Road vehicles -- Brake lining friction materials -- Product definition and quality assurance

The procedures in ISO 15484:2008 apply to disc brake pads and drum brake linings for motor vehicles and describe systematic processes for the quality assurance of such brake linings. In conjunction with tolerance ranges, the test methods and results described in ISO 15484:2008 permit a rapid assessment of disc brake pads. Uniform handling of the procedures through various phases ensures that the quality assurance requirements are clearly understood and that a global implementation is possible in the relationship between customers and suppliers. ISO 15484:2008 relates to the completed friction material and is applicable during product development to the quality assurance of ongoing series production, focussing on the “component” friction material. It is advisable that tests with apparent “system” character be avoided. Raw material checks and processing control are outside the scope of ISO 15484:2008.

Véhicules routiers -- Matériaux de friction pour garnitures de freins -- Définition du produit et assurance qualité

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Published
Publication Date
29-Jul-2008
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
29-Apr-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15484
First edition
2008-08-01
Road vehicles — Brake lining friction
materials — Product definition and
quality assurance
Véhicules routiers — Matériaux de friction pour garnitures de freins —
Définition du produit et assurance qualité
Reference number
ISO 15484:2008(E)
ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
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© ISO 2008

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 2

5 Product quality preplanning and test plan......................................................................................... 3

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Phases of product quality preplanning .............................................................................................. 4

5.4 Test plan ................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Checks and requirements — Brake lining complete......................................................................... 8

6.1 General (visual, dimensional and material checks) .......................................................................... 8

6.2 Physical properties............................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Corrosion (backing plate and shoe surface treatment).................................................................. 12

6.4 Friction performance passenger cars .............................................................................................. 12

6.5 Friction performance commercial vehicles ..................................................................................... 13

7 Documentation in the lining data sheet (LDS)................................................................................. 14

8 Ongoing production monitoring ....................................................................................................... 14

Annex A (informative) Example of lining data sheet (LDS).......................................................................... 15

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15484 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 2, Braking

systems and equipment.
iv © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
Introduction

Drum and disc brake friction materials are important functional parts of the wheel brakes. They are pressed

against the rotating brake drum or disc by a clamping force applied by the actuating mechanism of the brake

during a braking operation. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is thereby largely transformed into heat. The

brake pad or lining is of essential importance for the effectiveness and user comfort of the brake system. Disc

brake pads consist of the friction material itself, the pad carrier plate and, in some cases, silencing parts, pad

wear warning devices and retaining or guiding elements. The friction material is usually permanently bonded

to the backing plate by a bonding process in which the friction material is subjected to both heat and pressure.

Underlayers can be inserted between the friction material and backing plate to improve bond strength and

other properties. Drum brake linings consist of the friction material itself, usually shaped to match the radius of

the brake shoe onto which it is subsequently attached. The friction material is usually attached to the

supporting brake shoe either by bonding or by the use of rivets. Conventional friction materials consist mainly

of fibrous materials, bonding agents, anti-seize agents, metals and other fillers. The friction material type, and

any backing plates, anti-noise measures, pad springs and pad wear warning devices, etc., are defined in the

relevant figure.
The basic aim of this International Standard is:

⎯ to ensure the product is verified and validated during all project phases for transfer into series production;

⎯ to increase product reliability and at the same time limit the cost of testing;

⎯ to identify the necessary test standards to equally cover brake performance and noise.

Visibility of production spread and the opportunity to select parts for testing from assorted areas of

compressibility are the main reasons for the statistical evaluation. The procedures described in this

International Standard are based on ISO/TS 16949 and encompass the entire product quality preplanning

process, from the definition phase up to the determination of parameters for series production. These are

defined in this International Standard as phases 1 to 7.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15484:2008(E)
Road vehicles — Brake lining friction materials — Product
definition and quality assurance
1 Scope

The procedures in this International Standard apply to disc brake pads and drum brake linings for motor

vehicles and describe systematic processes for the quality assurance of such brake linings.

In conjunction with tolerance ranges, the test methods and results described in this International Standard

permit a rapid assessment of disc brake pads.

Uniform handling of the procedures through various phases ensures that the quality assurance requirements

are clearly understood and that a global implementation is possible in the relationship between customers and

suppliers.

This International Standard relates to the completed friction material and is applicable during product

development to the quality assurance of ongoing series production, focussing on the “component” friction

material. It is advisable that tests with apparent “system” character be avoided.

Raw material checks and processing control are outside the scope of this International Standard.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2812-1, Paints and varnishes — Determination of resistance to liquids — Part 1: Immersion in liquids

other than water
ISO 6310, Road vehicles — Brake linings — Compressive strain test method

ISO 6312, Road vehicles — Brake linings — Shear test procedure for disc brake pad and drum brake shoe

assemblies

ISO/PAS 22574, Road vehicles — Brake linings friction materials — Visual inspection

ISO 26865, Road vehicles — Brake lining friction materials — Standard performance test procedure for

commercial vehicles with air brakes

ISO 26866, Road vehicles — Brake lining friction materials — Standard wear test procedure for commercial

vehicles with air brakes

ISO 26867, Road vehicles — Brake lining friction materials — Friction behaviour assessment for automative

brake systems

ISO 27667, Road vehicles — Brake lining friction materials — Evaluation of corrosion effects on painted

backing plates and brake shoes
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)

JASO C458-86, Test procedure of pH for brake linings, pads and clutch facings of automobiles

JIS D 4311, Clutch facings for automobile

JIS D 4421, Method of hardness test for brake linings, pads and clutch facings of automobiles

SAE J2598, Automotive disc brake pad natural frequency and damping test
SAE J2694, Anti-noise shims: T-Pull test

SAE J2707, Wear test procedure on inertia dynamometer for brake friction materials

SAE J2724, Measurement of disc brake friction material underlayer distribution
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
density
ratio of the mass to the volume of the friction material under normal conditions
3.2
porosity
relative volume proportion of cavities in a material
NOTE This includes open or enclosed pores of any size, shape and distribution.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
Symbol Definition Unit
ρ density g/cm
ρ absolute or real density without pore volume g/cm
net
m pad mass in air for density measurements g
m pad mass in water for density measurements g
V pad volume for density measurements cm
P porosity %
T room temperature °C
p brake pressure kPa
M torque Nm
W pad wear mm/g
W disc wear mm/g
µ coefficient of friction —
1) In preparation.
2 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
5 Product quality preplanning and test plan
5.1 General

The test requirements for the various phases are defined in the different test plans for passenger cars and

commercial vehicles in 5.4.

The development phase of prototypes (phases 1 to 4) describes the systematics and tests used in the

manufacture of brake linings from tools not yet meeting series standards. The end of phase 4 is the technical

product release.

The production transfer and initial sampling (phases 5 and 6) describes the required scope of testing for the

assessment of the initial production series with the tools and processes intended for the series.

The validation of the manufacturing process is proven by documentation and assessment of the results during

initial series production (phase 6).

The test volume during the continuing series production monitoring (phase 7) lies within the responsibility of

the pad manufacturer and is documented in the control plan (CP) which also includes the details for the

in-process inspection as well as for the incoming inspection of purchased parts like raw materials, backing

plates, shims and accessories.

Based on the level of in-process controls, the test efforts on the final product should be minimized and some

tests, such as friction tests, may not be needed for each single batch. In any case, the frequency and sample

size has to be defined in the CP.

The chemical-physical brake lining data of the tests listed below include performance and/or characteristic

data which result from a process chain. Any requirements of process capability indices and statistical process

control need to be agreed between the customer and the supplier. Agreed tolerances, however, have to be

respected.
5.2 Procedure
5.2.1 General procedure

The approval of brake linings is made by vehicle testing and a concurrent determination of its properties by

the test standards listed here.

The manufacturer of brake linings ensures that the parameters, the composition and the monitoring of the

specified process parameters are maintained by regulated and auditable procedures.

The determination of performance data via the test standards listed here at the end of this process chain and

comparison with the tolerance serves as confirmation that the prescribed procedures were correctly performed.

The time delay between processing and testing does not permit process intervention such as SPC (statistical

process control).

Determination of performance data on completed brake linings during a batch test serves as continuing proof

of conformity and permits the observation of trends.

The tolerance range for these data is determined as described in 5.2.2 to 5.2.5 below.

5.2.2 Prototyping — Customer samples (phase 4)

Initial specification of tolerances are determined from the values of the batch tests of the prototype sampling.

The assessment takes account of the data of the variant then approved. The tolerances arising from the

approved prototypes are registered in the lining data sheet (LDS).
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
5.2.3 Specification/validation (phases 5 and 6)

Results are obtained from the batches of the product transferred to series production, under the condition that

the composition, the process, the brake, disc or drum and geometry are determined and comply with the state

of the series. The results are verified with the customer. Variations to the tolerances shall be agreed with the

customer and results shall be recorded on the lining data sheet (LDS). Specifications of tolerance are agreed

with the customer viewing the data, using statistical analyses as appropriate.
5.2.4 Series monitoring (phase 7)

The ongoing surveillance of the series production (phase 7) shall be in accordance with the test frequencies

and sample size which are fixed in a control plan by the manufacturer based on the process controls on series

production.
5.2.5 Review of tolerance

A review of the tolerance following a number of batch tests to be determined can be performed by the friction

material manufacturer and the customer.
5.3 Phases of product quality preplanning
The phases of product quality preplanning are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Phases of product quality preplanning
5.4 Test plan
5.4.1 General

Separate test plans are made for passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The test plans differentiate four

basic categories of tests:
a) general;
4 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
b) physical properties;
c) corrosion;
d) inertia dynamometer tests.

This International Standard defines preferred test procedures. Because of established databases and

practices, alternative and regional tests are accommodated in the test plans. The companies working in

another region should respect local practices. The future goal is the complete harmonization of the test

procedures.
5.4.2 Test plan for passenger car disc brake pads
The test plan for passenger car disc brake pads is shown in Figure 2.
Test plan for passenger car Phase 1 / 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 + 6 Phase 7
Concept / Initial product Prototyping - Series
Specification/
disc brake pads
advance planning development monitoring
Customer samples Validation
Standard/

Type of tests Notes Index Preparation Functional samples Prototype Initial sign-off Production transfer Series production

Document
batches batch
General
visual inspection ISO/PAS 22574 D 100% 100% 100% 100% C
underlayer distribution SAE J2724 D 3/3 3/3 3/3 3/3
inspection critical dimensions Part drawing D 2/2 5/5 5/5 5/5 C
full dimensional inspection
1 Part drawing D 5/5
Physical Properties
density ISO 15484 E 33 3 3
porosity ISO 15484 E 33 3 3
pH-Index JASO C458-86 E 33 3 3
A, D

compressibility, cold 2 ISO 6310 50/50 50/50 50/50 50/50 C

compressibility, hot ISO 6310 2/2 2/2 5/5 5/5
swell and growth 1 ISO 6310 D 2/2 2/2 5/5 5/5
thermal transmission ISO 6310 D 2/2 2/2 5/5 5/5
shear strength, cold ISO 6312 A, D 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 C
shear strength, cold (after performance dyno test) ISO 6312 1/1 1/1 3/3 1/1
T-pull-test (bonded insulator) SAE J2694 D 2/2 2/2 2/2 C
D, G
eigenfrequency SAE J2598 3/33/3 3/3
Alternative/regional tests
swell and growth 2 (oven) SAE J160 D 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2
2 A, D C

hardness JIS D4421 50/50 50/50 50/50 50/50

Corrosion
corrosion effects on painted backing plates & shoes 3 ISO 27667 E, F 1 x 3
E, F
resistance to brake fluid and mineral oil 3 ISO 2812-1 1 x 3
Inertia-dynamometer tests

performance test 1/ production friction test ISO 26867 A, D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set B / C

wear test 3 SAE J2707 D, H 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 1 x 1 Br. Set B
Alternative/regional tests

performance test 2 SAE 2522 A, D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set B

performance test 3 JASO C-406 A, D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set B

A, D

production friction test ECE R 90/Annex 8 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set C

Optional Inertia-dynamometer tests
noise matrix dyno test SAE J2521 D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set
each
Results of each batch
Batch
Description: LDS LDS / MSDS LDS LDS
Technical Requirements Friction Material Specification Parameter fixing Drawing
LDS
Lining Data Sheet
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
Index:

A The values so designated are to be shown as a trend representation starting from phase 5

Within a Product audit as per manufacturer's control plan

C Frequency and sample size as manufacturer´s control plan

D Tests with new linings from each part number
Tests with new linings from inner or outer side

F General process/machine tests with new linings from inner or outer side (n/n), not for each part number

G All pads for noise dyno tests

H Selection of wear test option in agreement with customer

Notes:

1 Full dimensional inspection only for PPAP (initial sampling)

2 Evaluation of statistical distribution; samples for further tests to be derived from statistical distribution

3 1 test during production transfer, primarily the first batch

Remarks:

Test quantities are valid for each part number ! Separate for inner and outer pads.

PPAP (Initial sampling) could be in-between or after Phase 5+6.

The a.m. sampling quantities are the sufficient requirements. For prototypes, the sample can be reduced if there is a proven shortage of parts.

For repeated sampling also tests can be left out, e.g. SAE J2707 wear testing.

The complete test plan applies to new products or to friction material changes in existing products.

Figure 2 — Test plan for passenger car disc brake pads
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 5
Kick-off Meeting
Technical release
Production Part Approval
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
5.4.3 Test plan for passenger car drum brake linings/lined shoes

The test plan for passenger car drum brake linings/lined shoes is shown in Figure 3.

Test plan for passenger car
Phase 1 / 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 + 6 Phase 7
Concept / Initial product Series
Prototyping - Specification/
drum brake linings/lined shoes
advance planning development monitoring
Customer samples
Validation
Standard/
Type of tests Index

Notes Preparation Functional samples Prototype Initial sign-off Production transfer Series production

Document
batches batch
General
visual inspection ISO/PAS 22574 D 100% 100% 100% 100% C
inspection critical dimensions Part drawing D 3/3 5/5 5/5 5/5 C
full dimensional inspection D
1 Part drawing 5/5
Physical Properties
density ISO 15484 D 3/3 3/3 3/3 3/3
porosity ISO 15484 3/3 3/3 3/3 3/3
pH-Index JASO C458-86 3/3 3/3 3/3 3/3
hardness JIS D4421 A, D 3/3 3/3 5/5 5/5 C
shear strength, cold 2 ISO 6312 A, D 3/3 3/3 5/5 5/5 C

shear strength, cold (after performance dyno test) 2 ISO 6312 1/1 1/1 3/3 1/1

Alternative/regional tests
gogan hardness SAE J379 A, D 3/3 3/3 5/5 5/5 C
Corrosion
3 E
corrosion effects on painted backing plates & shoes ISO 27667 1 x 3
resistance to brake fluid and mineral oil 3 ISO 2812-1 D 1 x 3
Inertia-dynamometer tests
A, D

performance test 1/ production friction test ISO 26867 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set B / C

3 D, F B
wear test SAE J2707 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 1 x 1 Br. Set
Alternative/regional tests
A, D B
performance test 2 SAE 2522 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set
A, D B

performance test 3 JASO C-406 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set

production friction test ECE R 90/Annex 8 A, D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set C

Optional Inertia-dynamometer test
noise matrix dyno test SAE J2521 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set
each
Results of each batch
Batch
Description: LDS LDS / MSDS LDS LDS
Technical Requirements Friction Material Specification Parameter fixing Drawing
LDS Lining Data Sheet
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
Index:

A The values so designated are to be shown as a trend representation starting from phase 5

B Within a Product audit as per manufacturer's control plan

C Frequency and sample size as manufacturer´s control plan

Tests with new linings from each part number

E General process/machine tests with new lined shoes, not for each part number

Selection of wear test option in agreement with customer
Notes:

1 Full dimensional inspection only for PPAP (initial sampling)

2 If applicable

3 1 test during production transfer, primarily the first batch

Remarks:
Test quantities are valid for each part number !
PPAP (Initial sampling) could be in-between or after Phase 5+6.

The sampling quantities stated for brake linings are the minimum requirement. For prototypes, the sample can be reduced if there is a proven shortage of parts.

For repeated sampling also tests can be left out, e.g. SAE J2707 wear testing.

The complete test plan applies to new products or to friction material changes in existing products.

Figure 3 — Test plan for passenger car drum brake linings/lined shoes
6 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
Kick-off Meeting
Technical release
Production Part Approval
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 15484:2008(E)
5.4.4 Test plan for commercial vehicle disc brake pads
The test plan for commercial vehicle disc brake pads is shown in Figure 4.
Test plan for commercial vehicle
Phase 1 / 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 + 6 Phase 7
Concept / Initial product Series
Prototyping - Specification/
disc brake pads
advance planning development monitoring
Customer samples
Validation
Standard/
Type of tests Index

Notes Preparation Functional samples Prototype Initial sign-off Production transfer Series production

Document
batches batch
General
visual inspection ISO/PAS 22574 D 100% 100% 100% 100% C
underlayer distribution SAE J2724 D 3/3 3/3 3/3 3/3
inspection critical dimensions Part drawing D 2/2 5/5 5/5 5/5 C
full dimensional inspection 1 D
Part drawing 5/5
Physical Properties
density ISO 15484 33 3 3
porosity ISO 15484 33 3 3
pH-Index JASO C458-86 E 33 3 3

compressibility, cold ISO 6310 A, D 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 C

compressibility, hot ISO 6310 D 2/2 2/2 5/5 5/5
swell and growth 1 ISO 6310 D 2/2 2/2 5/5 5/5
thermal transmission ISO 6310 D 2/2 2/2 5/5 5/5
A, D
shear strength, cold ISO 6312 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 C
shear strength, cold (after performance dyno test) ISO 6312 1/1 1/1 3/3 1/1
Alternative/regional tests
swell and growth 2 (oven) SAE J160 D 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2
hardness (alternative to compressibility) JIS D4421 A, D 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 C
Corrosion
corrosion effects on painted backing plates & shoes 2 ISO 27667 E, F 1 x 3
resistance to brake fluid and mineral oil 2 ISO 2812-1 E, F 1 x 3
Inertia-dynamometer tests

performance test 1/ production friction test ISO 26865 A, D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set B / C

D, H
wear test 1 2 ISO 26866 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 1 x 1 Br. Set B
Alternative/regional tests

performance/ wear test 2 SAE J2115 A, D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set B

A, D

performance test 3 JASO C-407 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set B

A, D
wear test 3 2 SAE J2707 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 1 x 1 Br. Set B

production friction test ECE R 90/Annex 8 A, D 1 Br. Set 1 Br. Set 3 Br. Set 1 Br. Set C

each
Results of each batch
Batch
Description: LDS LDS / MSDS LDS LDS
Technical Requirements Friction Material Specification Parameter fixing Drawing
LDS Lining Data Sheet
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
Index:

A The values so designated are to be shown as a trend representation starting from phase 5

B Within a Product audit as per manufacturer's control plan

C Frequency and sample size as manufacturer´s control plan

D Tests with new linings from each part number
E Tests with new linings from inner or outer side

F General process/machine tests with new linings from inner or outer side (n/n), not for each part number

G All pads for noise dyno tests

H Selection of wear test option in agreement with customer

Notes:

1 Full dimensional inspection only for PPAP (initial sampling)

2 1 test during production transfer, primarily the first batch

Remarks:

Test quantities are valid for each part number ! Separate for inner and outer pads.

PPAP (Initial sampling) could be in-between or after Phase 5+6.

The sampling quantities stated for brake pads are the minimum requirement. For prototypes, the sample can be reduced if there is a proven shortage of parts.

For repea
...

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