Information technology — Keyboard layouts for alphanumeric inputs — Description of ISO/IEC 9995 issues regarding users' needs and necessary innovations

ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009 specifies possible modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1 to ISO/IEC 9995-8 to fulfil the changed market needs and the requirements for keyboard layouts and allocation of keycap imprints (including letters, numerals, symbols, and other markings on the keycaps) for alphanumeric and numeric input devices for all types of information and communication technology devices and systems including: personal computers, workstations, computer terminals, visual display terminals (VDTs); electronic typewriters and other machines with alphanumeric and numeric keyboards; mobile computer systems and multimedia devices with hardware or virtual keyboards; electronic document scanners and multifunction devices incorporating alphanumeric and/or numeric keyboards; calculators, telephones and automated teller machines having alphanumeric and/or numeric keypads/keyboards.

Technologies de l'information — Dispositions de clavier pour la saisie alphanumérique — Description de problèmes liés à l'ISO/CEI 9995 concernant les besoins utilisateur et des innovations nécessaires

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
02-Apr-2009
Withdrawal Date
02-Apr-2009
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
31-May-2011
Completion Date
31-May-2011
Ref Project

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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC
REPORT TR
24784
First edition
2009-04-15
Information technology — Keyboard
layouts for alphanumeric inputs —
Description of ISO/IEC 9995 issues
regarding users' needs and necessary
innovations
Technologies de l'information — Dispositions de clavier pour la saisie
alphanumérique — Description de problèmes liés à l'ISO/CEI 9995
concernant les besoins utilisateur et des innovations nécessaires
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
ISO/IEC 2009
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
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© ISO/IEC 2009

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ii © ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 ISO/IEC 9995-1 — “General principles governing keyboard layouts” .............................................1

4.1 Part 1 — “Introduction”.........................................................................................................................1

4.2 Part 1, clause 1 — “Scope”...................................................................................................................2

4.3 Part 1, clause 5.2 — “Physical division of keyboard into sections and zones” .............................2

4.4 Part 1, clause 6.1 — “Placement of sections” ....................................................................................4

4.5 Part 1, clause 7 — “Key position numbering system”.......................................................................4

4.6 Part 1, clause 8.1 — “Group positions” ..............................................................................................5

5 ISO/IEC 9995-2 — “Alphanumeric section” ........................................................................................7

5.1 Part 2, clause 6 — “Division into zones” ............................................................................................7

5.2 Part 2, clause 8.3 — “Minimum function key requirements” ............................................................7

6 ISO/IEC 9995-3 —“Complementary layouts of the alphanumeric zone of the alphanumeric

section”...................................................................................................................................................9

6.1 Part 3 — Enhanced Latin keyboard .....................................................................................................9

6.2 Part 3 — Extensions beyond the Latin script .....................................................................................9

6.3 Part 3 — Guidelines for national variants ...........................................................................................9

7 ISO/IEC 9995-4 — “Numeric section” ..................................................................................................9

7.1 Part 4, clause 6 — “Division into zones” ............................................................................................9

7.2 Part 4, clause 10 — “Allocation of functions to the keys of the function zones”.........................10

8 ISO/IEC 9995-5 — “Editing section” ..................................................................................................10

8.1 Part 5, clause 6 — “Division into zones” ..........................................................................................10

8.2 Part 5, clause 7 — “Cursor zone arrangement and location” .........................................................10

8.3 Part 5, clauses 10 to 12 .......................................................................................................................12

9 ISO/IEC 9995-6 — “Function section” ...............................................................................................13

9.1 Part 6, clause 6 — “Division into zones” ..........................................................................................13

9.2 Part 6, clause 6.2 — “Key allocations”..............................................................................................13

10 ISO/IEC 9995-7 — “Symbols used to represent functions” ............................................................14

11 ISO/IEC 9995-8 — “Allocation of letters to the keys of a numeric keypad” ..................................14

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, the joint technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report

of one of the following types:

⎯ type 1, when the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,

despite repeated efforts;

⎯ type 2, when the subject is still under technical development or where for any other reason there is the

future but not immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard;

⎯ type 3, when the joint technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is

normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example).

Technical Reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication, to decide whether

they can be transformed into International Standards. Technical Reports of type 3 do not necessarily have to

be reviewed until the data they provide are considered to be no longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC TR 24784, which is a Technical Report of type 3, was prepared by Joint Technical Committee

ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee SC 35, User interfaces.
iv © ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
Introduction

In today’s information age, computer systems are found in all areas of business and private life.

They simplify locating electronic information, allow exchange of electronic data and help to increase efficiency

in business. The man-machine interface enables dialogue to be conducted between the user and the

computer system. Particularly for the keyboard input of alphanumeric data, a common, standardized interface

is desirable to minimize the need for users to adjust to different layouts when using different information and

communication technology systems.

In order to allow more flexibility for innovation, this Technical Report, in line with ISO/IEC TR 15440 on future

keyboards, describes the issues raised over the years about the implementation of ISO/IEC 9995, and

proposes changes that should be considered in the ISO/IEC 9995 series. The goals of this Technical Report

are

⎯ for ISO/IEC 9995 to apply to all alphanumeric and numeric keyboards across the widest spectrum of

applications and environments;
⎯ to simplify the zone and section model;

⎯ to suggest simplified requirements with less complexity for developers and users, test laboratories, and

purchasers.
This Technical Report complements ISO 9241-4 by addressing issues such as:

⎯ repositioning sections and zones (e.g. numeric-/editing) to support a more natural posture when shifting

between keys and a mouse;

⎯ broadening the applicability of ISO/IEC 9995 for keyboards in mobile IT equipment (PDAs, smart phones,

etc.).
© ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
Information technology — Keyboard layouts for alphanumeric
inputs — Description of ISO/IEC 9995 issues regarding users'
needs and necessary innovations
1 Scope

This Technical Report specifies possible modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1 to ISO/IEC 9995-8 to fulfil the

changed market needs and the requirements for keyboard layouts and allocation of keycap imprints (including

letters, numerals, symbols, and other markings on the keycaps) for alphanumeric and numeric input devices

for all types of information and communication technology devices and systems including:

⎯ personal computers, workstations, computer terminals, visual display terminals (VDTs);

⎯ electronic typewriters and other machines with alphanumeric and numeric keyboards;

⎯ mobile computer systems and multimedia devices with hardware or virtual keyboards;

⎯ electronic document scanners and multifunction devices incorporating alphanumeric and/or numeric

keyboards;

⎯ calculators, telephones and automated teller machines having alphanumeric and/or numeric

keypads/keyboards.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 9995 (all parts ), Information technology — Keyboard layouts for text and office systems

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006 apply.

4 ISO/IEC 9995-1 — “General principles governing keyboard layouts”
This clause lists the proposed modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006.
4.1 Part 1 — “Introduction”

This clause lists the proposed modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006 — Introduction.

© ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
4.1.1 Modification Arguments

The text in the introduction section needs to be renewed because it is desired to apply ISO/IEC 9995 not only

to office machines, but to apply to all alphanumeric and numeric keyboards across the widest spectrum of

today's and upcoming applications and usage of alphanumeric and numeric keyboards. In addition, the

standard needs to accommodate the main areas of a keyboard in order to provide freedom for innovation.

4.1.2 New text proposed for “Introduction”

ISO/IEC 9995 defines a framework for the layout of all alphanumeric and numeric keyboards across the

widest spectrum of today's and upcoming applications and usage of alphanumeric and numeric keyboards.

The functions to be performed by keyboards are grouped into three categories that correspond to the main

physical sections of the keyboard. Application of ISO/IEC 9995 in the design of keyboards will provide the

user with a unified, predictable man-machine interface by dividing the keyboard into functional areas and

sections and allocating functions to keys. One of the major tasks of a universal-usage keyboard is to

accommodate the larger sets of characters required by the various applications for which keyboards are used

today.
4.2 Part 1, clause 1 — “Scope”

This clause lists the proposed modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006, Clause 1 — Scope.

4.2.1 Modification arguments

In today’s information age, computer systems are found in all areas of business and private life. They simplify

locating electronic information, allow exchange of electronic data and help to increase efficiency in business.

The man-machine interface enables dialogue to be conducted between the user and the computer system.

Particularly for the keyboard input of alphanumeric data, a common, standardized interface is desirable to

minimize the need for users to adjust to different layouts when using different information and communication

technology systems.
4.2.2 New text proposed for “Scope”

ISO/IEC 9995 specifies the requirements for keyboard layouts and allocation of keycap imprints (including

letters, numerals, symbols, and other markings on the keycaps) for alphanumeric and numeric input devices

for all types of information and communication technology devices and systems including:

⎯ personal computers, workstations, computer terminals, visual display terminals (VDT's);

⎯ electronic typewriters and other machines with alphanumeric and numeric keyboards;

⎯ mobile computer systems including UMPCs, PDAs etc. and multimedia devices with hardware keyboards

(e.g. linear keyboards, foldable keyboards) or virtual keyboards (e.g. touchscreens, projection

keyboards);

⎯ electronic document scanners and multifunction devices incorporating alphanumeric and/or numeric

keyboards;

⎯ calculators, telephones and automated teller machines having alphanumeric and/or numeric

keypads/keyboards.
4.3 Part 1, clause 5.2 — “Physical division of keyboard into sections and zones”

This clause lists the proposed modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006, clause 5.2 — Physical division of

keyboards into sections and zones.
2 © ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
4.3.1 Modification arguments
ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006 defines four sections with multiple zones:
⎯ alphanumeric section, zones ZAO ZA4 (5 zones);
⎯ editing section, zones ZEO ZE2 (4 zones);
⎯ function section, zones ZFO ZF4 (5 zones);
⎯ numeric section, zones ZNO ZN6 (7 zones).

This is quite complex. In today’s market we see more and more innovative keyboard solutions that ignore

those allocations, and indeed, there is no reason to have such amount of zones. A second issue appears

because the editing and function keys overlap in both sections and it is not always clear what editing/what

function is. To simplify the standard, the editing section and the function section should be merged together

and the number of zones should thus be reduced.

4.3.2 New text proposed for “Physical division of keyboard into sections and zones”

This subclause introduces the concept of sections and zones. The various functions that can be performed by

a keyboard are grouped into three categories, arranged in three keyboard sections as follows:

⎯ alphanumeric section: ZA0 alphanumeric zone, ZA1 and ZA2 function zones (see Figure 1);

⎯ numeric section: numeric zone ZN0 and function zone ZN1 (see Figure 2);

⎯ editing-/function section: cursor key zone ZEF0, editing-/function zone ZEF1 (see Figure 3).

Figure 1 — Layout of zones — Alphanumeric section
© ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC TR 24784:2009(E)
Figure 2 — Layout of zones — Numeric section
Figure 3 — Layout of zones — Editing-/function section
4.4 Part 1, clause 6.1 — “Placement of sections”

This clause lists the proposed modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006, clause 6.1 — Placement of sections.

4.4.1 Modification arguments

ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006 specifies the editing section and the function section. Except the cursor keys, the

arrangement of the editing keys has changed and the editing and function keys overlap in both sections. A

definition problem come up, what is editing/what is function?
4.4.2 Adaptation of “Placement of sections”

The goal is to merge the editing section and the function section together (see also clause 8 editing section

and clause 9 function section of this Technical Report).
4.5 Part 1, clause 7 — “Key position numbering system”

This clause lists the proposed modifications of ISO/IEC 9995-1:2006, clause 7 — Key position numbering

system.
4 © ISO/IEC 2009 – All rights reserved
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