Information technology — Vocabulary — Part 37: Biometrics

This document establishes a systematic description of the concepts in the field of biometrics pertaining to recognition of human beings. This document also reconciles variant terms in use in pre-existing International Standards on biometrics against the preferred terms, thereby clarifying the use of terms in this field. This document does not cover concepts (represented by terms) from information technology, pattern recognition, biology, mathematics, etc. Biometrics uses such fields of knowledge as a basis. In principle, mode-specific terms are outside of scope of this document.

Technologies de l'information — Vocabulaire — Partie 37: Biométrie

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 2382-37
Third edition
2022-03
Information technology —
Vocabulary —
Part 37:
Biometrics
Technologies de l'information — Vocabulaire —
Partie 37: Biométrie
Информационные технологии — Словарь —
Часть 37: Часть 37: Биометрия
Reference number
ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to general concepts ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms related to biometric systems .................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms related to data in biometric systems ................................................................................................................. 4

3.4 Terms related to devices ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

3.5 Terms related to functioning .................................................................................................................................................. 11

3.6 Terms related to interaction ................................................................................................................................................... 14

3.7 Terms related to personnel ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

3.8 Terms related to application ...................................................................................................................................................23

3.9 Terms related to performance ...............................................................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

Alphabetical Index.............................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iii
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 37, Biometrics.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 2382-37:2017), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— modifications to some of the terms published in the 2017 edition; and

— addition of new terms related to biometric systems (starting from 37.02.08), data in biometric

systems (starting from 37.03.42), devices (37.04.02), interaction (starting from 37.06.33), personnel

(starting from 37.07.26) and performance (starting from 37.09.23).

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 2382 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
Introduction

The main purpose of this document is to provide a systematic description of the concepts in the subject

field of biometrics and to clarify the use of the terms in this subject field. The subject field of biometrics

is broken down into sub-fields.

This document is addressed to biometrics standardizers and to users of these standards.

The terms defined in this document are to be understood within the context of the subject field of

biometrics. When terms exist in various subject fields, the relevant subject field is indicated in angle

brackets.

Words that are written in italics are defined in this document. Words that are written in upright font

are to be understood in their natural language sense. The authority for natural language use of terms

in this document is the Concise Oxford English Dictionary (COED), Thumb Index Edition (tenth edition,

revised, 2002).

The numbering of all terms in this document begins with “37” to indicate the Subcommittee of Joint

Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 that created the terms. This is consistent will all other parts of the

ISO/IEC 2382 series. The subsequent numerical heading for each entry within this document (37.xx)

represents the number of the highest-level category in the concept map in which the term primarily

falls. This is consistent with “Systematic Order” as described in ISO 10241-1:2011, 5.1.2, in which the

heading reflects the concept system. In the first edition of this document (ISO/IEC 2382-37:2012),

the third numerical designator (37.xx.yy) was also consistent with “Systematic Order”, moving from

most general to more specific terms within each highest-level category of the concept map. With the

development of the current edition of this document, the decision was made to append the new terms

in each category such that the numbering of the earlier terms inherited from the 2012 edition would

not change. This implies that the third numerical designator is now in “Mixed Order” as described in

ISO 10241-1:2011, 5.1.3.

So, terms are added to this document in batches for each updated version. These terms are added in

alphabetical order. This ensures that the numbers allocated to a term remain the same and that they

can be referred to consistently.
The terms in this document are listed under a number of general headings.

The layout follows the directions given in ISO 10241-1. Thus, the elements of an entry appear in the

following order:
— Entry number (mandatory)
— Preferred term(s) (mandatory)
— Admitted term(s)
— Deprecated term(s)
— Definition (mandatory)
— Example(s)
— Note(s) to entry
The alphabetical index includes preferred and admitted terms.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
Information technology — Vocabulary —
Part 37:
Biometrics
1 Scope

This document establishes a systematic description of the concepts in the field of biometrics pertaining

to recognition of human beings. This document also reconciles variant terms in use in pre-existing

International Standards on biometrics against the preferred terms, thereby clarifying the use of terms

in this field.

This document does not cover concepts (represented by terms) from information technology, pattern

recognition, biology, mathematics, etc. Biometrics uses such fields of knowledge as a basis.

In principle, mode-specific terms are outside of scope of this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms related to general concepts
37.01.01
biometric, adj
of or having to do with biometrics (37.01.03)

Note 1 to entry: The use of biometric as a noun, to mean for example, biometric characteristic (37.01.02), is

deprecated.

EXAMPLE 1 Incorrect usage #1: ICAO resolved that face is the biometric most suited to the practicalities of

travel documents.

EXAMPLE 2 Correct usage #1: ICAO resolved that face recognition is the biometric mode (37.02.05) most

suited to the practicalities of travel documents.

EXAMPLE 3 Incorrect usage #2: The biometric recorded in my passport is a facial image.

EXAMPLE 4 Correct usage #2: The biometric characteristic recorded in my passport is a facial image.

Note 2 to entry: Since the late 19 century the terms biometrics and biometry have been used with the general

meaning of counting, measuring and statistical analysis of any kind of data in the biological sciences including

the relevant medical sciences.
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
37.01.02
biometric characteristic
DEPRECATED biometric

biological and behavioural characteristic of an individual from which distinguishing, repeatable

biometric features (37.03.11) can be extracted for the purpose of biometric recognition (37.01.03)

EXAMPLE Examples of biometric characteristics are Galton ridge structure, face topography, facial skin

texture, hand topography, finger topography, iris structure, vein structure of the hand, ridge structure of the

palm, retinal pattern, handwritten signature dynamics, etc.
37.01.03
biometric recognition
biometrics

automated recognition of individuals based on their biological and behavioural characteristics

Note 1 to entry: In the field of biometrics (as defined in this document), “Individual" is restricted in scope to refer

only to humans.

Note 2 to entry: The general meaning of biometrics encompasses counting, measuring and statistical analysis of

any kind of data in the biological sciences including the relevant medical sciences.

Note 3 to entry: Biometric recognition encompasses biometric verification (37.08.03) and biometric identification

(37.08.02).

Note 4 to entry: Automated recognition implies that a machine-based system is used for the recognition either

for the full process or assisted by a human being.

Note 5 to entry: Behavioural and biological characteristics cannot be completely separated which is why

the definition uses ‘and’ instead of ‘and/or’. For example, a fingerprint image results from the biological

characteristics of the finger ridge patterns and the behavioural act of presenting the finger.

Note 6 to entry: Use of 'authentication' as a synonym for “biometric verification or biometric identification” is

deprecated; the term biometric recognition is preferred.
3.2 Terms related to biometric systems
37.02.01
biometric capture subsystem

biometric capture devices (37.04.01) and any sub-processes required to execute a biometric capture

process (37.05.02)

Note 1 to entry: In some biometric systems (37.02.03), converting a signal from a biometric characteristic (37.01.02)

to a captured biometric sample (37.03.25) can include multiple components such as a camera, photographic paper,

printer, digital scanner, ink and paper.

Note 2 to entry: A biometric capture subsystem can consist of only a single biometric capture device.

37.02.02
biometric identification system
system that aims to perform biometric identification (37.08.02)
37.02.03
biometric system

system for the purpose of the biometric recognition (37.01.03) of individuals based on their behavioural

and biological characteristics

Note 1 to entry: A biometric system will contain both biometric (37.01.01) and non-biometric components.

37.02.04
biometric verification system
system that aims to perform biometric verification (37.08.03)
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
37.02.05
mode
DEPRECATED biometric, noun

combination of a biometric characteristic (37.01.02) type, a sensor type and a processing method

Note 1 to entry: The processing algorithm may contain multiple methods, details of which are not necessarily

externally apparent. Thus, a biometric system (37.02.03) is considered as using one processing method, until it is

otherwise specified.

Note 2 to entry: Determining what constitutes a single type of sensor, processing method or biometric

characteristic will depend on convention. For example, current convention is that images of ridge patterns

from both thumbs and fingers represent a single biometric characteristic type, i.e. fingerprints. With respect to

sensors, infrared and optical bandwidth sensors are considered different types, but optical bandwidth sensors

are considered a single type despite imaging red, green and blue bandwidths.
37.02.06
multimodal

multiple in at least two out of three constituents of a mode (37.02.05) in a single biometric system

(37.02.03)
Note 1 to entry: Multiple implies difference in type.
37.02.07
system participation ratio
proportion of individuals eligible to use the system who do use the system
Note 1 to entry: Enrolled individuals are a subset of eligible individuals.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used to express the extent of take-up and use of a biometric system (37.02.03).

37.02.08
biometric fusion

combination of biometric (37.01.01) information from different sources to inform a comparison decision

(37.03.26) within a biometric transaction (37.06.45)

Note 1 to entry: The sources can be at the signal, feature, score, rank or decision level.

37.02.09
monobiometric system

biometric system (37.02.03) of which all of the following components are required to be singular:

biometric capture subsystem (37.02.01), biometric instance (37.03.46), biometric characteristic (37.01.02)

type, biometric algorithm (37.04.02) and biometric presentation (37.06.07)

Note 1 to entry: This term is needed for completeness. It can be the case that few systems are monobiometric, as

multiple instances and multipresentations are normally allowed.
37.02.10
multibiometric system

biometric system (37.02.03) of which at least one of the following components is required to be multiple:

biometric capture subsystem (37.02.01), biometric instance (37.03.46), biometric characteristic (37.01.02)

type, biometric algorithm (37.04.02) or biometric presentation (37.06.07)
37.02.11
multipresentation system

system that accepts multiple interactions of the biometric capture subject (37.07.03) with the biometric

capture subsystem (37.02.01) to obtain signals from a biometric characteristic (37.01.02) needed for a

single transaction (37.06.45)

Note 1 to entry: The interaction is seen from the perspective of the biometric capture subject.

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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
37.02.12
multibiometric, adj
based on multiple types of biometric characteristics (37.01.02)

EXAMPLE A biometric system that is based on two or more biometric characteristic types such as two or

more of face, voice, finger, iris, retina, hand geometry, signature/sign, keystroke, lip movement, gait, vein, DNA,

ear, foot, scent, etc.
3.3 Terms related to data in biometric systems
37.03.01
anonymized biometric data record

biometric data record (37.03.08) purposely disassociated from individual metadata

Note 1 to entry: The biometric data (37.03.06) within the biometric data record ultimately remains attributable

to an individual.
37.03.02
biometric application database

database of biometric data (37.03.06) and associated metadata developed from and supporting the

operation of a biometric (37.01.01) application

Note 1 to entry: The metadata may include transaction (37.06.45) history; authorizations (e.g. age) of the

biometric data subject (37.07.05); and archived biometric data.

Note 2 to entry: The term application includes the policies that govern the operation of the biometric system

(37.02.03) and evidence of that operation.
37.03.03
biometric application decision

decision to perform an action at the application level based on the results of a biometric (37.01.01)

process

Note 1 to entry: The application decision may include more than a comparison (37.05.07) process. For example,

a biometric capture process (37.05.02) may show that there are no biometric characteristics (37.01.02) to capture

and a decision can be made on this before any biometric characteristics are compared.

Note 2 to entry: Biometric application decisions can be made on the basis of complex policies involving both

biometric data (37.03.06) and non-biometric data.
37.03.04
biometric candidate

biometric reference identifier (37.03.19) of a biometric reference (37.03.16) in the biometric reference

database (37.03.17) determined to be sufficiently similar to the biometric probe (37.03.14) to warrant

further analysis

Note 1 to entry: Identification systems can be configured to return a fixed number of the most similar candidates

and, in other cases, the system could be configured to return candidates with biometric candidate scores

(37.03.24) that exceed a threshold (37.03.36).
37.03.05
biometric candidate list
set of zero, one or more biometric candidates (37.03.04)

Note 1 to entry: The biometric candidate list can be tentative if it is to be reduced by further processing.

37.03.06
biometric data

biometric sample (37.03.21) or aggregation of biometric samples at any stage of processing

EXAMPLE Biometric reference (37.03.16), biometric probe (37.03.14), biometric feature (37.03.11) or biometric

property (37.03.15).
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)

Note 1 to entry: Biometric data need not be attributable to a specific individual, e.g. Universal Background

Models.
37.03.07
biometric database
database of biometric data record(s) (37.03.08)
37.03.08
biometric data record
data record containing biometric data (37.03.06)
Note 1 to entry: A biometric data record may include non-biometric data.
37.03.09
biometric enrolment database
database of biometric enrolment data record(s) (37.03.10)

Note 1 to entry: A database of biometric data (37.03.06) not attributable to biometric data subjects (37.07.05)

is a biometric database (37.03.07), but not a biometric enrolment database, e.g. data for Universal Background

Models.

Note 2 to entry: The biometric enrolment database can optionally contain the biometric reference database

(37.03.17). Separation of the databases can be required due to security, privacy, legislation, architecture,

performance, etc.

Note 3 to entry: A single biometric reference (37.03.16) (e.g. a fingerprint on a storage card) can be considered as

a biometric enrolment database in some transactions (37.06.45).
37.03.10
biometric enrolment data record

data record attributed to a biometric data subject (37.07.05), containing non-biometric data and

associated with biometric reference identifier(s) (37.03.19)
Note 1 to entry: Data can be updated after enrolment.

Note 2 to entry: The biometric enrolment data record will either contain biometric reference data record(s)

(37.03.18) or pointer(s) to biometric reference data record(s).

Note 3 to entry: The associated biometric reference (37.03.16) can be null (for example, biometric enrollee

(37.07.06) lacks the biometric characteristic (37.01.02) or biometric capture process (37.05.02) is pending.

37.03.11
biometric feature

number or label extracted from biometric samples (37.03.21) and used for comparison (37.05.07)

Note 1 to entry: The set of numbers or labels are the output of a completed biometric feature extraction (37.05.04).

Note 2 to entry: The use of this term should be consistent with its use by the pattern recognition and mathematics

communities.

Note 3 to entry: A biometric feature set can also be considered a processed biometric sample.

Note 4 to entry: Biometric features may be extracted from an intermediate biometric sample (37.03.30).

Note 5 to entry: Filters applied to biometric samples are not themselves biometric features. However, the output

of the filter applied to the biometric samples can be. Therefore, eigenfaces are not biometric features, for example.

37.03.12
biometric identification decision

comparison decision (37.03.26) as to whether a biometric reference(s) (37.03.16) of a particular biometric

data subject (37.07.05) is in a biometric reference database (37.03.17)

Note 1 to entry: Return of a biometric candidate list (37.03.05) is not considered a biometric identification

decision.
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)

Note 2 to entry: A positive biometric identification (37.08.02) process is inferred from the output of a biometric

reference identifier (37.03.19).
37.03.13
biometric model
stored function generated from biometric data (37.03.06)

EXAMPLE Examples of biometric models could be a Hidden Markov Model, Gaussian Mixture Model or an

Artificial Neural Network.

Note 1 to entry: In most occasions the biometric model is a stored function which is dependent on the biometric

data subject (37.07.05).
Note 2 to entry: The function may be determined through training.

Note 3 to entry: A biometric model may involve intermediate processing similar to biometric feature extraction

(37.05.04).
37.03.14
biometric probe
biometric query

biometric sample (37.03.21) or biometric feature (37.03.11) set input to an algorithm for comparison

(37.05.07) to a biometric reference(s) (37.03.16)

Note 1 to entry: In some comparisons a biometric reference can potentially be used as the subject of the

comparison with other biometric references or incoming biometric samples used as the objects of the

comparisons. For example, in a duplicate enrolment check a biometric reference will be used as the subject for

comparisons against all other biometric references in the database.

Note 2 to entry: Typically, in a comparison process, incoming biometric samples serve as the subject of

comparisons against objects stored as biometric references in a database.
37.03.15
biometric property

descriptive attributes of the biometric data subject (37.07.05) estimated or derived from the biometric

sample (37.03.21) by automated means

EXAMPLE Fingerprints can be classified by the biometric properties of ridge-flow, i.e. arch, whorl and loop

types. Estimates of age or gender (37.07.31) from face recognition would also be biometric properties.

37.03.16
biometric reference

one or more stored biometric samples (37.03.21), biometric templates (37.03.22) or biometric models

(37.03.13) attributed to a biometric data subject (37.07.05) and used as the object of biometric

comparison (37.05.07)

EXAMPLE Face image stored digitally on a passport; fingerprint minutiae template on a National ID card or

Gaussian Mixture Model for speaker recognition, in a database.

Note 1 to entry: A biometric reference may be created with implicit or explicit use of auxiliary data, such as

Universal Background Models.

Note 2 to entry: The subject/object labelling in a comparison can be arbitrary. In some comparisons a biometric

reference can potentially be used as the subject of the comparison with other biometric references or incoming

biometric samples and input to a biometric algorithm (37.04.02) for comparison. For example, in a duplicate

enrolment check a biometric reference will be used as the subject for comparison against all other biometric

references in the database.
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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
37.03.17
biometric reference database
database of biometric reference data records (37.03.18)

Note 1 to entry: The biometric reference database may be a subset of the biometric enrolment database (37.03.09),

or it may be a separate database. Separation of the databases may be required due to security, privacy, legislation,

architecture, performance, etc.
37.03.18
biometric reference data record
indexed data record containing biometric reference(s) (37.03.16)

Note 1 to entry: There is not necessarily a one to one correspondence between biometric reference data records

and biometric data subjects (37.07.05). For example, a single biometric data subject can have several reference

data records and in some applications a single biometric reference data record can be associated with multiple

enrolments of a biometric data subject.
37.03.19
biometric reference identifier

pointer to a biometric reference data record (37.03.18) in the biometric reference database (37.03.17)

37.03.20
biometric representation
biometric sample (37.03.21) or biometric feature (37.03.11) set

Note 1 to entry: This term is used in the ISO/IEC 19794 series and the ISO/IEC 39794 series for labelling a sub-

record in a biometric data record (37.03.08).
37.03.21
biometric sample

analogue or digital representation of biometric characteristics (37.01.02) prior to biometric feature

extraction (37.05.04)
EXAMPLE A record containing the image of a finger is a biometric sample.
37.03.22
biometric template
reference biometric feature set

set of stored biometric features (37.03.11) comparable directly to a biometric probe (37.03.14)

EXAMPLE A record containing a set of finger minutiae is a biometric template.

Note 1 to entry: A biometric reference (37.03.16) consisting of an image, or other captured biometric sample

(37.03.25), in its original, enhanced or compressed form, is not a biometric template.

Note 2 to entry: The biometric features (37.03.11) are not considered to be a biometric template unless they are

stored for reference.
37.03.23
biometric verification decision

comparison decision (37.03.26) determining the validity of a biometric claim (37.06.04) in a verification

transaction (37.06.21)
37.03.24
biometric candidate score
comparison score (37.03.27) for a biometric candidate (37.03.04)
37.03.25
captured biometric sample
DEPRECATED raw biometric sample

biometric sample (37.03.21) resulting from a biometric capture process (37.05.02)

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ISO/IEC 2382-37:2022(E)
37.03.26
comparison decision

determination of whether the biometric probe(s) (37.03.14) and biometric reference(s) (37.03.16) have

the same biometric (37.01.01) source, based on a compariso
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
2382-37
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 37
Information technology —
Secretariat: ANSI
Vocabulary —
Voting begins on:
2021-12-06
Part 37:
Voting terminates on:
Biometrics
2022-01-31
Technologies de l'information — Vocabulaire —
Partie 37: Biométrie
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. © ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to general concepts ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms related to biometric systems .................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms related to data in biometric systems ................................................................................................................. 4

3.4 Terms related to devices ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

3.5 Terms related to functioning .................................................................................................................................................. 11

3.6 Terms relating to interaction ........................................................................................................................................... ....... 14

3.7 Terms related to personnel ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

3.8 Terms relating to application ................................................................................................................................................. 23

3.9 Terms related to performance ...............................................................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

Alphabetical Index.............................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iii
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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 37, Biometrics.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 2382-37:2017), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— modifications to some of the terms published in the 2017 edition; and
— addition of new terms.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 2382 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
Introduction

The main purpose of this document is to provide a systematic description of the concepts in the subject

field of biometrics and to clarify the use of the terms in this subject field. The subject field of biometrics

is broken down into sub-fields.

This document is addressed to biometrics standardizers and to users of these standards.

The terms defined in this document are to be understood within the context of the subject field of

biometrics. When terms exist in various subject fields, the relevant subject field may be indicated in

angle brackets.

Words that are written in italics are defined in this document. Words that are written in upright font

are to be understood in their natural language sense. The authority for natural language use of terms

in this document is the Concise Oxford English Dictionary (COED), Thumb Index Edition (tenth edition,

revised, 2002).

The numbering of all terms in this document begins with “37” to indicate the Subcommittee of ISO/

IEC Joint Technical Committee that created the terms. This is consistent will all other parts of the

ISO/IEC 2382 series. The subsequent numerical heading for each entry within this document (37.xx)

represents the number of the highest-level category in our concept map in which the term primarily

falls. This is consistent with “Systematic Order” as described in ISO 10241-1:2011, 5.1.2, in which the

heading reflects the concept system. In the first edition of this document (ISO/IEC 2382-37:2012),

the third numerical designator (37.xx.yy) was also consistent with “Systematic Order”, moving from

most general to more specific terms within each highest-level category of the concept map. With the

development of the current edition of this document (ISO/IEC 2382-37:2021), the decision was made

to append the new terms in each category such that the numbering of the earlier terms inherited from

the 2012 edition would not change. This implies that the third numerical designator is now in “Mixed

Order” as described in ISO 10241-1:2011, 5.1.3.

So, words are added to this document in batches for each updated version. These words are added in

alphabetical order. This ensures that the numbers allocated to a term remain the same and that they

can be referred to consistently.
The terms in this document are listed under a number of general headings.

The layout follows the directions given in ISO 10241-1. Thus, the elements of an entry appear in the

following order:
— Entry number (mandatory)
— Preferred term(s) (mandatory)
— Admitted term(s)
— Deprecated term(s)
— Definition (mandatory)
— Example(s)
— Note(s) to entry.
The alphabetical index includes preferred and admitted terms.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
Information technology — Vocabulary —
Part 37:
Biometrics
1 Scope

This document establishes a systematic description of the concepts in the field of biometrics pertaining

to recognition of human beings. This document also reconciles variant terms in use in pre-existing

International Standards on biometrics against the preferred terms, thereby clarifying the use of terms

in this field.

This document does not cover concepts (represented by terms) from information technology, pattern

recognition, biology, mathematics, etc. Biometrics uses such fields of knowledge as a basis.

In principle, mode specific terms are outside of scope of this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms related to general concepts
37.01.01
biometric, adj
of or having to do with biometrics (37.01.03)

Note 1 to entry: The use of biometric as a noun, to mean for example, biometric characteristic (37.01.02), is

deprecated.

EXAMPLE 1 Incorrect usage #1: ICAO resolved that face is the biometric most suited to the practicalities of

travel documents.

EXAMPLE 2 Correct usage #1: ICAO resolved that face recognition is the biometric mode (37.02.05) most

suited to the practicalities of travel documents.

EXAMPLE 3 Incorrect usage #2: The biometric recorded in my passport is a facial image.

EXAMPLE 4 Correct usage #2: The biometric characteristic recorded in my passport is a facial image.

Note 2 to entry: Since the late 19 century the terms biometrics and biometry have been used with the general

meaning of counting, measuring and statistical analysis of any kind of data in the biological sciences including

the relevant medical sciences.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
37.01.02
biometric characteristic
DEPRECATED biometric

biological and behavioural characteristic of an individual from which distinguishing, repeatable

biometric features (37.03.11) can be extracted for the purpose of biometric recognition (37.01.03)

EXAMPLE Examples of biometric characteristics are Galton ridge structure, face topography, facial skin

texture, hand topography, finger topography, iris structure, vein structure of the hand, ridge structure of the

palm, retinal pattern, handwritten signature dynamics, etc.
37.01.03
biometric recognition
biometrics

automated recognition of individuals based on their biological and behavioural characteristics

Note 1 to entry: In the field of biometrics (as defined in this document), “Individual" is restricted in scope to refer

only to humans.

Note 2 to entry: The general meaning of biometrics encompasses counting, measuring and statistical analysis of

any kind of data in the biological sciences including the relevant medical sciences.

Note 3 to entry: Biometric recognition encompasses biometric verification (37.08.03) and biometric identification

(37.08.02).

Note 4 to entry: Automated recognition implies that a machine-based system is used for the recognition either

for the full process or assisted by a human being.

Note 5 to entry: Behavioural and biological characteristics cannot be completely separated which is why

the definition uses ‘and’ instead of ‘and/or’. For example, a fingerprint image results from the biological

characteristics of the finger ridge patterns and the behavioural act of presenting the finger.

Note 6 to entry: Use of 'authentication' as a synonym for “biometric verification or biometric identification” is

deprecated; the term biometric recognition is preferred.
3.2 Terms related to biometric systems
37.02.01
biometric capture subsystem

biometric capture devices (37.04.01) and any sub-processes required to execute a biometric capture

process (37.05.02)

Note 1 to entry: In some biometric systems (37.02.03), converting a signal from a biometric characteristic (37.01.02)

to a captured biometric sample (37.03.25) can include multiple components such as a camera, photographic paper,

printer, digital scanner, ink and paper.

Note 2 to entry: A biometric capture subsystem can consist of only a single biometric capture device.

37.02.02
biometric identification system
system that aims to perform biometric identification (37.08.02)
37.02.03
biometric system

system for the purpose of the biometric recognition (37.01.03) of individuals based on their behavioural

and biological characteristics

Note 1 to entry: A biometric system will contain both biometric (37.01.01) and non-biometric components.

37.02.04
biometric verification system
system that aims to perform biometric verification (37.08.03)
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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
37.02.05
mode
DEPRECATED biometric, noun

combination of a biometric characteristic (37.01.02) type, a sensor type and a processing method

Note 1 to entry: The processing algorithm may contain multiple methods, details of which are not necessarily

externally apparent. Thus, a biometric system (37.02.03) is considered as using one processing method, until it is

otherwise specified.

Note 2 to entry: Determining what constitutes a single type of sensor, processing method or biometric

characteristic will depend on convention. For example, current convention is that images of ridge patterns

from both thumbs and fingers represent a single biometric characteristic type, i.e. fingerprints. With respect to

sensors, infrared and optical bandwidth sensors are considered different types, but optical bandwidth sensors

are considered a single type despite imaging red, green and blue bandwidths.
37.02.06
multimodal

multiple in at least two out of three constituents of a mode (37.02.05) in a single biometric system

(37.02.03)
Note 1 to entry: Multiple implies difference in type.
37.02.07
system participation ratio
proportion of individuals eligible to use the system who do use the system
Note 1 to entry: Enrolled individuals are a subset of eligible individuals.

Note 2 to entry: This term is used to express the extent of take-up and use of a biometric system (37.02.03).

37.02.08
biometric fusion

combination of biometric (37.01.01) information from different sources to inform a comparison decision

(37.03.26) within a biometric transaction (37.06.45)

Note 1 to entry: The sources might be at the signal, feature, score, rank or decision level.

37.02.09
monobiometric system

biometric system (37.02.03) of which all of the following components are required to be singular:

biometric capture subsystem (37.02.01), biometric instance (37.03.46), biometric characteristic (37.01.02)

type, biometric algorithm (37.04.02) and biometric presentation (37.06.07)

Note 1 to entry: This term is needed for completeness. It can be the case that few systems are monobiometric, as

multiple instances and multipresentations are normally allowed.
37.02.10
multibiometric system

biometric system (37.02.03) of which at least one of the following components is required to be multiple:

biometric capture subsystem (37.02.01), biometric instance (37.03.46), biometric characteristic (37.01.02)

type, biometric algorithm (37.04.02) or biometric presentation (37.06.07)
37.02.11
multipresentation system

system that accepts multiple interactions of the biometric capture subject (37.07.03) with the biometric

capture subsystem (37.02.01) to obtain signals from a biometric characteristic (37.01.02) needed for a

single transaction (37.06.45)

Note 1 to entry: The interaction is seen from the perspective of the biometric capture subject.

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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
37.02.12
multibiometric, adj
based on multiple types of biometric characteristics (37.01.02)

EXAMPLE A biometric system that is based on two or more biometric characteristic types such as two or

more of face, voice, finger, iris, retina, hand geometry, signature/sign, keystroke, lip movement, gait, vein, DNA,

ear, foot, scent, etc.
3.3 Terms related to data in biometric systems
37.03.01
anonymized biometric data record

biometric data record (37.03.08) purposely disassociated from individual metadata

Note 1 to entry: The biometric data (37.03.06) within the biometric data record ultimately remains attributable

to an individual.
37.03.02
biometric application database

database of biometric data (37.03.06) and associated metadata developed from and supporting the

operation of a biometric (37.01.01) application

Note 1 to entry: The metadata may include transaction (37.06.45) history; authorizations (e.g. age) of the

biometric data subject (37.07.05); and archived biometric data.

Note 2 to entry: The term application includes the policies that govern the operation of the biometric system

(37.02.03) and evidence of that operation.
37.03.03
biometric application decision

decision to perform an action at the application level based on the results of a biometric (37.01.01)

process

Note 1 to entry: The application decision may include more than a comparison (37.05.07) process. For example,

a biometric capture process (37.05.02) may show that there are no biometric characteristics (37.01.02) to capture

and a decision can be made on this before any biometric characteristics are compared.

Note 2 to entry: Biometric application decisions can be made on the basis of complex policies involving both

biometric data (37.03.06) and non-biometric data.
37.03.04
biometric candidate

biometric reference identifier (37.03.19) of a biometric reference (37.03.16) in the biometric reference

database (37.03.17) determined to be sufficiently similar to the biometric probe (37.03.14) to warrant

further analysis

Note 1 to entry: Identification systems can be configured to return a fixed number of the most similar candidates

and, in other cases, the system could be configured to return candidates with biometric candidate scores

(37.03.24) that exceed a threshold (37.03.36).
37.03.05
biometric candidate list
set of zero, one or more biometric candidates (37.03.04)

Note 1 to entry: The biometric candidate list can be tentative if it is to be reduced by further processing.

37.03.06
biometric data

biometric sample (37.03.21) or aggregation of biometric samples at any stage of processing

EXAMPLE Biometric reference (37.03.16), biometric probe (37.03.14), biometric feature (37.03.11) or biometric

property (37.03.15).
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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)

Note 1 to entry: Biometric data need not be attributable to a specific individual, e.g. Universal Background

Models.
37.03.07
biometric database
database of biometric data record(s) (37.03.08)
37.03.08
biometric data record
data record containing biometric data (37.03.06)
Note 1 to entry: A biometric data record may include non-biometric data.
37.03.09
biometric enrolment database
database of biometric enrolment data record(s) (37.03.10)

Note 1 to entry: A database of biometric data (37.03.06) not attributable to biometric data subjects (37.07.05)

is a biometric database (37.03.07), but not a biometric enrolment database, e.g. data for Universal Background

Models.

Note 2 to entry: The biometric enrolment database can optionally contain the biometric reference database

(37.03.17). Separation of the databases can be required due to security, privacy, legislation, architecture,

performance, etc.

Note 3 to entry: A single biometric reference (37.03.16) (e.g. a fingerprint on a storage card) can be considered as

a biometric enrolment database in some transactions (37.06.45).
37.03.10
biometric enrolment data record

data record attributed to a biometric data subject (37.07.05), containing non-biometric data and

associated with biometric reference identifier(s) (37.03.19)
Note 1 to entry: Data can be updated after enrolment.

Note 2 to entry: The biometric enrolment data record will either contain biometric reference data record(s)

(37.03.18) or pointer(s) to biometric reference data record(s).

Note 3 to entry: The associated biometric reference (37.03.16) can be null (for example, biometric enrollee

(37.07.06) lacks the biometric characteristic (37.01.02) or biometric capture process (37.05.02) is pending.

37.03.11
biometric feature

number or label extracted from biometric samples (37.03.21) and used for comparison (37.05.07)

Note 1 to entry: The set of numbers or labels are the output of a completed biometric feature extraction (37.05.04).

Note 2 to entry: The use of this term should be consistent with its use by the pattern recognition and mathematics

communities.

Note 3 to entry: A biometric feature set can also be considered a processed biometric sample.

Note 4 to entry: Biometric features may be extracted from an intermediate biometric sample (37.03.30).

Note 5 to entry: Filters applied to biometric samples are not themselves biometric features. However, the output

of the filter applied to the biometric samples can be. Therefore, eigenfaces are not biometric features, for example.

37.03.12
biometric identification decision

comparison decision (37.03.26) as to whether a biometric reference(s) (37.03.16) of a particular biometric

data subject (37.07.05) is in a biometric reference database (37.03.17)

Note 1 to entry: Return of a biometric candidate list (37.03.05) is not considered a biometric identification

decision.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: A positive biometric identification (37.08.02) process is inferred from the output of a biometric

reference identifier (37.03.19).
37.03.13
biometric model
stored function generated from biometric data (37.03.06)

EXAMPLE Examples of biometric models could be a Hidden Markov Model, Gaussian Mixture Model or an

Artificial Neural Network.

Note 1 to entry: In most occasions the biometric model is a stored function which is dependent on the biometric

data subject (37.07.05).
Note 2 to entry: The function may be determined through training.

Note 3 to entry: A biometric model may involve intermediate processing similar to biometric feature extraction

(37.05.04).
37.03.14
biometric probe
biometric query

biometric sample (37.03.21) or biometric feature (37.03.11) set input to an algorithm for comparison

(37.05.07) to a biometric reference(s) (37.03.16)

Note 1 to entry: In some comparisons a biometric reference might be used as the subject of the comparison with

other biometric references or incoming biometric samples used as the objects of the comparisons. For example,

in a duplicate enrolment check a biometric reference will be used as the subject for comparisons against all other

biometric references in the database.

Note 2 to entry: Typically, in a comparison process, incoming biometric samples serve as the subject of

comparisons against objects stored as biometric references in a database.
37.03.15
biometric property

descriptive attributes of the biometric data subject (37.07.05) estimated or derived from the biometric

sample (37.03.21) by automated means

EXAMPLE Fingerprints can be classified by the biometric properties of ridge-flow, i.e. arch, whorl and loop

types. Estimates of age or gender (37.07.31) from face recognition would also be biometric properties.

37.03.16
biometric reference

one or more stored biometric samples (37.03.21), biometric templates (37.03.22) or biometric models

(37.03.13) attributed to a biometric data subject (37.07.05) and used as the object of biometric

comparison (37.05.07)

EXAMPLE Face image stored digitally on a passport; fingerprint minutiae template on a National ID card or

Gaussian Mixture Model for speaker recognition, in a database.

Note 1 to entry: A biometric reference may be created with implicit or explicit use of auxiliary data, such as

Universal Background Models.

Note 2 to entry: The subject/object labelling in a comparison can be arbitrary. In some comparisons a biometric

reference might be used as the subject of the comparison with other biometric references or incoming biometric

samples and input to a biometric algorithm (37.04.02) for comparison. For example, in a duplicate enrolment

check a biometric reference will be used as the subject for comparison against all other biometric references in

the database.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 2382-37:2021(E)
37.03.17
biometric reference database
database of biometric reference data records (37.03.18)

Note 1 to entry: The biometric reference database may be a subset of the biometric enrolment database (37.03.09),

or it may be a separate database. Separation of the databases may be required due to security, privacy, legislation,

architecture, performance, etc.
37.03.18
biometric reference data record
indexed data record containing biometric reference(s) (37.03.16)

Note 1 to entry: There is not necessarily a one to one correspondence between biometric reference data records

and biometric data subjects (37.07.05). For example, a single biometric data subject can have several reference

data records and in some applications a single biometric reference data record can be associated with multiple

enrolments of a biometric data subject.
37.03.19
biometric reference identifier

pointer to a biometric reference data record (37.03.18) in the biometric reference database (37.03.17)

37.03.20
biometric representation
biometric sample (37.03.21) or biometric feature (37.03.11) set

Note 1 to entry: This term is used in the ISO/IEC 19794 series and the ISO/IEC 39794 series for labelling a sub-

record in a biometric data record (37.03.08).
37.03.21
biometric sample

analogue or digital representation of biometric characteristics (37.01.02) prior to biometric feature

extraction (37.05.04)
EXAMPLE A record containing the image of a finger is a biometric sample.
37.03.22
biometric template
reference biometric feature set

set of stored biometric features (37.03.11) comparable directly to a biometric probe (37.03.14)

EXAMPLE A record containing a set of finger minutiae is a biometric template.

Note 1 to entry: A biometric reference (37.03.16) consisting of an image, or other captured biometric sample

(37.03.25), in its original, enhanced or compressed form, is not a biometric template.

Note 2 to entry: The biometric features (37.03.11) are not considered to be a biometric template unless they are

stored for reference.
37.03.23
biometric verification decision

comparison decision (37.03.26) determining the validity of a biometric claim (37.06.04) in a verification

transaction (37.06.21)
37.03.24
biometric candidate score
comparison score (37.03.27) for a biometric candidate (37.03.04)
37.03.25
captured biometric sample
DEPRECATED raw biometric sample
biometric sample (37.03.21) resulting from a bi
...

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