Space data and information transfer systems -- Digital motion imagery

The purpose of this document is to provide a common reference and framework of standards for digital motion video and imagery, and to provide recommendations for utilization of international standards for sharing or distributing motion video and imagery between spacecraft elements and ground systems. The scope of this document includes traditional real-time streaming video and television, including human and robotic spacecraft-to-spacecraft and spacecraft-to-ground systems, as well as video recorded and distributed later, either as a real-time stream or as a file transfer. In this context, real-time streaming includes all modes where video is sent from a spacecraft in a continuous stream and is intended for immediate use when received, regardless of the latency of the transmission path. Other specialized motion imagery applications, such as high-speed scientific motion imagery and multi-spectral motion imagery, are not addressed in this document. However, if a specialized imagery camera system has a requirement to interface to spacecraft systems in a video mode, it would be required to match these interfaces. Ground-systems-to-ground-systems video distribution is obviously a key component of the entire video system. However, this is not the primary focus of this document. Currently, there are significant differences in the ways mission video products are exchanged between the various space agencies on the ground. This is the result of differences in network topologies between space agencies, and agreements for video sharing. Those differences preclude there being a standard methodology for delivering video imagery between agencies. Prior to the commencement of video transmission between space agencies, system design reviews and performance testing should be done between the ground systems in use to assure operability when video imagery comes from spacecraft.

Données spatiales et systèmes de transfert d'information - Imagerie du mouvement numérique

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jun-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
28-May-2021
Completion Date
28-May-2021
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 21077:2021 - Space data and information transfer systems -- Digital motion imagery
English language
34 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/PRF 21077:Version 08-maj-2021 - Space data and information transfer systems -- Digital motion imagery
English language
34 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21077
Second edition
2021-06
Space data and information transfer
systems — Digital motion imagery
Données spatiales et systèmes de transfert d'information - Imagerie
du mouvement numérique
Reference number
ISO 21077:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part

in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of ISO documents should be noted (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details

of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) (as

CCSDS 766.1-B-2, August 2016) and drafted in accordance with its editorial rules. It was assigned to

Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Space vehicles, Subcommittee SC 13, Space data and information

transfer systems and adopted under the “fast-track procedure”.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 21077:2016), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— adds support for MPEG4 recording and JPEG2000 transmission.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
CONTENTS
Section Page

1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1-1

1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE ........................................................................................ 1-1

1.2 APPLICABILITY ................................................................................................... 1-1

1.3 NOMENCLATURE ............................................................................................... 1-1

1.4 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 1-2

2 OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................... 2-1

3 SPECIFICATION .......................................................................................................... 3-1

3.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................... 3-1

3.2 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 3-1

3.3 INTERFACE STANDARDS ................................................................................. 3-1

3.4 VIDEO FORMAT AND CHARACTERISTICS ................................................... 3-3

3.5 AUDIO .................................................................................................................. 3-11

3.6 REAL-TIME VIDEO ENCAPSULATION AND TRANSMISSION ................. 3-11

3.7 RECORDED VIDEO AND AUDIO .................................................................... 3-12

3.8 DISTRIBUTION OF VIDEO DATA ................................................................... 3-13

ANNEX A PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION CONFORMANCE
STATEMENT (PICS) PROFORMA (NORMATIVE) ............................. A-1
ANNEX B SECURITY, SANA, AND PATENT CONSIDERATIONS

(INFORMATIVE) ..........................................................................................B-1

ANNEX C DTN BUNDLE PROTOCOL FOR VIDEO TRANSMISSION

(INFORMATIVE) ......................................................................................... C-1

ANNEX D INFORMATIVE REFERENCES (INFORMATIVE) .............................. D-1

ANNEX E ABBREVIATIONS (INFORMATIVE) .......................................................E-1

Figure

3-1 Video System Elements—Non-Compressed Video Design ....................................... 3-10

3-2 Video System Elements—Compressed Video Design ............................................... 3-10

CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page vi August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The purpose of this document is to provide a common reference and framework of standards

for digital motion video and imagery, and to provide recommendations for utilization of

international standards for sharing or distributing motion video and imagery between

spacecraft elements and ground systems.

The scope of this document includes traditional real-time streaming video and television,

including human and robotic spacecraft-to-spacecraft and spacecraft-to-ground systems, as well

as video recorded and distributed later, either as a real-time stream or as a file transfer. In this

context, real-time streaming includes all modes where video is sent from a spacecraft in a

continuous stream and is intended for immediate use when received, regardless of the latency

of the transmission path. Other specialized motion imagery applications, such as high-speed

scientific motion imagery and multi-spectral motion imagery, are not addressed in this

document. However, if a specialized imagery camera system has a requirement to interface to

spacecraft systems in a video mode, it would be required to match these interfaces.

Ground-systems-to-ground-systems video distribution is obviously a key component of the

entire video system. However, this is not the primary focus of this document. Currently,

there are significant differences in the ways mission video products are exchanged between

the various space agencies on the ground. This is the result of differences in network

topologies between space agencies, and agreements for video sharing. Those differences

preclude there being a standard methodology for delivering video imagery between agencies.

Prior to the commencement of video transmission between space agencies, system design

reviews and performance testing should be done between the ground systems in use to assure

operability when video imagery comes from spacecraft.
1.2 APPLICABILITY

This document is a CCSDS Recommended Standard. It is intended for all missions that

produce, consume, or transcode video imagery from low-bandwidth video such as web

streaming through high-bandwidth video such as high-definition television imagery.

1.3 NOMENCLATURE
1.3.1 NORMATIVE TEXT

The following conventions apply for the normative specifications in this Recommended

Standard:
a) the words ‘shall’ and ‘must’ imply a binding and verifiable specification;
b) the word ‘should’ implies an optional, but desirable, specification;
c) the word ‘may’ implies an optional specification;
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-1 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
d) the words ‘is’, ‘are’, and ‘will’ imply statements of fact.

NOTE – These conventions do not imply constraints on diction in text that is clearly

informative in nature.
1.3.2 INFORMATIVE TEXT

In the normative sections of this document, informative text is set off from the normative

specifications either in notes or under one of the following subsection headings:

– Overview;
– Background;
– Rationale;
– Discussion.
1.4 REFERENCES

The following publications contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this document. At the time of publication, the editions indicated

were valid. All publications are subject to revision, and users of this document are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the

publications indicated below. The CCSDS Secretariat maintains a register of currently valid

CCSDS publications.

[1] Studio Encoding Parameters of Digital Television for Standard 4:3 and Wide Screen

16:9 Aspect Ratios. ITU-R BT.601-7. Geneva: ITU, 2011.
[2] Television—SDTV Digital Signal/Data—Serial Digital Interface. SMPTE ST
259:2008. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.

[3] Digital Interfaces for HDTV Studio Signals. ITU-R BT.1120-8. Geneva: ITU, 2012.

[4] 1.5 Gb/s Signal/Data Serial Interface. SMPTE ST 292-1:2012. White Plains, New

York: SMPTE, 2012.
[5] High-Definition Multimedia Interface Specification. Version 1.4. Sunnyvale,
California: HDMI Licensing, LLC, 2009.

[6] Electrical Characteristics of Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Interface

Circuits. Revision A. TIA/EIA-644-A. Arlington, Virginia: TIA, February 2001.

[7] Serial Digital Interface-Based Transport Interface for Compressed Television Signals

in Networked Television Production Based on Recommendation ITU-R BT.1120. ITU-
R BT.1577. Geneva: ITU, 2002.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-2 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
[8] Television—Serial Data Transport Interface (SDTI). SMPTE ST 305:2005. White
Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2005.
[9] Teletext Systems. ITU-R BT.653-3. Geneva: ITU, 1998.

[10] Television—Time and Control Code. SMPTE ST 12-1:2008. White Plains, New York:

SMPTE, 2008.

[11] Television—Transmission of Time Code in the Ancillary Data Space. SMPTE ST 12-

2:2008. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.

[12] Ancillary Data Packet and Space Formatting. SMPTE ST 291:2011. White Plains,

New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[13] Vertical Ancillary Data Mapping of Caption Data and Other Related Data. SMPTE

ST 334-1:2007. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2007.

[14] Metadata Element Dictionary Structure. SMPTE ST 335:2012. White Plains, New

York: SMPTE, 2012.
[15] Metadata Dictionary Registry of Metadata Element Descriptions. SMPTE RP
210.10:2007. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2007.

[16] Ultra High Definition Television—Mapping into Single-link or Multi-link 10 Gb/s

Serial Signal/Data Interface. SMPTE ST 2036-3:2010. White Plains, New York:
SMPTE, 2010.
[17] 1280×720, 16:9 Progressively-Captured Image Format for Production and
International Programme Exchange in the 60 Hz Environment. ITU-R BT.1543.
Geneva: ITU, 2001.

[18] 1280 x 720 Progressive Image 4:2:2 and 4:4:4 Sample Structure—Analog and Digital

Representation and Analog Interface. SMPTE ST 296:2012. White Plains, New York:

SMPTE, 2012.
[19] Parameter Values for the HDTV Standards for Production and International
Programme Exchange. ITU-R BT.709-5. Geneva: ITU, 2002.

[20] Television—1920 x 1080 Image Sample Structure, Digital Representation and Digital

Timing Reference Sequences for Multiple Picture Rates. SMPTE ST 274:2008. White

Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.

[21] Dual Link 1.5 Gb/s Digital Interface for 1920 x 1080 and 2048 x 1080 Picture Frames.

SMPTE ST 372:2011. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[22] Television—3 Gb/s Signal/Data Serial Interface. SMPTE ST 424:2006. White Plains,

New York: SMPTE, 2006.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-3 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY

[23] Ultra High Definition Television—Image Parameter Values for Program Production.

SMPTE ST 2036-1:2009. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2009.

[24] Ultra High Definition Television—Audio Characteristics and Audio Channel Mapping for

Program Production. SMPTE ST 2036-2-2008. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.
[25] 2048 × 1080 and 4096 × 2160 Digital Cinematography Production Image Formats
FS/709. SMPTE ST 2048-1:2011. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[26] 2048 × 1080 Digital Cinematography Production Image FS/709 Formatting for Serial

Digital Interface. SMPTE ST 2048-2:2011. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[27] Parameter Values for Ultra-High Definition Television Systems for Production and

International Programme Exchange. ITU-R BT.2020-1. Geneva: ITU, 2014.

[28] Information Technology—Coding of Audio-Visual Objects—Part 10: Advanced Video

Coding. 8th ed. International Standard, ISO/IEC 14496-10:2014. Geneva: ISO, 2014.

[29] Advanced Video Coding for Generic Audiovisual Services. ITU-T H.264. Geneva:

ITU, 2012.

[30] Data Services in Digital Television Broadcasting. ITU-R BT.1301-1. Geneva: ITU, 2011.

[31] Interface for Digital Component Video Signals in 525-Line and 625-Line Television

Systems Operating at the 4:2:2 Level of Recommendation ITU-R BT.601. ITU-R
BT.656-5. Geneva: ITU, 2007.
[32] Information Technology—JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: Motion JPEG 2000. 2nd
ed. International Standard, ISO/IEC 15444-3:2007. Geneva: ISO, 2007.

[33] Information Technology—Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio

Information—Part 7: Advanced Audio Coding (AAC). 4th ed. International Standard,
ISO/IEC 13818-7:2006. Geneva: ISO, 2006.

[34] Digital Audio Interface—Part 3: Consumer Applications. Edition 3.1 (2009-12-10).

IEC 60958-3:2006+AMD1:2009 CSV. Geneva: IEC, 2009.

[35] IP over CCSDS Space Links. Issue 1. Recommendation for Space Data System Standards

(Blue Book), CCSDS 702.1-B-1. Washington, D.C.: CCSDS, September 2012.

[36] J. Postel. User Datagram Protocol. STD 6. Reston, Virginia: ISOC, August 1980.

[37] CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). Issue 4. Recommendation for Space Data
System Standards (Blue Book), CCSDS 727.0-B-4. Washington, D.C.: CCSDS,
January 2007.
[38] Transport of JPEG 2000 Broadcast Profile Video in MPEG-2 TS over IP.
VSF TR-01 2013-04-15. New Jersey: Video Services Forum, April 15, 2013.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-4 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
2 OVERVIEW

In the early days of human spaceflight, motion imagery was accomplished with motion

picture film cameras, set at varying frame rates depending on lighting conditions. Upon safe

return the film was processed and eventually shared with the world via documentaries or

television. Inevitably live video became operationally desirable for situational awareness

and to satisfy the public’s interest in high-profile events such as the Moon landings or the

Apollo-Soyuz test project. Compromises were made with those first video systems to fit

within the constraints of bandwidth, avionics, and transmission systems. Even in the modern

era, video systems on spacecraft are a hybrid of analog and digital systems, typically made to

work within the existing spacecraft’s avionics, telemetry, and command/control systems.

With the advent of digital cameras, encoding algorithms, and modulation techniques, it is

desirable to treat video as data and to utilize commercially available technologies to capture

and transmit live and recorded motion imagery, possibly in High Definition (HD) or even

better. Thus the Recommended Standard addresses:
– Video Interfaces and Characteristics
– Video Formats and Characteristics

Video data has a number of characteristics which need specification such as frame

rate, aspect ratio, bandwidth and compression standards, color sampling, the inclusion

of audio, etc.
– Encapsulation and Transmission Protocols

Video data needs to be encapsulated, transported, and distributed. Although the

choice of mechanisms and protocols may not be specific to video data, certain aspects

need addressing because of the high bandwidth typically required for video. Thus

this part will address encapsulation schemes (e.g., IP), transport protocols, and use of

CCSDS Encapsulation Packets.
– Interoperability of Standards

Future Human Spaceflight endeavors are expected to be collaborations between many

agencies, with complex interactions between spacecraft and non-Earth surface

systems, with intermediate locations (EVA crew, habitats, etc.) requiring the ability

to view video generated by another agency’s systems. Therefore interoperability

between these systems will be essential to mission success and in some cases crew

safety. Such interoperability will only be achieved by use of common references and

joint agreement on international standards, either commercial or CCSDS or a
combination of the two.

This Recommended Standard does not cover video quality. The intention of this document is

to provide a framework of standards to ensure interoperability, not to define a level of

quality. What is acceptable video quality varies widely with the application and

requirements of users. A science experiment, for example, may have video quality

requirements beyond what is available, or practical, within a spacecraft avionics system. The

CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 2-1 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY

science team for that experiment might elect to record video on board at high quality and

transfer that video as a digital file after the conclusion of the experiment run. They might

elect to do that and have a real-time downlink of lesser quality as a confirmation the

experiment is working properly. A requirement for real-time video to support a docking

event might sacrifice spatial resolution to lower the latency of the real-time video feed.

Within the parameters listed in this document and the capabilities of any given spacecraft,

users and controllers can determine how equipment should be configured for the best match

to requirements.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 2-2 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3 SPECIFICATION
3.1 OVERVIEW

There are many system configurations that can be implemented in spacecraft video systems.

Choices of interface standards, resolutions, and frame rates are based on the application, user

requirements, available equipment, and spacecraft capability. There are multiple ways for

signals to flow from the image source through to the spacecraft avionics system and on to the

ground (see figures 3-1 and 3-2). Application of this Recommended Standard limits the

overall number of options by limiting the interfaces to those that are in most common use. It

should be noted that, while scientific imaging systems are excluded from this Recommended

Standard, should a scientific imaging system need to interface to the spacecraft video system,

the same interfaces would apply to them. It would be the responsibility of the user to provide

a matching interface from the user’s imaging system.
3.2 GENERAL

Users shall select from the following interfaces and standards when designing and

implementing new video systems for spacecraft.
3.3 INTERFACE STANDARDS
3.3.1 NON-COMPRESSED STANDARD DEFINITION TELEVISION SIGNALS

The interface for non-compressed Standard Definition (SD) television signals shall be Serial

Digital Interface (SDI), conforming to
– ITU-R BT.601-7 (reference [1]);
– SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]).
3.3.2 NON-COMPRESSED HIGH DEFINITION TELEVISION SIGNALS

The interface used for non-compressed high definition television signals shall be one of the

following:
– High Definition-Serial Digital Interface (HD-SDI), conforming to
• ITU-R BT.1120-8 (reference [3]);
• SMPTE ST 292-1:2012 (reference [4]);

– High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) 1.4 or higher, as defined by the HDMI

Founders and licensed by HDMI Licensing, LLC (reference [5]);
– Camera Link Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Interface Standard, as
defined by the Camera Link Participating Companies (reference [6]).
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-1 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3.3.3 COMPRESSED DIGITAL TELEVISION SIGNALS

The interface used for compressed digital television signals shall be Digital Video

Broadcasting-Asynchronous Interface (DVB-ASI), conforming to
– ITU-R BT.1577 (reference [7]);
– SMPTE ST 305:2005 (reference [8]).

NOTE – DVB-ASI would be used with compressed digital video while still in the serial

digital domain. For interfacing to spacecraft systems, Internet Protocol (IP) (see

3.6) is the preferred interface.
3.3.4 TELEVISION TIME CODE AND METADATA

3.3.4.1 Television time code and metadata may be inserted in non-compressed video. If

time codes and/or metadata are inserted into non-compressed video, one of the following

standards shall be used:
– ITU-R BT.653-3 (reference [9]);
– SMPTE ST 12-1:2008 (reference [10]);
– SMPTE ST 12-2:2008 (reference [11]);
– SMPTE ST 291:2011 (reference [12]);
– SMPTE ST 292-1-2012 (reference [4]);
– SMPTE ST 334-1:2007 (reference [13]);
– SMPTE ST 335:2012 (reference [14]);
– SMPTE RP 210.10:2007 (reference [15]);
– SMPTE ST 2036-3:2012 (reference [16]).

NOTE – The standards listed above are primarily concerned with the serial digital

standard-definition and high-definition interfaces listed in 3.3.1 and 3.3.2.
Metadata inserted at a camera conforming to HDMI or Camera Link interfaces
conform to the serial digital interfaces when those signals are converted.

3.3.4.2 Compressed video signals in 3.3.3, per the standards listed in 3.3.3, shall carry all

television time code and metadata information inserted into a non-compressed video stream.

CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-2 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3.4 VIDEO FORMAT AND CHARACTERISTICS
3.4.1 VIDEO RESOLUTIONS
3.4.1.1 Overview

Traditionally, video resolution has been categorized as low resolution, standard definition,

high definition, or high resolution. Low resolution is generally defined as less than

640 × 480, standard definition as 640 × 480 and 768 × 576, high definition as 1280 × 720

and 1920 × 1080, and high resolution as anything beyond 1920 × 1080 such as 4K and 8K

resolutions. Low resolution was used for streamed Internet video. Standard definition was

used for broadcast (pre-HD) and security camera systems. High definition was limited to

high-end television broadcast. High resolution was practically non-existent unless it was

film based. Now, however, the distinctions are less clear. Laptop computer cameras are now

often high definition, with options to stream from 320 × 240 up to 1280 × 720. Standard

definition is now in limited use for broadcast television, web streaming, and monitoring

applications. High definition has become the norm for broadcast and cable television. High

resolution or ultra-high-definition cameras are replacing 35mm motion picture film for

imaging requirements beyond HD. Therefore it is more difficult to classify video in terms of

resolutions than in terms of application. A given application can have a broad range of

resolutions, depending upon the requirements of the user, available equipment, and

bandwidth constraints. The specifications below reflect the diversity of choices available for

video systems. Higher resolution applications (e.g., ‘public affairs’, critical operations) can

be used to fulfill lower resolution applications (e.g., ‘personal video conferencing’).

3.4.1.2 Personal Video Conferencing

Personal video conferencing video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 320 × 240 to 1280 × 720, progressive scan.

NOTE – Selection of resolution is dependent on immediate requirement and available

bandwidth.
3.4.1.3 Medical Conferencing

Medical conferencing video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 320 × 240 to 1280 × 720, bandwidth-dependent progressive or interlace scan:
• standard definition legacy systems may be 525 or 576 interlace;
• 640 × 480 and 768 × 576 systems shall conform to ITU-R BT.601-7
(reference [1]) or SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]).
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-3 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
NOTE – Lower resolution personal video conferencing and medical conferencing

applications are most likely to be performed using a personal computer or tablet-

type device. All video encoding would be handled internally. Connection to the
spacecraft avionics system would be through wired or wireless data connections
independent of any video systems. Transmission to the ground would also be
handled as part of standard data protocols and also independent of dedicated
video transmission.
3.4.1.4 Situational Awareness

Situational awareness video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 640 × 480 to 1280 × 720, bandwidth dependent:
• interlace scan for legacy SD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT.601-7 (reference [1]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]);
• progressive scan for HD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT.1543 (reference [17]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 296:2011 (reference [18]).

NOTE – Situational awareness may be required in situations where only low-bandwidth

transmission is available, such as S-Band, which would likely limit resolution to

as low as 320 × 240. In cases such as this, best effort is acceptable. The
requirement to have visual confirmation of events may be higher than a specific
resolution. This should be considered the exception and not the norm.
3.4.1.5 Public Affairs

3.4.1.5.1 Public affairs video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 640 × 480 to 1280 × 720, bandwidth dependent:
• Interlace scan for legacy SD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT601-7 (reference [1]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]);
• Progressive scan for HD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT.1543 1280 (reference [17]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 296:2011 (reference [18]).
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-4 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3.4.1.5.2 Multiple resolutions may be used to accommodate mission requirements.

NOTE – There are situations where HD formats are not required. It saves considerable

bandwidth to use SD systems. Whether these are US or European standard

resolutions and frame rates is not an issue. Regardless of the actual video format,

the interface standards allow virtually all current equipment to route and encode

the video. Once encoded and packetized, it is not an issue for spacecraft avionics

as the video is compatible data packets. That part of the system is format

agnostic. Regardless of the interface chosen for a particular spacecraft, routing

and encoding utilize the same components.
3.4.1.6 High Resolution Digital Imaging
3.4.1.6.1 High resolution digital imaging video resolution should have a minimum
resolution of 1920 × 1080, progressive scan:
– 1080 HD systems shall conform to
• ITU-R BT.709-5 (reference [19]); or
• SMPTE ST 274:2008 (reference [20]);
– Up to 30 FPS systems shall conform to
• ITU-R BT.1120-8 (reference [3]); or
• SMPTE ST 292-1:2012 (reference [4]);
– Above 30 FPS shall conform to
• ITU-R BT.1120-8 (reference [3]); or
• SMPTE ST 372:2011 (reference [21]);
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21077
Second edition
Space data and information transfer
systems — Digital motion imagery
Données spatiales et systèmes de transfert d'information - Imagerie
du mouvement numérique
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 21077:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part

in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of ISO documents should be noted (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details

of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) (as

CCSDS 766.1-B-2, August 2016) and drafted in accordance with its editorial rules. It was assigned to

Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Space vehicles, Subcommittee SC 13, Space data and information

transfer systems and adopted under the “fast-track procedure”.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 21077:2016), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— adds support for MPEG4 recording and JPEG2000 transmission.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
CONTENTS
Section Page

1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1-1

1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE ........................................................................................ 1-1

1.2 APPLICABILITY ................................................................................................... 1-1

1.3 NOMENCLATURE ............................................................................................... 1-1

1.4 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 1-2

2 OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................... 2-1

3 SPECIFICATION .......................................................................................................... 3-1

3.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................... 3-1

3.2 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 3-1

3.3 INTERFACE STANDARDS ................................................................................. 3-1

3.4 VIDEO FORMAT AND CHARACTERISTICS ................................................... 3-3

3.5 AUDIO .................................................................................................................. 3-11

3.6 REAL-TIME VIDEO ENCAPSULATION AND TRANSMISSION ................. 3-11

3.7 RECORDED VIDEO AND AUDIO .................................................................... 3-12

3.8 DISTRIBUTION OF VIDEO DATA ................................................................... 3-13

ANNEX A PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION CONFORMANCE
STATEMENT (PICS) PROFORMA (NORMATIVE) ............................. A-1
ANNEX B SECURITY, SANA, AND PATENT CONSIDERATIONS

(INFORMATIVE) ..........................................................................................B-1

ANNEX C DTN BUNDLE PROTOCOL FOR VIDEO TRANSMISSION

(INFORMATIVE) ......................................................................................... C-1

ANNEX D INFORMATIVE REFERENCES (INFORMATIVE) .............................. D-1

ANNEX E ABBREVIATIONS (INFORMATIVE) .......................................................E-1

Figure

3-1 Video System Elements—Non-Compressed Video Design ....................................... 3-10

3-2 Video System Elements—Compressed Video Design ............................................... 3-10

CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page vi August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The purpose of this document is to provide a common reference and framework of standards

for digital motion video and imagery, and to provide recommendations for utilization of

international standards for sharing or distributing motion video and imagery between

spacecraft elements and ground systems.

The scope of this document includes traditional real-time streaming video and television,

including human and robotic spacecraft-to-spacecraft and spacecraft-to-ground systems, as well

as video recorded and distributed later, either as a real-time stream or as a file transfer. In this

context, real-time streaming includes all modes where video is sent from a spacecraft in a

continuous stream and is intended for immediate use when received, regardless of the latency

of the transmission path. Other specialized motion imagery applications, such as high-speed

scientific motion imagery and multi-spectral motion imagery, are not addressed in this

document. However, if a specialized imagery camera system has a requirement to interface to

spacecraft systems in a video mode, it would be required to match these interfaces.

Ground-systems-to-ground-systems video distribution is obviously a key component of the

entire video system. However, this is not the primary focus of this document. Currently,

there are significant differences in the ways mission video products are exchanged between

the various space agencies on the ground. This is the result of differences in network

topologies between space agencies, and agreements for video sharing. Those differences

preclude there being a standard methodology for delivering video imagery between agencies.

Prior to the commencement of video transmission between space agencies, system design

reviews and performance testing should be done between the ground systems in use to assure

operability when video imagery comes from spacecraft.
1.2 APPLICABILITY

This document is a CCSDS Recommended Standard. It is intended for all missions that

produce, consume, or transcode video imagery from low-bandwidth video such as web

streaming through high-bandwidth video such as high-definition television imagery.

1.3 NOMENCLATURE
1.3.1 NORMATIVE TEXT

The following conventions apply for the normative specifications in this Recommended

Standard:
a) the words ‘shall’ and ‘must’ imply a binding and verifiable specification;
b) the word ‘should’ implies an optional, but desirable, specification;
c) the word ‘may’ implies an optional specification;
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-1 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
d) the words ‘is’, ‘are’, and ‘will’ imply statements of fact.

NOTE – These conventions do not imply constraints on diction in text that is clearly

informative in nature.
1.3.2 INFORMATIVE TEXT

In the normative sections of this document, informative text is set off from the normative

specifications either in notes or under one of the following subsection headings:

– Overview;
– Background;
– Rationale;
– Discussion.
1.4 REFERENCES

The following publications contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this document. At the time of publication, the editions indicated

were valid. All publications are subject to revision, and users of this document are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the

publications indicated below. The CCSDS Secretariat maintains a register of currently valid

CCSDS publications.

[1] Studio Encoding Parameters of Digital Television for Standard 4:3 and Wide Screen

16:9 Aspect Ratios. ITU-R BT.601-7. Geneva: ITU, 2011.
[2] Television—SDTV Digital Signal/Data—Serial Digital Interface. SMPTE ST
259:2008. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.

[3] Digital Interfaces for HDTV Studio Signals. ITU-R BT.1120-8. Geneva: ITU, 2012.

[4] 1.5 Gb/s Signal/Data Serial Interface. SMPTE ST 292-1:2012. White Plains, New

York: SMPTE, 2012.
[5] High-Definition Multimedia Interface Specification. Version 1.4. Sunnyvale,
California: HDMI Licensing, LLC, 2009.

[6] Electrical Characteristics of Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Interface

Circuits. Revision A. TIA/EIA-644-A. Arlington, Virginia: TIA, February 2001.

[7] Serial Digital Interface-Based Transport Interface for Compressed Television Signals

in Networked Television Production Based on Recommendation ITU-R BT.1120. ITU-
R BT.1577. Geneva: ITU, 2002.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-2 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
[8] Television—Serial Data Transport Interface (SDTI). SMPTE ST 305:2005. White
Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2005.
[9] Teletext Systems. ITU-R BT.653-3. Geneva: ITU, 1998.

[10] Television—Time and Control Code. SMPTE ST 12-1:2008. White Plains, New York:

SMPTE, 2008.

[11] Television—Transmission of Time Code in the Ancillary Data Space. SMPTE ST 12-

2:2008. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.

[12] Ancillary Data Packet and Space Formatting. SMPTE ST 291:2011. White Plains,

New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[13] Vertical Ancillary Data Mapping of Caption Data and Other Related Data. SMPTE

ST 334-1:2007. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2007.

[14] Metadata Element Dictionary Structure. SMPTE ST 335:2012. White Plains, New

York: SMPTE, 2012.
[15] Metadata Dictionary Registry of Metadata Element Descriptions. SMPTE RP
210.10:2007. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2007.

[16] Ultra High Definition Television—Mapping into Single-link or Multi-link 10 Gb/s

Serial Signal/Data Interface. SMPTE ST 2036-3:2010. White Plains, New York:
SMPTE, 2010.
[17] 1280×720, 16:9 Progressively-Captured Image Format for Production and
International Programme Exchange in the 60 Hz Environment. ITU-R BT.1543.
Geneva: ITU, 2001.

[18] 1280 x 720 Progressive Image 4:2:2 and 4:4:4 Sample Structure—Analog and Digital

Representation and Analog Interface. SMPTE ST 296:2012. White Plains, New York:

SMPTE, 2012.
[19] Parameter Values for the HDTV Standards for Production and International
Programme Exchange. ITU-R BT.709-5. Geneva: ITU, 2002.

[20] Television—1920 x 1080 Image Sample Structure, Digital Representation and Digital

Timing Reference Sequences for Multiple Picture Rates. SMPTE ST 274:2008. White

Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.

[21] Dual Link 1.5 Gb/s Digital Interface for 1920 x 1080 and 2048 x 1080 Picture Frames.

SMPTE ST 372:2011. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[22] Television—3 Gb/s Signal/Data Serial Interface. SMPTE ST 424:2006. White Plains,

New York: SMPTE, 2006.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-3 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY

[23] Ultra High Definition Television—Image Parameter Values for Program Production.

SMPTE ST 2036-1:2009. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2009.

[24] Ultra High Definition Television—Audio Characteristics and Audio Channel Mapping for

Program Production. SMPTE ST 2036-2-2008. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2008.
[25] 2048 × 1080 and 4096 × 2160 Digital Cinematography Production Image Formats
FS/709. SMPTE ST 2048-1:2011. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[26] 2048 × 1080 Digital Cinematography Production Image FS/709 Formatting for Serial

Digital Interface. SMPTE ST 2048-2:2011. White Plains, New York: SMPTE, 2011.

[27] Parameter Values for Ultra-High Definition Television Systems for Production and

International Programme Exchange. ITU-R BT.2020-1. Geneva: ITU, 2014.

[28] Information Technology—Coding of Audio-Visual Objects—Part 10: Advanced Video

Coding. 8th ed. International Standard, ISO/IEC 14496-10:2014. Geneva: ISO, 2014.

[29] Advanced Video Coding for Generic Audiovisual Services. ITU-T H.264. Geneva:

ITU, 2012.

[30] Data Services in Digital Television Broadcasting. ITU-R BT.1301-1. Geneva: ITU, 2011.

[31] Interface for Digital Component Video Signals in 525-Line and 625-Line Television

Systems Operating at the 4:2:2 Level of Recommendation ITU-R BT.601. ITU-R
BT.656-5. Geneva: ITU, 2007.
[32] Information Technology—JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: Motion JPEG 2000. 2nd
ed. International Standard, ISO/IEC 15444-3:2007. Geneva: ISO, 2007.

[33] Information Technology—Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio

Information—Part 7: Advanced Audio Coding (AAC). 4th ed. International Standard,
ISO/IEC 13818-7:2006. Geneva: ISO, 2006.

[34] Digital Audio Interface—Part 3: Consumer Applications. Edition 3.1 (2009-12-10).

IEC 60958-3:2006+AMD1:2009 CSV. Geneva: IEC, 2009.

[35] IP over CCSDS Space Links. Issue 1. Recommendation for Space Data System Standards

(Blue Book), CCSDS 702.1-B-1. Washington, D.C.: CCSDS, September 2012.

[36] J. Postel. User Datagram Protocol. STD 6. Reston, Virginia: ISOC, August 1980.

[37] CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). Issue 4. Recommendation for Space Data
System Standards (Blue Book), CCSDS 727.0-B-4. Washington, D.C.: CCSDS,
January 2007.
[38] Transport of JPEG 2000 Broadcast Profile Video in MPEG-2 TS over IP.
VSF TR-01 2013-04-15. New Jersey: Video Services Forum, April 15, 2013.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 1-4 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
2 OVERVIEW

In the early days of human spaceflight, motion imagery was accomplished with motion

picture film cameras, set at varying frame rates depending on lighting conditions. Upon safe

return the film was processed and eventually shared with the world via documentaries or

television. Inevitably live video became operationally desirable for situational awareness

and to satisfy the public’s interest in high-profile events such as the Moon landings or the

Apollo-Soyuz test project. Compromises were made with those first video systems to fit

within the constraints of bandwidth, avionics, and transmission systems. Even in the modern

era, video systems on spacecraft are a hybrid of analog and digital systems, typically made to

work within the existing spacecraft’s avionics, telemetry, and command/control systems.

With the advent of digital cameras, encoding algorithms, and modulation techniques, it is

desirable to treat video as data and to utilize commercially available technologies to capture

and transmit live and recorded motion imagery, possibly in High Definition (HD) or even

better. Thus the Recommended Standard addresses:
– Video Interfaces and Characteristics
– Video Formats and Characteristics

Video data has a number of characteristics which need specification such as frame

rate, aspect ratio, bandwidth and compression standards, color sampling, the inclusion

of audio, etc.
– Encapsulation and Transmission Protocols

Video data needs to be encapsulated, transported, and distributed. Although the

choice of mechanisms and protocols may not be specific to video data, certain aspects

need addressing because of the high bandwidth typically required for video. Thus

this part will address encapsulation schemes (e.g., IP), transport protocols, and use of

CCSDS Encapsulation Packets.
– Interoperability of Standards

Future Human Spaceflight endeavors are expected to be collaborations between many

agencies, with complex interactions between spacecraft and non-Earth surface

systems, with intermediate locations (EVA crew, habitats, etc.) requiring the ability

to view video generated by another agency’s systems. Therefore interoperability

between these systems will be essential to mission success and in some cases crew

safety. Such interoperability will only be achieved by use of common references and

joint agreement on international standards, either commercial or CCSDS or a
combination of the two.

This Recommended Standard does not cover video quality. The intention of this document is

to provide a framework of standards to ensure interoperability, not to define a level of

quality. What is acceptable video quality varies widely with the application and

requirements of users. A science experiment, for example, may have video quality

requirements beyond what is available, or practical, within a spacecraft avionics system. The

CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 2-1 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY

science team for that experiment might elect to record video on board at high quality and

transfer that video as a digital file after the conclusion of the experiment run. They might

elect to do that and have a real-time downlink of lesser quality as a confirmation the

experiment is working properly. A requirement for real-time video to support a docking

event might sacrifice spatial resolution to lower the latency of the real-time video feed.

Within the parameters listed in this document and the capabilities of any given spacecraft,

users and controllers can determine how equipment should be configured for the best match

to requirements.
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 2-2 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3 SPECIFICATION
3.1 OVERVIEW

There are many system configurations that can be implemented in spacecraft video systems.

Choices of interface standards, resolutions, and frame rates are based on the application, user

requirements, available equipment, and spacecraft capability. There are multiple ways for

signals to flow from the image source through to the spacecraft avionics system and on to the

ground (see figures 3-1 and 3-2). Application of this Recommended Standard limits the

overall number of options by limiting the interfaces to those that are in most common use. It

should be noted that, while scientific imaging systems are excluded from this Recommended

Standard, should a scientific imaging system need to interface to the spacecraft video system,

the same interfaces would apply to them. It would be the responsibility of the user to provide

a matching interface from the user’s imaging system.
3.2 GENERAL

Users shall select from the following interfaces and standards when designing and

implementing new video systems for spacecraft.
3.3 INTERFACE STANDARDS
3.3.1 NON-COMPRESSED STANDARD DEFINITION TELEVISION SIGNALS

The interface for non-compressed Standard Definition (SD) television signals shall be Serial

Digital Interface (SDI), conforming to
– ITU-R BT.601-7 (reference [1]);
– SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]).
3.3.2 NON-COMPRESSED HIGH DEFINITION TELEVISION SIGNALS

The interface used for non-compressed high definition television signals shall be one of the

following:
– High Definition-Serial Digital Interface (HD-SDI), conforming to
• ITU-R BT.1120-8 (reference [3]);
• SMPTE ST 292-1:2012 (reference [4]);

– High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) 1.4 or higher, as defined by the HDMI

Founders and licensed by HDMI Licensing, LLC (reference [5]);
– Camera Link Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Interface Standard, as
defined by the Camera Link Participating Companies (reference [6]).
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-1 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3.3.3 COMPRESSED DIGITAL TELEVISION SIGNALS

The interface used for compressed digital television signals shall be Digital Video

Broadcasting-Asynchronous Interface (DVB-ASI), conforming to
– ITU-R BT.1577 (reference [7]);
– SMPTE ST 305:2005 (reference [8]).

NOTE – DVB-ASI would be used with compressed digital video while still in the serial

digital domain. For interfacing to spacecraft systems, Internet Protocol (IP) (see

3.6) is the preferred interface.
3.3.4 TELEVISION TIME CODE AND METADATA

3.3.4.1 Television time code and metadata may be inserted in non-compressed video. If

time codes and/or metadata are inserted into non-compressed video, one of the following

standards shall be used:
– ITU-R BT.653-3 (reference [9]);
– SMPTE ST 12-1:2008 (reference [10]);
– SMPTE ST 12-2:2008 (reference [11]);
– SMPTE ST 291:2011 (reference [12]);
– SMPTE ST 292-1-2012 (reference [4]);
– SMPTE ST 334-1:2007 (reference [13]);
– SMPTE ST 335:2012 (reference [14]);
– SMPTE RP 210.10:2007 (reference [15]);
– SMPTE ST 2036-3:2012 (reference [16]).

NOTE – The standards listed above are primarily concerned with the serial digital

standard-definition and high-definition interfaces listed in 3.3.1 and 3.3.2.
Metadata inserted at a camera conforming to HDMI or Camera Link interfaces
conform to the serial digital interfaces when those signals are converted.

3.3.4.2 Compressed video signals in 3.3.3, per the standards listed in 3.3.3, shall carry all

television time code and metadata information inserted into a non-compressed video stream.

CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-2 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3.4 VIDEO FORMAT AND CHARACTERISTICS
3.4.1 VIDEO RESOLUTIONS
3.4.1.1 Overview

Traditionally, video resolution has been categorized as low resolution, standard definition,

high definition, or high resolution. Low resolution is generally defined as less than

640 × 480, standard definition as 640 × 480 and 768 × 576, high definition as 1280 × 720

and 1920 × 1080, and high resolution as anything beyond 1920 × 1080 such as 4K and 8K

resolutions. Low resolution was used for streamed Internet video. Standard definition was

used for broadcast (pre-HD) and security camera systems. High definition was limited to

high-end television broadcast. High resolution was practically non-existent unless it was

film based. Now, however, the distinctions are less clear. Laptop computer cameras are now

often high definition, with options to stream from 320 × 240 up to 1280 × 720. Standard

definition is now in limited use for broadcast television, web streaming, and monitoring

applications. High definition has become the norm for broadcast and cable television. High

resolution or ultra-high-definition cameras are replacing 35mm motion picture film for

imaging requirements beyond HD. Therefore it is more difficult to classify video in terms of

resolutions than in terms of application. A given application can have a broad range of

resolutions, depending upon the requirements of the user, available equipment, and

bandwidth constraints. The specifications below reflect the diversity of choices available for

video systems. Higher resolution applications (e.g., ‘public affairs’, critical operations) can

be used to fulfill lower resolution applications (e.g., ‘personal video conferencing’).

3.4.1.2 Personal Video Conferencing

Personal video conferencing video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 320 × 240 to 1280 × 720, progressive scan.

NOTE – Selection of resolution is dependent on immediate requirement and available

bandwidth.
3.4.1.3 Medical Conferencing

Medical conferencing video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 320 × 240 to 1280 × 720, bandwidth-dependent progressive or interlace scan:
• standard definition legacy systems may be 525 or 576 interlace;
• 640 × 480 and 768 × 576 systems shall conform to ITU-R BT.601-7
(reference [1]) or SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]).
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-3 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
NOTE – Lower resolution personal video conferencing and medical conferencing

applications are most likely to be performed using a personal computer or tablet-

type device. All video encoding would be handled internally. Connection to the
spacecraft avionics system would be through wired or wireless data connections
independent of any video systems. Transmission to the ground would also be
handled as part of standard data protocols and also independent of dedicated
video transmission.
3.4.1.4 Situational Awareness

Situational awareness video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 640 × 480 to 1280 × 720, bandwidth dependent:
• interlace scan for legacy SD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT.601-7 (reference [1]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]);
• progressive scan for HD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT.1543 (reference [17]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 296:2011 (reference [18]).

NOTE – Situational awareness may be required in situations where only low-bandwidth

transmission is available, such as S-Band, which would likely limit resolution to

as low as 320 × 240. In cases such as this, best effort is acceptable. The
requirement to have visual confirmation of events may be higher than a specific
resolution. This should be considered the exception and not the norm.
3.4.1.5 Public Affairs

3.4.1.5.1 Public affairs video resolution should be selected from the following range:

– 640 × 480 to 1280 × 720, bandwidth dependent:
• Interlace scan for legacy SD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT601-7 (reference [1]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 259:2008 (reference [2]);
• Progressive scan for HD systems shall conform to
▫ ITU-R BT.1543 1280 (reference [17]); or
▫ SMPTE ST 296:2011 (reference [18]).
CCSDS 766.1-B-2 Page 3-4 August 2016
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 21077:2021(E)
CCSDS RECOMMENDED STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MOTION IMAGERY
3.4.1.5.2 Multiple resolutions may be used to accommodate mission requirements.

NOTE – There are situations where HD formats are not required. It saves considerable

bandwidth to use SD systems. Whether these are US or European standard

resolutions and frame rates is not an issue. Regardless of the actual video format,

the interface standards allow virtually all current equipment to route and encode

the video. Once encoded and packetized, it is not an issue for spacecraft avionics

as the video is compatible data packets. That part of the system is format

agnostic. Regardless of the interface chosen for a particular spacecraft, routing

and encoding utilize the same components.
3.4.1.6 High Resolution Digital Imaging
3.4.1.6.1 High resolution digital imaging video resolution should have a minimum
resolution of 1920 × 1080, progressive scan:
– 1080 HD systems shall conform to
• ITU-R BT.709-5 (reference [19]); or
• SMPTE ST 274:2008 (reference [20]);
– Up to 30 FPS systems shall conform to
• ITU-R BT.1120-8 (reference [3]); or
• SMPTE ST 292-1:2012 (reference [4]);
– Above 30 FPS shall conform to
• ITU-R BT.1120-8 (reference [3]); or
• SMP
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.