
3.8
control patch
area produced for control or measurement purposes

Note 1 to entry: Important control patches are doubling/slur patches for the assessment of the true rolling

condition or ink trap control patches, a relative measure for the average amount of colorant per unit area of the

second-down colorant layer that is deposited on to the first down colorant layer.

3.9
control strip

one or two-dimensional array of control patches used for characterization and proof control

3.10
digital proof print
digital proof produced as a reflection copy on a proofing substrate

Note 1 to entry: It usually serves as the reference in dispute, as the colour reference for the production print and

as an indicator of the image quality of the content data; also known as Contract Proof.

3.11
grey balance

set of tone values of the data set that appears as an achromatic colour under specified viewing conditions

if printed under specified printing conditions

Note 1 to entry: There are three practical definitions for grey: “a colour having the same CIELAB a* and b* values

as the print substrate”, “a colour that has the same CIELAB a* and b* values as a half-tone tint of similar L* value

printed with black ink” and a functional (linear or nonlinear) combination of both.

2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.12
grey reproduction

set of colorimetric values of the print that appears as an achromatic colour under specified viewing

conditions if printed under specified printing conditions to be used for process control

Note 1 to entry: The printing of composed greys facilitating a fully characterized printing condition, by means

of practically identical tone response curves, might result in slightly achromatic appearance. For process control

means a slightly different set of tone values of the print than in the characterization data set might be necessary

to achieve a neutral reproduction for the specific printing condition.
3.13
ICC colour management

communication, by means of an ICC profile, of the associated data, required for unambiguous

interpretation of colour content data and application of colour data conversions using this profile, as

required, to produce the intended reproductions

Note 1 to entry: Text, line art, graphics, and pictorial images, in raster or vector form can all contain colour data

all of which can be colour managed.

Note 2 to entry: Colour management considers the characteristics of input and output devices in determining

colour data conversions for these devices.
[SOURCE: ISO 15076-1, modified]
3.14
ICC profile
set of colorimetric transforms prepared in accordance with ISO 15076
3.15
image orientation

orientation of text and images, designated right-reading if text appears as it is intended to be read and

images are in the orientation intended for viewing by the end user and wrong-reading for the opposite

3.16
mid-tone spread

difference between maximum and minimum deviations of tone values (print) for chromatic plates and

defined by the equation
S = max[(A −A ),(A −A ),(A −A )] − min[(A −A ),(A −A ),(A −A )]
c c0 m m0 y y0 c c0 m m0 y y0
where
A is the measured tone value of the cyan process colour image;
A is the specified tone value of the cyan process colour image;
A is the measured tone value of the magenta process colour image;
A is the specified tone value of the magenta process colour image;
A is the measured tone value of the yellow process colour image;
A is the specified tone value of the yellow process colour image.

EXAMPLE 1 For measured values A = 22, A 17 and A = 20 and specified values A = 20, A = 20 and A = 18):

c m y c0 m0 y0

EXAMPLE 2 S = max[(22−20),(17−20),(20−18)] − min[(22−20),(17−20),(20−18)] = 2−(−3) = 5

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ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.17
non-periodic half-tone screen

half-tone screen without a regular half-tone dot pattern; typically known as ‘stochastic’ or ‘frequency

modulated’ screening

Note 1 to entry: The usage of different screenings within a print job is known as cross modulated screening (XM).

3.18
OK print
OK sheet

production print (during production printing) singled out as the reference for the remaining production run

3.19
OK print tolerance

permissible difference between the OK print (3.18) and the values defined by the reference printing condition

Note 1 to entry: The OK print tolerance is often termed as a deviation tolerance.

3.20
press proof print

print produced by press printing (production or conventional proof press) whose purpose is to show the

results of the colour separation process in a way that closely simulates the results on a production press

Note 1 to entry: It usually serves as the reference in dispute, as the colour reference for the production print and

as an indicator of the image quality of the content data; also known as Contract Proof or wet proofs. But it is more

and more replaced by digital proof prints.
3.21
principal axis

axis of a screen that coincides with the direction of the longest diameter of an oblong-shaped (e.g.

elliptical or diamond-shaped) half-tone dot

Note 1 to entry: Circular and square shaped half-tone dots do not have a principal axis.

3.22
print substrate
material bearing the printed image
3.23
printing condition

set of primary process parameters which describe the conditions associated with a specific printed

output, associated with colorimetric and/or densitometric aim values

Note 1 to entry: Such parameters usually include (as a minimum) printing process, print substrate, printing ink,

screening and printing sequence. The aim values typically comprise the colorant description and tone value

increase aims.

Note 2 to entry: For the purposes of colour management, a printing condition is fully characterized by giving the

relationship between the CMYK digital input values (as defined in ISO 12642-2) and the corresponding measured

colorimetric values.

Note 3 to entry: Based on a given set of characterization data according to NOTE 2, and a definition of achromatic

perception, a grey condition might be extracted.
3.24
printing forme

physical medium whose surface is prepared such that some parts transfer printing ink whereas

other parts do not
3.25
process colours
〈four-colour printing〉 cyan, magenta, yellow, black
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SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.26
production print tolerance

permissible difference between the OK print (3.18) and a specified upper limit of selected production copies

Note 1 to entry: Production print tolerance is often termed as a variation tolerance.

Note 2 to entry: Variation tolerance is calculated by standard deviation.

Note 3 to entry: The number of samples to be taken should be defined in the relevant parts of this multipart standard.

3.27
reference direction
〈image〉 horizontal direction as viewed by the end user
3.28
spectral reflectance factor

ratio of the reflected flux to the absolute reference reflected flux under the same geometrical and

spectral conditions of measurement, as a function of wavelength
Note 1 to entry: The unit is 1.
3.29
reflection densitometer
instrument which measures reflectance factor density (3.30)
3.30
reflection density
reflectance factor density

logarithm to base ten of the reciprocal of the spectral reflectance factor (3.28)

Note 1 to entry: This definition for reflection density is taken from ISO 5-4.

Note 2 to entry: This definition for reflection factor density is taken from CIE 17.4.

Note 3 to entry: The unit is 1.
3.31
relative density

density from which the density of a substrate such as the unprinted print substrate, has been subtracted

Note 1 to entry: The unit is 1.
3.32
sampling aperture size

dimensions of the surface area of a specimen that contributes to the measurement, governed by the

design of the instrument
3.33
screen angle

angle (for oblong-shaped half-tone dots) which the principal axis of the screen makes with the reference

direction (3.27), or the smallest angle (for circular and square dot shapes) which an axis of the screen

makes with the reference direction
Note 1 to entry: Screen angle is expressed in units of degrees.
3.34
screen frequency
screen ruling

number of image elements, such as dots or lines, per unit of length in the direction of screen angle

Note 1 to entry: Screen frequency or screen ruling is expressed in units of reciprocal centimetres or inches.

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3.35
screen width
reciprocal of screen ruling (3.34)

Note 1 to entry: Screen width is expressed in units of micrometres and also known as period.

3.36
surface finishing

process by which a print is either covered by varnish (lacquer) or laminated with a transparent

polymeric film
3.37
tone value

〈data〉 proportional printing value encoded in a data file and interpreted as defined in the file format

specification
VV−
 
p 0
A =×100
 
VV−
 100 0 
where
V is the integer value of the pixel;
V is the integer value corresponding to a tone value of 0 %;
V is the integer value corresponding to a tone value of 100 %.
100
Note 1 to entry: Tone value is expressed in units of percent.

Note 2 to entry: Most files store these data as 8-bit integer values, i.e. 0 to 255. The tone value of a pixel is typically

computed from the equation.
3.38
tone value

〈colorimetric〉 value encoded in a characterization data set or as a percentage of the surface, which

appears to be covered by primary (or single) colorant calculated from the equation

for cyan:
AX=×100 ()−−XX X )
00ts
AY=×100 ()−−YY Y )
for magenta and black:
00ts
AZ=×100 ()−−ZZ Z )
for yellow:
00ts
where
X , Y , Z are the CIE XYZ tristimulus values of the unprinted print substrate;
0 0 0
X , Y , Z are the CIE XYZ tristimulus values of the half-tone;
t t t
X , Y , Z are the CIE XYZ tristimulus values of the solid.
s s s

Note 1 to entry: The largest differences between the colorimetrical and the densitometrical tone values occur in Cyan.

6 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12647-1:2014
ISO 12647-1:2013(E)
3.39
tone value

〈printing〉 percentage of the surface which appears to be covered by colorant of a primary colorant (if light

scattering in the print substrate and other optical phenomena are ignored), calculated from the equation

−−()DD
 t 0 
11− 0
A =×100  
−−()DD
 
s 0
11− 0
 
where

D is the reflectance factor density of the unprinted print substrate, or the non-printing parts of

the printing forme;
D is the reflectance factor density of the solid;
D is the reflectance factor density of the half-tone.
Note 1 to entry: Formerly also known as apparent, equivalent
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 12647-1
Troisième édition
2013-12-15
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise
de procédé pour la production
des séparations de couleur en ton
tramé, des épreuves et des tirages en
production —
Partie 1:
Paramètres et méthodes de mesure
Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone
colour separations, proof and production prints —
Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
Numéro de référence
ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2013

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur

l’internet ou sur un Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à

l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Version française parue en 2014
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Exigences ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Fichiers de données et formes d’impression ................................................................................................................ 8

4.3 Épreuve ou tirage de production ..........................................................................................................................................10

5 Méthodes de mesure .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 Calcul des coordonnées de couleurs CIELAB et différences de couleurs CIELAB ......................12

5.2 Barre de contrôle ...............................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Angles de trame des épreuves ................................................................................................................................................13

5.4 Brillant ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Transfert d’encre apparent ........................................................................................................................................................14

5.6 Doublage et glissement .................................................................................................................................................................14

5.7 Densité ou densité relative d’un aplat de couleur primaire ..........................................................................15

5.8 Variation de coloration sur une impression unique ............................................................................................15

Annexe A (informative) Comptes rendus ......................................................................................................................................................17

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 1. Il convient en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant les

références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de l’élaboration

du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou sur la liste ISO des déclarations de brevets reçues

(voir www.iso.org/patents).

Les éventuelles appellations commerciales utilisées dans le présent document sont données pour

information à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne constituent pas une approbation ou une recommandation.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation

de la conformité, aussi bien que pour des informations au sujet de l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de

l’OMC concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: Avant-propos —

Informations supplémentaires

Le comité responsable pour le présent document est l’ISO/TC 130, Technologie graphique.

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition (ISO 12647-1:2004), qui a été révisée par

une mise à jour concernant la large utilisation des données numériques dans le monde de l’imprimerie

et de l’édition, ainsi qu’un toilettage général visant une structure actualisée et stricte de cette norme en

plusieurs parties.

L’ISO 12647 comprend les parties suivantes, regroupées sous le titre général Technologie graphique —

Contrôle des processus de confection de sélections couleurs tramées, d’épreuves et de tirages:

— Partie 1: Paramètres et méthodes de mesure
— Partie 2: Procédés lithographiques offset
— Partie 3: Impression offset sans sécheur sur papier journal
— Partie 4: Processus de gravure
— Partie 5: Sérigraphie
— Partie 6: Processus flexographique

— Partie 7: Processus d’épreuve travaillant directement à partir de données numériques

— Partie 8: Processus d’impression de maquette couleur produite à partir de données numériques

iv © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
Introduction

Lors de la reproduction en couleur, il est important que les personnes en charge des opérations de

séparation de couleur, de réalisation des épreuves et des tirages se soient préalablement mises d’accord

sur un ensemble minimum de paramètres permettant de définir de façon unique les caractéristiques

visuelles et autres propriétés techniques du produit imprimé prévu. Un tel accord permet la production

de données de séparation de couleur conformes et utilisables sans tâtonnements ainsi que la production

ultérieure d’épreuves à partir de ces données. Les épreuves numériques ou les épreuves BAT imprimées

sur presse ont pour but de simuler au plus près les caractéristiques visuelles du produit imprimé fini. De

plus, il convient de noter que la présente Norme internationale vise l’impression au moyen d’équipements

d’impression conventionnels et d’outils de contrôle qualité soumis à des contraintes économiques

données.

La présente partie de la norme ISO 12647 a pour but de donner la liste de l’ensemble minimum de

paramètres primaires nécessaires au contrôle du procédé d’impression afin de définir de façon unique

les caractéristiques visuelles et les propriétés techniques associées pour l’épreuve contractuelle ou

l’épreuve BAT sur presse, ainsi que pour le tirage en production. Les autres parties de la norme ISO 12647

définissent les valeurs spécifiques de ces paramètres appropriées à des procédés spécifiques (tels

que la lithographie) ou définissent des tolérances de conformité sur la base d’un certain ensemble de

données de caractérisation. Après avoir complètement défini les conditions d’impression au moyen d’un

ensemble de données de caractérisation, les normes ISO 12647-7 et ISO 12647-8 spécifient les exigences

applicables aux systèmes permettant de produire une « épreuve contractuelle » ou, à un niveau moins

strict, une « maquette couleur ».

Il existe des procédés d’impression pour lesquels certains paramètres sont plus significatifs que d’autres

et peuvent alors être spécifiés en tant que paramètres obligatoires, les autres étant optionnels. Toutefois,

dans cette partie de l’ISO 12647, tous les paramètres sont traités de la même manière.

Les paramètres primaires du procédé sont définis ici comme ayant un impact direct sur les

caractéristiques visuelles de l’image. Ils dépendent du procédé d’impression choisi mais comprennent

généralement la séquence d’impression, la presse, l’encre, le support d’impression et le tramage. Ces

paramètres constituent les conditions d’impression qui seront définies dans les parties pertinentes

de la présente Norme internationale. De telles conditions d’impression sont caractérisées par des

cibles d’impression colorimétriques et/ou densitométriques spécifiques à chacune. L’obtention de ces

conditions d’impression est généralement facilitée par la définition d’aplats d’impression (appelés ici

descriptions de colorants) et de courbes de réponse tonales.

Par conséquent, on considère qu’une condition d’impression se rapporte à un ensemble de paramètres

primaires du procédé et à la caractérisation colorimétrique et/ou densitométrique qui en résulte.

Il existe d’autres paramètres, que l’on appelait « paramètres secondaires », définis comme étant les

paramètres pouvant influencer l’image indirectement en changeant les valeurs des paramètres

primaires. Ils dépendent fortement du procédé d’impression concerné. Dans le cas de l’impression offset,

les facteurs influents sont la vitesse, les additifs, les blanchets et les types de solution de mouillage. En

fonction de la combinaison de matières premières et de la configuration de la machine, un réglage de la

presse (appelé également étalonnage du procédé d’impression) peut s’avérer nécessaire pour atteindre

les cibles colorimétriques et/ou densitométriques associées à la condition d’impression concernée. Ceci

est généralement effectué au moyen de courbes de compensation des valeurs tonales.

Même dans des conditions standards d’impression, c’est-à-dire avec une préparation de données

adéquate qui prévoit les différentes forces et faiblesses des différentes conditions d’impression et un

procédé d’impression maîtrisé donnant un résultat reproductible ayant des variations minimales au

cours d’un tirage et d’un tirage à l’autre, il est pratiquement impossible d’atteindre précisément les cibles

données pour les paramètres primaires. En général, des différences dues aux tolérances de production

habituelles ou à des différences entre les presses, les encres ou le support d’impression utilisé sont

inévitables et doivent être acceptées par le donneur d’ordre. Néanmoins, afin de permettre un échange

de données et une séparation de couleur globalisés, il est nécessaire de disposer d’une caractérisation

colorimétrique élaborée spécifiquement pour chaque condition d’impression. De telles données peuvent

être élaborées sur la base d’une ou de plusieurs impressions réalisées soigneusement et dans des

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)

conditions étroitement contrôlées (proches de conditions de laboratoire), suivies de procédures de

correction mathématiques spécifiquement conçues pour compenser les différences restantes, c’est-à-

dire une tolérance zéro tendant vers les valeurs cibles considérées. Une telle condition d’impression

entièrement caractérisée convient pour évaluer et examiner le périmètre de couleur reproductible. Il

convient de ne pas confondre ce périmètre de couleur reproductible (gamut) avec la description des

colorants qui comprend seulement les définitions colorimétriques des aplats (en règle générale CMJN,

MJ, CJ, CM et CMJ).

Les méthodes récentes de traitement des données et des fichiers permettent, comme décrit ici, de définir

des ensembles de données de caractérisation reflétant entièrement les cibles d’impression associées à

un ensemble donné de paramètres primaires. Cela permet à la fois de définir les cibles d’impression

utiles au contrôle du procédé de production en salle d’impression (à mettre en lien avec des conditions

d’impression données) mais également de définir de façon cohérente les cibles colorimétriques

nécessaires à la réalisation d’épreuves numériques dans le domaine du prépresse.

Pour une condition d’impression entièrement caractérisée donnée et une définition de la perception

achromatique donnée (voir 3.11), il est possible d’extraire les valeurs exactes de reproduction du gris,

c’est-à-dire les valeurs colorimétriques voulues (dans des conditions d’observation données). Une telle

définition du gris (qu’il ne faut pas confondre avec la balance de gris qui représente les valeurs tonales

de cyan, magenta et jaune nécessaires pour obtenir un gris neutre) peut servir à la fois à l’étalonnage et

à la surveillance du procédé d’impression.

Les principes généraux de la présente Norme internationale peuvent facilement s’étendre à des

conditions d’impression non définies dans l’ISO 12647, telles que l’impression avec des encres fortement

pigmentées ou l’utilisation de supports qui ne sont pas totalement traités par les parties correspondantes

de l’ISO 12647.

Afin de faciliter la communication entre le prépresse, le donneur d’ordre et l’imprimeur, il est recommandé

d’utiliser une épreuve BAT sur presse ou une épreuve numérique conformes à l’ISO 12647-7 (« épreuve

contractuelle ») ou à l’ISO 12647-8 (« maquette couleur »). L’épreuve BAT d’impression sur presse

montre de manière fiable la qualité du travail de prépresse et sert de référence couleur pour le cycle de

production et, si nécessaire, peut servir en cas de litige entre le donneur d’ordre et l’imprimeur.

vi © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
Technologie graphique — Maîtrise de procédé pour la
production des séparations de couleur en ton tramé, des
épreuves et des tirages en production —
Partie 1:
Paramètres et méthodes de mesure
1 Domaine d’application

Cette partie de l’ISO 12647 définit et explicite l’ensemble minimum de paramètres primaires de

contrôle de procédé nécessaires pour spécifier de façon unique les caractéristiques visuelles et les

propriétés techniques associées à un procédé d’impression spécifique ainsi que les simulations du

rendu d’impression associées à des données de caractérisation et ce indépendamment du procédé de

simulation choisi.
2 Références normatives

Les documents ci-après, dans leur intégralité ou non, sont des références normatives indispensables à

l’application du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).

ISO 5-3, Photography and graphic technology — Density measurements — Part 3: Spectral conditions.

ISO 5-4, Photography and graphic technology — Density measurements — Part 4: Geometric conditions for

reflection density.

ISO 13655, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images.
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

NOTE Pour les quantités, l’unité préférée est indiquée avec la définition. Par définition, l’unité des grandeurs

dites sans dimension est égale à 1.
3.1
couleur achromatique
couleur perçue comme étant dépourvue de teinte au sens perceptif

Note 1 à l’article: Les noms de couleur blanc, gris et noir sont couramment utilisés ou, pour les objets transmettant

la lumière, incolore et neutre.

Note 2 à l’article: Dans la pratique de l’imprimerie, les couleurs achromatiques peuvent être produites soit par une

seule encre noire, soit par trois encres chromatiques (et une achromatique) convenablement équilibrées.

[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-02-26]
3.2
orientation de trame

l’une des deux directions dans laquelle le motif en demi-teinte présente le plus grand nombre d’éléments

d’image tels que des points ou des lignes, par unité de longueur
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
3.3
couleur chromatique
couleur perçue possédant une teinte au sens perceptif

Note 1 à l’article: Les encres primaires cyan, magenta et jaune sont les encres des couleurs chromatiques.

[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-02-27]
3.4
différence de couleur CIEDE2000
différence de couleur totale CIEDE2000 ΔE telle que définie dans l’ISO 13655
3.5
différence de chromaticité CIELAB

différence ΔC entre deux stimuli de couleur ayant approximativement la même luminance et projetés

sur un plan de luminance constante dans l’espace chromatique CIELAB

Note 1 à l’article: Ce calcul s’effectue de la même manière que ΔEc décrit dans l’ISO 12646.

3.6
différence de couleur CIELAB
différence de couleur CIE 1976 L*a*b*

différence entre deux stimuli de couleur définie par la distance euclidienne entre les points qui les

représentent dans l’espace L*, a*, b*
Note 1 à l’article: L’unité est 1.
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-03-55]
3.7
espace chromatique CIELAB
espace chromatique CIE 1976 L*a*b*

espace chromatique à trois dimensions approximativement uniforme, obtenu en portant en coordonnées

rectangulaires les grandeurs L*, a*, b*
[SOURCE: CIE 17.4, 845-03-56]
3.8
patch de contrôle
zone réalisée dans un but de contrôle ou de mesure

Note 1 à l’article: Il est important également de prendre en compte les patchs de glissement/doublage qui

définissent les conditions de l’impression réelle ainsi que les patchs de superposition des encres primaires

(trapping) afin d’évaluer le transfert d’encre, mesure relative de la quantité moyenne de colorant par unité de

surface de la deuxième couche de colorant déposée sur la première couche de colorant.

3.9
barre de contrôle

ensemble mono ou bidimensionnel de patchs de contrôle servant à la caractérisation et au contrôle des

épreuves
3.10
épreuve numérique

épreuve produite sur un procédé d’impression numérique sur un support d’épreuvage

Note 1 à l’article: Elle sert généralement de référence en cas de litige, en tant que référence couleur pour le tirage

en production et en tant qu’indicateur de la qualité d’image associée aux données fournies. Elle est également

appelée « épreuve contractuelle ».
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
3.11
balance de gris

ensemble des valeurs tonales ayant l’apparence d’une couleur achromatique dans certaines conditions

d’observation spécifiques lorsqu’elles sont imprimées sous certaines conditions d’impression

Note 1 à l’article: Il existe trois définitions pratiques pour le gris: « couleur ayant les mêmes valeurs CIELAB a* et

b* que le support d’impression », « couleur ayant les mêmes valeurs CIELAB a* et b* qu’une demi-teinte de valeur

L* semblable imprimée à l’encre noire » et enfin une combinaison fonctionnelle (linéaire ou non) des deux.

3.12
reproduction du gris

ensemble de valeurs colorimétriques de l’impression ayant l’apparence d’une couleur achromatique

dans certaines conditions d’observation spécifiques lorsqu’elle est imprimée sous certaines conditions

d’impression, servant au contrôle du procédé d’impression

Note 1 à l’article: L’impression de gris composés, facilitant la définition d’une condition d’impression entièrement

caractérisée au moyen de courbes de réponse tonale pratiquement identiques, peut donner une apparence

légèrement achromatique. Du fait que le contrôle du procédé suppose un ensemble légèrement différent de

valeurs tonales de l’impression par rapport aux données de caractérisation, il peut être nécessaire d’effectuer une

reproduction neutre pour la condition d’impression spécifique considérée.
3.13
gestion des couleurs ICC

communication, au moyen d’un profil ICC, des données associées exigées pour une interprétation

non ambiguë des données de contenu des couleurs et pour l’application de conversions de données de

couleurs à l’aide de ce profil, nécessaires pour la réalisation des reproductions souhaitées

Note 1 à l’article: Du texte, du dessin au trait, des éléments graphiques et des images, au format rastérisé ou

vectoriel, peuvent tous contenir des données couleurs pouvant faire l’objet d’un traitement de couleurs.

Note 2 à l’article: La gestion des couleurs prend en compte les caractéristiques des équipements d’entrée et de

sortie en déterminant les conversions de données de couleurs appropriées à ces équipements.

[SOURCE: ISO 15076-1, modifiée]
3.14
profil ICC
ensemble de transformations colorimétriques préparées conformément à l’ISO 15076
3.15
orientation d’image

orientation de texte et d’images, appelée normale si le texte apparaît comme il doit être lu et si les images

ont l’orientation voulue pour être vues par l’utilisateur final, et inversée dans le cas contraire

3.16
amplitude de dispersion des élargissements

différence entre les écarts maximum et minimum des valeurs tonales (tirage) pour plaques chromatiques,

définie par l’équation:
S = max[(A −A ),(A −A ),(A −A )] − min[(A −A ),(A −A ),(A −A )]
c c0 m m0 y y0 c c0 m m0 y y0
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
A est la valeur tonale de l’encre primaire cyan mesurée dans l’image;
A est la valeur tonale de référence de l’encre primaire cyan dans l’image;
A est la valeur tonale de l’encre primaire magenta mesurée dans l’image;
A est la valeur tonale de référence de l’encre primaire magenta dans l’image;
A est la valeur tonale de l’encre primaire jaune mesurée dans l’image;
A est la valeur tonale de référence de l’encre primaire jaune dans l’image.

EXEMPLE 1 Pour les valeurs mesurées A = 22, A 17 et A = 20 et les valeurs de consigne A = 20, A = 20 et

c m y c0 m0
A = 18):

EXEMPLE 2 S = max[(22−20),(17−20),(20−18)] − min[(22−20),(17−20),(20−18)] = 2−(−3) = 5

3.17
trame en demi-tons non périodique

trame en demi-tons sans motif régulier de points en demi-teinte, généralement appelée tramage

« stochastique » ou « modulée en fréquence »

Note 1 à l’article: L’utilisation de différents tramages pour un travail d’impression est connue sous le terme de

tramage à modulation croisée (XM).
3.18
Bon à Tirer

exemplaire imprimé de production identifié comme référence pour la suite du tirage

3.19
tolérance sur le Bon à Tirer

différence autorisée entre le Bon à Tirer (3.18) et les valeurs définies par la condition d’impression de

référence

Note 1 à l’article: La tolérance sur le Bon à Tirer est souvent appelée tolérance de déviation.

3.20
épreuve BAT sur presse

impression produite par impression sur presse (presse à épreuve de production ou conventionnelle)

dont le but est de montrer les résultats du processus de séparation de couleur d’une manière qui simule

étroitement les résultats obtenus sur presse de production

Note 1 à l’article: Elle sert généralement de référence en cas de litige, en tant que référence couleur pour le tirage

en production et en tant qu’indicateur de la qualité d’image des données contenues. Elle est également appelée

« épreuve contractuelle » ou « épreuve humide ». Elle est de plus en plus souvent remplacée par des épreuves

numériques.
3.21
axe principal

axe de trame coïncidant avec la direction du plus grand diamètre d’un point en demi-teinte oblong (par

exemple, elliptique ou en forme de losange)

Note 1 à l’article: Les points en demi-teinte circulaires ou carrés n’ont pas d’axe principal.

3.22
support d’impression
matériau portant l’image imprimée
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
3.23
condition d’impression

ensemble des paramètres primaires du procédé d’impression qui décrit les conditions d’impression

associées à une sortie imprimée spécifique et à des valeurs cibles colorimétriques et/ou densitométriques

Note 1 à l’article: De tels paramètres comprennent généralement (au minimum) le procédé d’impression, le support

d’impression, l’encre d’impression, le tramage et la séquence d’impression. Les valeurs cibles comprennent

généralement la description des colorants et les objectifs d’augmentation des valeurs tonales.

Note 2 à l’article: Dans le cadre de la gestion des couleurs, une condition d’impression est entièrement définie par

l’énoncé de la relation entre les valeurs numériques d’entrée CMJN (telles que définies dans l’ISO 12642-2) et les

valeurs colorimétriques correspondantes mesurées.

Note 3 à l’article: Sur la base d’un ensemble de données de caractérisation défini selon la NOTE 2 et de la définition

d’une perception achromatique, il est possible d’extraire la cible de reproduction du gris.

3.24
forme d’impression

support physique dont la surface est préparée de manière à ce que certaines parties transfèrent de

l’encre d’impression et d’autres non
3.25
couleurs primaires
(impression en quadrichromie) cyan, magenta, jaune, noir
3.26
tolérance sur tirage de production

différence autorisée entre le Bon à Tirer (3.18) et une quantité limite supérieure spécifiée de copies de

production sélectionnées

Note 1 à l’article: La tolérance sur tirage de production est souvent appelée tolérance de variation.

Note 2 à l’article: La tolérance de variation est calculée par l’écart-type.

Note 3 à l’article: Il convient de définir le nombre d’échantillons à prélever dans les parties concernées par la

présente norme en plusieurs parties.
3.27
direction de référence
direction horizontale (d’image) telle que visualisée par l’utilisateur final
3.28
facteur de réflexion spectrale

ratio du flux réfléchi sur le flux réfléchi absolu de référence, dans les mêmes conditions de mesure

géométriques et spectrales, exprimé en fonction de la longueur d’onde
Note 1 à l’article: L’unité est 1.
3.29
densitomètre à réflexion
instrument mesurant la densité du facteur de réflexion (3.30)
3.30
densité par réflexion
densité de facteur de réflexion
logarithme à base dix de l’inverse du facteur de réflexion spectrale (3.28)

Note 1 à l’article: Cette définition de la densité par réflexion provient de l’ISO 5-4.

Note 2 à l’article: Cette définition de la densité de facteur de réflexion provient de la norme CIE 17.4.

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO 12647-1:2013(F)
Note 3 à l’article: L’unité est 1.
3.31
densité relative

densité de laquelle on a soustrait la densité d’un support tel que le support d’impression vierge

Note 1 à l’article: L’unité est 1.
3.32
ouverture d’échantillonnage

dimensions de la superficie d’un échantillon contribuant à la mesure, déterminées par la conception de

l’instrument de mesure
3.33
angle de trame

angle (pour points en demi-tons oblongs) que fait l’axe principal de la trame avec la direction de référence

(3.27), ou le plus petit angle (pour des formes de points circulaires ou carrées) que fait un axe de la

trame avec la direction de référence
Note 1 à l’article: L’angle de trame s’exprime en degrés.
3.34
fréquence de trame
tramage
nombre d’éléments d’image, tels que points ou lig
...

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