This document presents a vocabulary of terms related to, and systems for the designation and marking of, wheels and rims intended for use with pneumatic tyres. The intention is to define fundamental wheel and rim terms rather than provide a comprehensive tabulation of all wheel design features. Also specified are the content, location and minimum size of the wheel and rim marking, with the purpose of establishing, on a worldwide basis, a uniform identification system for wheels and rims.

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This document specifies methods for comparing computer simulation results from a vehicle mathematical model to measured test data for an existing vehicle according to ISO 7401. The comparison is made for the purpose of validating the simulation tool for this type of test when applied to variants of the tested vehicle. It is applicable to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833.

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This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system detection and performance of active safety systems. This document specifies the properties of an omni-directional multi-purpose vehicle target for assessment of interaction in a variety of traffic scenarios. This document specifies the properties of a vehicle target that will allow it to represent a passenger vehicle in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. This document addresses the detection requirements for a vehicle target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipates future sensing technologies. It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as performance requirements for the target carrier. The vehicle targets specified in this document reflect passenger cars and, in particular, the smaller and more common B and C segment cars. This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system are also not addressed.

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This document specifies test methods and performance metrics to evaluate the behaviour of a vehicle equipped with lane keeping assistance system (LKAS, see 3.2). For this purpose, variables relevant to vehicle dynamics as well as controllability of a vehicle with LKAS and their measurement methods are defined. A system requiring a driver intervention is excluded from the scope. This document applies to the vehicles of M1 category.

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This document specifies a method for comparing simulation results from a vehicle model to measured test data for an existing vehicle according to closing-curve tests as specified in ISOÂ 11026. The purpose of the validation is to demonstrate that the vehicle dynamics simulation, combined with an integrated electronic stability control (ESC) system, can predict the roll and yaw stability behaviour of a physical vehicle, including the ESC system interventions, during a closing-curve test. The simulation method can be either hardware-in-the-loop [with the original electronic control unit (ECU) on a HiL test stand] or software-in-the-loop, based on a software code generated from the same source as for the ECU in the real vehicle. This document applies to heavy vehicles, including commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISOÂ 3833 (trucks and trailers with a maximum weight above 3,5Â tonnes and buses and articulated buses with a maximum weight above 5Â tonnes, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4).

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This document specifies the properties and performance requirements of a bicyclist target (BT) that represents a human bicyclist in terms of shape, movement, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The BT is used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety systems. This document establishes the detection requirements for a BT in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies. It also establishes methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as some performance requirements for the target carrier. The BT according to this document is also representative for electrically assisted pedal bicycles (pedal electric cycle, pedelec). This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system being tested are also not addressed.

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This document provides the specifications, requirements and test methods, for non-petroleum-based fluids used in road-vehicle hydraulic brake and clutch systems that are designed for use with such fluids and equipped with seals, cups or double-lipped type gland seals made of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene-propylene elastomer (EPDM).

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This document specifies the composition and characteristics of a reference fluid used for the compatibility testing of hydraulic braking systems and components mounted on road vehicles.

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This document specifies a method for comparing simulation results from a vehicle model to measured test data for an existing vehicle according to steady-state circular driving tests as specified in ISO 14792. The comparison is made for the purpose of validating the vehicle model for this type of test. This document applies to heavy vehicles, including commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with a maximum weight above 3,5 tonnes and buses and articulated buses with a maximum weight above 5 tonnes, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4).

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This document specifies a method for comparing simulation results from a vehicle model to measured test data for an existing vehicle combination's lateral stability according to driving tests as specified in ISO 14791. The comparison is made for the purpose of validating the simulation model for this type of test. A complete validation comprises the comparison for at least one tested vehicle and one variant of this vehicle, covered by a parameter variation in the vehicle model. The document applies to heavy vehicles, including commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with maximum weight above 3,5 tonnes and buses and articulated buses with maximum weight above 5 tonnes, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4).

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This document describes a standard method for measuring a vehicle's longitudinal and lateral (horizontal plane) centre of gravity (CG) positions and three methods for estimating a vehicle's vertical CG position, the axle lift, tilt-table, and stable pendulum methods. It applies to heavy vehicles, that is commercial vehicles and buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with maximum weight above 3,5 tonnes and buses and articulated buses with maximum weight above 5 tonnes, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4). CG measurements are performed separately for each single unit.

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This document specifies an open-loop test procedure to examine the effect of braking on course holding and directional behaviour of a vehicle. Specifically, the method determines how the steady-state circular response of a vehicle is altered by a braking action only. This document is applicable to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833 and to light trucks. The open-loop manoeuvre specified in this test method is not representative of real driving conditions but is useful to obtain measures of vehicle braking behaviour resulting from control inputs under closely controlled test conditions.

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This document specifies the general conditions that apply when vehicle dynamics properties are determined according to ISO test methods. In particular, it specifies general conditions for: — variables; — measuring equipment and data processing; — environment (test track and wind velocity); — test vehicle preparation (tuning and loading); — initial driving; and — test reports (general data and test conditions). These items are of general significance, regardless of the specific vehicle dynamics test method. They apply when vehicle dynamics properties are determined, unless other conditions are required by the standard which is actually used for the test method. This document is applicable to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833 and light trucks. NOTE The general conditions defined in existing vehicle dynamics standards are valid until a reference to this document is included. This document is cited in many other standards without a dated reference. In the course of its revision, no change in the numbering of clauses, tables and figures is anticipated.

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This document specifies the dimensions of the test track for a closed-loop test method to subjectively determine a double lane-change which is one part of the vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability of passenger cars. It is applicable to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833. It is also applicable to light commercial vehicles up to a gross vehicle mass of 3,5 t.

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This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety systems. This document specifies the properties of a vehicle target that will allow it to represent a passenger vehicle in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The document addresses the detection requirements for a vehicle target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies. It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as performance requirements for the target carrier. This document specifies the properties of the vehicle target for simulation of rear-end scenarios, with overlap greater than 50 %. The specifications of vehicle targets in this document are intended to address current and anticipated test protocols related to safety critical events in which the subject vehicle approaches a stopped, braking or slower moving (target) vehicle from behind and in the forward path of the subject vehicle. This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system are also not addressed.

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This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety systems. This document specifies the properties of pedestrian targets that represent an adult or a child in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The document addresses the detection requirements for a pedestrian target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies. It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as some performance requirements for the target carrier. This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system being evaluated are also not addressed. A related test procedure using pedestrian targets according to this document can be found in ISO 19237.

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ISO 9816:2018 specifies open-loop test methods to determine the reactions of a vehicle in a turn to a sudden drop in motive power resulting from release of the accelerator pedal. It applies to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833.

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ISO 19377:2017 describes test methods for determining the deviation of the path travelled by a vehicle during a braking manoeuvre induced by an emergency braking system from a pre-defined desired path. The purpose of this document is the evaluation of the vehicle path during and following the system intervention. The corrective steering actions for keeping the vehicle on the desired path can be applied either by the driver or by a steering machine or by a driver assistance system. By making this document open for either open-loop or closed-loop testing, it is possible to apply the test method for evaluating how well the vehicle can be kept within user-defined lane markings after the system intervention, and also for evaluating the precision of the interaction between the emergency braking system and an active lane keeping system. This document applies to heavy vehicles equipped with an advanced emergency braking system (AEBS), including commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with maximum weight above 3,5 tonnes and buses and articulated buses with maximum weight above 5 tonnes, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4). NOTE The test method is intended to evaluate the entire vehicle behaviour, not for defining system requirements for the AEBS, which is done in the respective standards created by ISO/TC 204.

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ISO 18375:2016 describes an open-loop test method for determining the yaw stability of a vehicle on a low friction road surface. It applies to heavy vehicles, that is commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with maximum weight above 3,5 tonnes and buses and articulated buses with maximum weight above 5 tonnes, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4). The method is intended for vehicles equipped with electronic yaw-stability control systems. As the results of this test depend largely on local and temporary changes in road surface friction, this International Standard gives recommendations about keeping the friction level as uniform as possible for good reproducibility of the test results.

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ISO 19364:2016 specifies a method for comparing computer simulation results from a vehicle mathematical model to measured test data for an existing vehicle according to steady-state circular driving tests as specified in ISO 4138 or the Slowly Increasing Steer Test that is an alternative to ISO 4138. The comparison is made for the purpose of validating the simulation tool for this type of test when applied to variants of the tested vehicle. It is applicable to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833. NOTE The Slowly Increasing Steer method is described in regulations such as USA FMVSS 126 "Federal Register Vol 72, No. 66, April 6, 2007" and UN/ECE Regulation No. 13-H, "Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars with regard to braking".

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ISO 19365:2016 specifies a method for comparing computer simulation results from a vehicle mathematical model to test data measured for an existing vehicle undergoing sine with dwell tests that are typically used to evaluate the performance of an electronic stability control (ESC) system. The comparison is made for the purpose of validating the simulation tool for this type of test when applied to variants of the tested vehicle. It is applicable to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833.

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ISO 13674-2:2016 specifies a test schedule that addresses a particular aspect of the transition test, the on-centre handling characteristics of a vehicle. It is applicable to passenger cars in accordance with ISO 3833 and to light trucks, N1 category. NOTE The manoeuvre specified in this test method is not representative of real driving conditions, but is useful for obtaining measures of vehicle on-centre handling behaviour in response to a specific type of steering input under closely controlled test conditions. Other aspects of on-centre handling are addressed in the companion ISO 13674‑1.

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ISO 3894:2015 specifies two laboratory methods for testing certain essential strength characteristics of disc wheels intended for road use on commercial vehicles, buses, trailers, and multipurpose passenger vehicles, as defined in ISO 3833. The test methods are ? dynamic cornering fatigue test and ? dynamic radial fatigue test.

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ISO 3006:2015 specifies two laboratory methods for testing certain essential fatigue strength characteristics of wheels intended for road use on passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833. The test methods are a) dynamic cornering fatigue test; b) dynamic radial fatigue test.

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ISO 16552:2014 describes test methods for determining the stopping distance during a straight-line braking manoeuvre with the braking system fully operational. It applies to heavy vehicles equipped with an anti-lock braking system (ABS), including commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with maximum weight above 3,5 tonnes and buses and articulated buses with maximum weight above 5 tonnes, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3, and O4).

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ISO 4138:2012 specifies open-loop test methods for determining the steady-state circular driving behaviour of passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833 and of light trucks, such behaviour being one of the factors comprising vehicle dynamics and road-holding properties. The open-loop manoeuvres included in these methods are not representative of real driving conditions, but are nevertheless useful for obtaining measures of vehicle steady-state behaviour resulting from several specific types of control inputs under closely controlled test conditions.

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This International Standard specifies test methods and performance requirements for ensuring proper wheel or rim assembly on road vehicles by means of hexagonal nuts with a flat seating captive washer used with 18 mm, 20 mm and 22 mm studs. It is applicable to commercial vehicles as defined in ISO 3833 and to those nuts as specified in ISO 7575. It is not applicable to fasteners for less common or special applications.

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ISO 8855:2011 defines the principal terms used for road vehicle dynamics. The terms apply to passenger cars, buses and commercial vehicles with one or more steered axles, and to multi-unit vehicle combinations.

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ISO 27667:2011 defines the methods for testing and assessing the corrosion effects on painted backing plates used on disc brakes and painted brake shoes used on drum brakes. The methods and assessment criteria indicated in ISO 27667:2011 are part of the specification/validation phases of the product and the series production monitoring from ISO 15484. The test procedures indicated include only laboratory performance testing, whether static or cyclic. Field surveys or proving grounds test protocols are beyond the scope of ISO 27667:2011.

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ISO 7401:2011 specifies open-loop test methods for determining the transient response behaviour of road vehicles. It is applicable to passenger cars, as defined in ISO 3833, and to light trucks.

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ISO 10392:2011 specifies methods for determining the location of the centre of gravity (CG) of a road vehicle, as defined in ISO 3833. A method for determining the coordinates of the CG in the horizontal plane is provided. Two methods for determining the height of the CG above the ground are specified. The axle lift and the stable pendulum methods are the most common methods for determining vehicle CG height. The axle lift method requires less dedicated equipment and is typically an easier and less expensive method than the stable pendulum method. The axle lift method can generally provide CG height accuracy in the range of a few percent, while the stable pendulum method can provide accuracy in the range of 0,5%.

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ISO 14792:2011 specifies tests for determining the steady-state directional control response of heavy vehicles, one of the factors composing vehicle dynamics and road-holding properties. ISO 14792:2011 is applicable to heavy vehicles, i.e. commercial vehicles, combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833, covered by Categories M3, N2, N3, O3, and O4 of UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) and EC vehicle regulations. These categories pertain to trucks and trailers with a maximum mass above 3,5 t and to buses and articulated buses with a maximum mass above 5 t.

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ISO 3888-2:2011 defines the dimensions of the test track for a closed-loop, severe lane-change manoeuvre test for subjectively determining the obstacle avoidance performance of a vehicle, one specific part of vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability. It is applicable to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833 and light commercial vehicles up to a gross vehicle mass of 3,5 t.

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ISO 17288-1:2011 specifies an open-loop test method for determining the free control stability of a passenger car as defined in ISO 3833, by measurement of the transient behaviour following steering release, starting from a steady-state cornering status.

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ISO 17288-2:2011 specifies a procedure for determining the free control stability of a passenger car as defined in ISO 3833, by measurement of the transient behaviour following steering pulse input, starting from a straight-ahead, steady-state status.

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ISO 16333:2011 specifies a tilt-table test method for estimating the steady-state rollover threshold of a heavy commercial vehicle or bus, i.e. the maximum lateral acceleration that the test vehicle could sustain in steady-state turning without rolling over. ISO 16333:2011 is applicable to complete roll units/combinations of roll-coupled vehicle units, e.g. single-unit vehicles, tractor semitrailer combinations, articulated buses, full trailers, B-train combinations, of commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses or articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833, and under Categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4 of ECE and EC vehicle regulations (trucks and trailers with maximum weights above 3,5 t and buses and articulated buses with maximum weights above 5 t). ISO 16333:2011 does not cover transient, vibratory or dynamic rollover situations; nor does it consider the influences of dynamic stability control systems. Furthermore, the quality of the estimate of the steady-state rollover threshold provided by the test method decreases as the tilt angle required to produce rollover increases. Even so, the results for heavy vehicles with high rollover thresholds can be used for comparing their relative steady-state roll stability.

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ISO 14794:2011 specifies open-loop test methods for determining the effect of braking on the course-holding and directional behaviour of heavy vehicles or heavy vehicle combinations when braking is accomplished using the service-brake system, or the retarder or engine brake only. ISO 14794:2011 is applicable to heavy vehicles, i.e. commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833, covered by Categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4 of UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) and EC vehicle regulations. These categories pertain to trucks and trailers with a maximum mass above 3,5 t and to buses and articulated buses with a maximum mass above 5 t.

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ISO 14793:2011 specifies test methods for determining the transient response behaviour of heavy commercial vehicles, heavy commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses, as defined in ISO 3833 for trucks and trailers above 3,5 t and buses above 5 t maximum weight, and in UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4.

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ISO 12021:2011 specifies an open-loop test method to determine the sensitivity to lateral wind of a vehicle by means of a wind generator. It applies to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833, passenger car-trailer combinations and light trucks. Its applicability to motorcycles is yet to be investigated. The test conditions specified in this test method are not representative of real driving conditions but are useful to obtain measures of vehicle dynamic response to lateral wind.

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ISO 6312:2010 specifies a method for measuring the strength of the bond connection between the lining material and the carrier in disc brake pad and drum brake shoe assemblies (shear strength). ISO 6312:2010 is applicable to assemblies that are integrally moulded, bonded or that use mechanical retention systems (MRS) of both types used for brakes on road vehicles. ISO 6312:2010 does not apply to riveted assemblies.

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ISO 4107:2010 specifies the dimensions necessary for the attachment of a commercial road vehicle wheel on the hub of the vehicle whose fixing has six, eight or ten stud holes. ISO 4107:2010 considers the flat attachment type with centring on central bore, which is the recommended type for future equipment. Other types are currently in use. The specifications do not imply that the wheel is interchangeable from one vehicle to another.

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ISO 11026:2010 specifies an open-loop test method for determining the roll stability of a vehicle negotiating a curve on dry surface. It applies to heavy vehicles, that is commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with maximum weight above 3,5 t and buses and articulated buses with maximum weight above 5 t, according to ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4). The method is intended for vehicles equipped with electronic roll stability control systems.

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ISO 13674-1:2010 specifies a test schedule that addresses a particular aspect of the on-centre handling characteristics of a vehicle: the weave test. It is applicable to passenger cars in accordance with ISO 3833, and to light trucks.

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ISO 9815:2010 specifies a lateral stability test for passenger-car and trailer combinations. It is applicable to passenger cars in accordance with ISO 3833, and also to light trucks, and their trailer combinations. The lateral stability test determines the damping characteristic of the yaw oscillation of such towing-vehicle–trailer combinations excited by a defined steering impulse. The combination is initially driven in a steady-state, straight-ahead driving condition. Oscillation of the vehicle is then initiated by the application of a single impulse of steering, followed by a period in which steering is held fixed and the oscillation of the combination is allowed to damp out. Testing is conducted at several constant speeds. Where non-periodic instability is of interest, a steady-state circular test is specified.

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ISO 7628:2010 specifies the minimum requirements for mono wall and multilayer tubing used in air braking systems on road vehicles. The conformity of production is the responsibility of the tubing manufacturer. The marking of the tubing does not automatically imply that the tube assembly (i.e. tube with end fittings) is appropriate for its use on a vehicle.

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ISO 26866:2009 applies to commercial vehicles with air brakes in the categories M2, M3, N2, N3, O3, and O4, as specified in UNECE R.E.3. ISO 26866:2009 applies during product development, product prototypes, product specification or validation, and ongoing series production, as defined in ISO 15484.

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ISO 11012:2009 describes two open-loop test methods for determining on-centre handling characteristics of a vehicle in response to specific types of steering input under closely controlled test conditions: the weave test, and the transition test. ISO 11012:2009 applies to heavy vehicles, i.e. commercial vehicles, commercial vehicle combinations, buses and articulated buses as defined in ISO 3833 (trucks and trailers with maximum weight above 3,5 tonnes and buses and articulated buses with maximum weight above 5 tonnes, in accordance with ECE and EC vehicle classification, categories M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4).

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ISO 26867:2009 describes a test procedure for assessing the influence of pressure, temperature, and linear speed on the coefficient of friction of a given friction material in combination with a specific mating component (rotor or drum). ISO 26867:2009 is intended for use when comparing friction materials under the same conditions, or when controlling friction behaviour against a specification or certain performance limits. In order to take into account the different types of dynamometer cooling systems and to ensure repeatable temperature increments, the brake temperature is the control item during the fade sections. The types of brakes and discs used will vary according to individual projects. Production verification testing can use the results from this test in conjunction with a statistical process control system as part of a quality assurance plan. The specific project or programme will detail the applicable limits and assessment criteria. ISO 26867:2009 also allows for additional sections and brake applications that can prove useful during product development testing.

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ISO 6310:2009 specifies a method for test and measurement of the compressive displacement of brake linings or brake pad assemblies due to loading and temperature. It also provides a test method to assess lining thermal swell and growth. ISO 6310:2009 applies to disc brake pad assemblies or coupon samples cut from the friction material.

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ISO 26865:2009 applies to commercial vehicles of the categories M2, M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4, as defined in UNECE R.E.3, which are equipped with air brakes. ISO 26865:2009 applies during product development, product prototypes, product specification or validation, and ongoing series production, as defined in ISO 15484. When used in conjunction with other applicable standards or test procedures, ISO 26865:2009 is intended to provide a complete assessment of a friction material's adequacy for use in a certain application, market or vehicle platform. ISO 26865:2009 does not include performance requirements related to stopping distance or braking force distribution, under different vehicle conditions of speed, temperature, tyre-to-road adhesion, loads and operating conditions of the braking system, as indicated in Federal Codes or Regulations. ISO 26865:2009 specifies a single-ended inertia-dynamometer performance procedure, which is intended to standardize the various procedures for commercial vehicles equipped with air brakes into one unique procedure covering all performance requirements of interest. The test sequence includes performance evaluation for the following conditions: performance test before and after bedding; brake fade after bedding and after moderate temperature; sensitivity to temperature, speed and pressure influence; downhill simulation; brake recovery.

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