Space systems -- Space debris mitigation requirements

ISO 24113:2011 defines the primary space debris mitigation requirements applicable to all elements of unmanned systems launched into, or passing through, near-Earth space, including launch vehicle orbital stages, operating spacecraft and any objects released as part of normal operations or disposal actions. The requirements contained in ISO 24113:2011 are intended to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbital lifetime. ISO 24113:2011 is the top-level standard in a family of standards addressing debris mitigation. It will be the main interface for the user, bridging between the primary debris mitigation requirements and the lower-level implementation standards that will ensure compliance. ISO 24113:2011 does not cover launch phase safety for which specific rules are defined elsewhere.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Exigences de mitigation des débris spatiaux

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
10-May-2011
Withdrawal Date
10-May-2011
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Apr-2011
Completion Date
11-May-2011
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24113
Second edition
2011-05-15
Space systems — Space debris
mitigation requirements
Systèmes spatiaux — Exigences de mitigation des débris spatiaux
Reference number
ISO 24113:2011(E)
ISO 2011
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ISO 24113:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

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ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24113:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..........................................................................................................3

4.1 Symbols..................................................................................................................................................3

4.2 Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................................................3

5 Protected regions ..................................................................................................................................4

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................4

5.2 LEO protected region............................................................................................................................4

5.3 GEO protected region ...........................................................................................................................4

6 Technical requirements ........................................................................................................................5

6.1 Avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal operations.......5

6.2 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit .......................................................................................................5

6.3 Removing a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage from the protected regions after

end of mission .......................................................................................................................................5

7 Space debris mitigation plan................................................................................................................7

Annex A (informative) Probability of successful disposal .............................................................................8

Annex B (informative) Post-launch life cycle phases of a launch vehicle or spacecraft ..........................11

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 24113:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 24113 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles, Subcommittee

SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 24113:2010), of which it constitutes a minor

revision.
iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24113:2011(E)
Introduction

Space debris comprises all non-functional, man-made objects, including fragments and elements thereof, in

Earth orbit or re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The growing population of these objects poses an

increasing hazard to missions. In response to this problem, there is international consensus that space

activities need to be managed to minimize debris generation and risk. This consensus is embodied in space

debris mitigation guidelines published by organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union

[1] [2][3] [4]

(ITU) , the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the United Nations (UN) .

The transformation of debris mitigation guidelines into engineering practice is a key purpose of this

International Standard.
[5]

The importance of this International Standard can be seen within the context of four UN treaties that were

established under the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) to

govern the involvement of nations in space activities. These are the Outer Space Treaty, the Liability

Convention, the Registration Convention and the Rescue Agreement. Through some of these treaties, a

Launching State has total liability for damage caused by its spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stages (or any

parts thereof) on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft in flight, as well as in outer space where fault can be

proven.

All countries are encouraged to abide by these international agreements in order not to endanger or constrain

existing and future space missions. A Launching State can choose to appoint licensing or regulatory

authorities to administer its approach for complying with the above-mentioned UN treaties. In several

Launching States, these authorities have implemented national legislation to enforce the UN treaties. Such

legislation can include the mitigation of space debris. Some Launching States meet their obligations by

appointing non-regulatory government bodies, such as national space agencies, to provide the necessary

guidelines or requirements, including those for space debris mitigation.

The general aim of space debris mitigation is to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that spacecraft

and launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated and disposed of in a manner that prevents them

from generating debris throughout their orbital lifetime. This is achieved by the following actions:

a) avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal operations;

b) avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit;

c) removing spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages from protected orbital regions after end of mission;

d) performing the necessary actions to minimize the risk of collision with other space objects.

Such actions are especially important for a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage that has one or more of

the following characteristics:
⎯ a large collision cross-section;
⎯ remains in orbit for many years;
⎯ operates near manned mission orbital regions;
⎯ operates in highly utilized regions, such as protected regions;
⎯ operates in regions of high debris population.

This International Standard transforms these objectives into a set of high-level debris mitigation requirements.

Methods and processes to enable compliance with these requirements are provided in a series of lower-level

implementation standards.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24113:2011(E)
Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
1 Scope

This International Standard defines the primary space debris mitigation requirements applicable to all

elements of unmanned systems launched into, or passing through, near-Earth space, including launch vehicle

orbital stages, operating spacecraft and any objects released as part of normal operations or disposal actions.

The requirements contained in this International Standard are intended to reduce the growth of space debris

by ensuring that spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated and disposed of in a

manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbital lifetime.

This International Standard is the top-level standard in a family of standards addressing debris mitigation. It

will be the main interface for the user, bridging between the primary debris mitigation requirements and the

lower-level implementation standards that will ensure compliance.

This International Standard does not cover launch phase safety for which specific rules are defined elsewhere.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 9000:2005, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 9000:2005 and the following apply.

3.1
approving agent

entity from whom approval is sought for the implementation of space debris mitigation requirements with

respect to the procurement of a spacecraft, or its launch, or its operations in space, or a combination of those

activities

EXAMPLE Regulatory or licensing authorities; national or international space agencies.

3.2
break-up

event that destroys an object and generates fragments that are released into space

3.3
casualty risk
probability that a person is killed or seriously injured
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 24113:2011(E)
3.4
disposal

actions performed by a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage to permanently reduce its chance of

accidental break-up and to achieve its required long-term clearance of the protected regions

3.5
disposal phase

interval during which a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage completes its disposal actions

3.6
end of life

instant when a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage is permanently turned off, nominally as it completes

its disposal phase, or when it re-enters, or when the operator can no longer control it

3.7
end of mission

instant when a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage completes the tasks or functions for which it has

been designed, or when it becomes non-functional or permanently halted because of a failure or because of a

voluntary decision
3.8
geostationary Earth orbit
GEO

Earth orbit having zero inclination and zero eccentricity, whose orbital period is equal to the Earth's sidereal

rotation period
3.9
launch vehicle orbital stage
stage of a launch vehicle that is designed to achieve orbit
3.10
Launching State

State that launches or procures the launching of a spacecraft, or a State from whose territory or facility a

spacecraft is launched
[5] [6]

NOTE This definition is consistent with the definition in the UN Liability Convention and Resolution 59/115 of

10 December 2004 on the notion of the Launching State.
3.11
normal operations

planned tasks or functions performed by a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage prior to its disposal

3.12
orbital lifetime

period of time from when a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage achieves Earth orbit to when it

commences re-entry
3.13
probability of successful disposal

probability of successfully disposing of a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage, evaluated as a conditional

probability weighted on the mission success at the time disposal is executed
NOTE See Annex A.
3.14
protected region

region in space that is protected with regard to the generation of space debris to ensure its safe and

sustainable use in the future
2 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24113:2011(E)
3.15
re-entry

process in which atmospheric drag cascades deceleration of a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage (or

any part thereof), leading to its destruction or return to Earth

NOTE For operational purposes, this is when the period of the mean orbit is 89 min or less.

3.16
regulatory authority

governmental entity, national or international, that bears responsibility for implementing space debris

mitigation policy or law with respect to the procurement of a spacecraft, or its launch, or its operations in

space, or a combination of those activities
3.17
space debris
orbital debris

man-made objects, including fragments and elements thereof, in Earth orbit or re-entering the atmosphere,

that are non-functional
3.18
spacecraft
system designed to perform specific tasks or functions in space

NOTE A spacecraft that can no longer fulfil its intended mission is considered non-functional. Spacecraft in

...

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