Space environment (natural and artificial) -- Process-based implementation of meteoroid and debris environment models (orbital altitudes below GEO + 2 000 km)

This document specifies a common process for selecting and implementing meteoroid and space debris environment models used in the impact flux assessment for design and operation of spacecraft and other purposes. This document provides guidelines and requirements for the process.

Environnement spatial (naturel et artificiel) -- Lignes directrices pour une mise en œuvre fondée sur les processus des modèles environnementaux des météoroïdes et des débris (altitudes d'orbite inférieures à GEO + 2 000 km)

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Status
Published
Publication Date
31-May-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
23-Apr-2021
Completion Date
23-Apr-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14200
Second edition
2021-06
Space environment (natural
and artificial) — Process-based
implementation of meteoroid and
debris environment models (orbital
altitudes below GEO + 2 000 km)
Environnement spatial (naturel et artificiel) — Lignes directrices
pour une mise en œuvre fondée sur les processus des modèles
environnementaux des météoroïdes et des débris (altitudes d'orbite
inférieures à GEO + 2 000 km)
Reference number
ISO 14200:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative reference ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Procedures for the selection and implementation of meteoroid and space debris

environment models ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Selection procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.3 Implementation procedure .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 International project ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (informative) Capability of some meteoroid environment models ..............................................................5

Annex B (informative) Capability of some space debris environment models ........................................................8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14200:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— removal of impact risk assessment requirements;

— in Annexes A and B, information on space debris environment models has been updated (SDEEM 2015

and SDEEM 2019);

— debris flux models: The latest version of each model is briefly described. Descriptions of historical

models have been moved to NOTEs or deleted;

— since this document now focuses on models that have been developed primarily for impact flux

assessment, those models whose main purpose is to study the long-term evolution of the space

debris environment have been deleted.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
Introduction

Every spacecraft in an Earth orbit is exposed to a certain flux of micrometeoroids and man-made space

debris. Collisions with these particles take place with hypervelocity. Many meteoroid and space debris

environment models have been studied and developed which describe populations of meteoroids and/

or space debris. Those models can be used for estimation the impact flux required when selecting the

spacecraft operation orbit, evaluation the impact flux in a specific orbit, prediction of the frequency of

collision avoidance operations, and estimate of the impact flux required for protection design. However,

there are different methods in existence for reproducing the observed environment by means of

mathematical and physical models of release processes, for propagating orbits of release products, and

for mapping onto spatial and temporal distributions of objects densities, transient velocities, and impact

fluxes. Until a specific standard for the space debris environment is defined, a common implementation

process of models should be indicated.

This document specifies a common implementation process for meteoroid and space debris

environment models. In the first edition, requirements were also included relating to impact risk

assessment. However, with the publication of ISO 16126 in 2014, such requirements were no longer

necessary in this document, and so they have been removed. The second edition now focuses on models

used for estimating the impact flux.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14200:2021(E)
Space environment (natural and artificial) — Process-
based implementation of meteoroid and debris
environment models (orbital altitudes below GEO + 2 000
km)
1 Scope

This document specifies a common process for selecting and implementing meteoroid and space debris

environment models used in the impact flux assessment for design and operation of spacecraft and

other purposes. This document provides guidelines and requirements for the process.

2 Normative reference
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
impact flux
number of impacts per unit area per unit time
3.2
mass density
mass per unit volume
3.3
meteoroid
small celestial body of natural origin

Note 1 to entry: Generally, a meteoroid is a solid, rocky object of a size considerably smaller than an asteroid and

considerably larger than an atom.

Note 2 to entry: It is thought that most meteoroids result from the disintegration and fragmentation of comets

and asteroids orbiting the sun, whereas others are collision impact debris ejected from bodies such as the Moon

or Mars.
3.4
meteoroid environment model

type of analysis model that computationally simulates the meteoroid (3.3) population orbiting the sun

Note 1 to entry: Typically, this type of model is used to predict the flux of meteoroids on a target object in space,

such as a spacecraft.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
3.5
space debris
DEPRECATED: orbital debris

objects of human origin in Earth orbit or re-entering the atmosphere, including fragments and elements

thereof, that no longer serve a useful purpose

Note 1 to entry: Spacecraft in reserve or standby modes awaiting possible reactivation are considered to serve a

useful purpose.
[1]
[SOURCE: ISO 24113:2019, 3.23]
3.6
space debris environment model

type of analysis model that computationally simulates the space debris (3.5) population

Note 1 to entry: Typically, this type of model is used to predict the flux of space debris on a target object in space,

such as a spacecraft.
3.7
spacecraft

system designed to perform a set of tasks or functions in outer space, excluding launch vehicle

[SOURCE: ISO 24113:2019 3.25]
3.8
traceability
ability to trace the history, application or location of an object
[2]

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015 ,3.6.13, modified — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been removed.]

4 Abbreviated terms
AU astronomical units
CME chemistry of meteoroid experiment
ESA European Space Agency
EuReCa European retrievable carrier
GEO geostationary earth orbit
GUI graphical user interface
HAX haystack auxiliary radar
HST-SA Hubble space telescope solar array
HST (SM1) Hubble space telescope (service mission 1)
HST (SM3B) Hubble space telescope (service mission 3B)
IMEM interplanetary meteoroid engineering model
ISS international space station
LDEF long duration exposure facility
LEO low earth orbit
MASTER meteoroid and space debris terrestrial environment reference
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
MEM meteoroid engineering model
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
ORDEM orbital debris engineering model
PROOF program for radar and observation forecasting
SDEEM space debris environment engineering model
SSN space surveillance network
SSP space station program
STS space transportation system
5 Procedures for the selection and implementation of meteoroid and space
debris environment models
5.1 General

Meteoroid and space debris environment models can be used to estimate the impact fluxes of

meteoroids and space debris on a spacecraft. This flux information can be used in

a) the selection of the spacecraft operation orbit in mission analysis,
b) the evaluation of the safety of specific orbit(s),
c) the prediction of the frequency of collision avoidance operations, and
d) the design of suitable impact protection, especially for critical components.

There is a variety of environment models available, each with its own set of characteristics and

capabilities. 5.2 and 5.3 specify procedures that are available to guide a user in the selection and

implementation of a suitable model.
5.2 Selection procedure

5.2.1 The customer and the supplier of the spacecraft shall coordinate in selecting the meteoroid and

space debris environment models that are applied to their project and agree to the conclusion.

5.2.2 To select a suitable environment model, the capabilities of available candidate models should be

considered.

NOTE Annex A describes the capabilities of some meteoroid environment models and Annex B describes the

capabilities of some space debris environment models.
5.2.3 Models other than those listed in Annexes A and B may be used.
5.2.4 When selecting an environment model, the following should be considered:
a) transparency of the characteristics of the model;
b) whether the model is used by a national space agency;
c) whether the model is maintained on a regular and frequent basis;

d) the format of the output flux data, including its suitability for transfer to another model, such as an

impact risk analysis code;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
e) the ease of use of the model.

5.2.5 When selecting an environment model, consideration should be given to the fact that there can

be significant differences in the calculated fluxes among the available candidate models. The customer

and/or the supplier should compare the fluxes of several models. See A.3 and B.3.

NOTE The choice of model to be applied depends on the mission objectives and requirements of the customer

(and the supplier, if necessary). For example, to achieve adequate safety margin in the design of a spacecraft or

its subsystems, it is reasonable to select the model with the highest flux values when analysing the risk caused by

space debris and meteoroid impacts. This ensures that the worst-case scenario is evaluated. On the other hand,

in the case of in situ debris sensor design, the worst-case scenario is achieved by using the model that generates

the lowest impact flux values, since it results in the smallest observation opportunity. Finally, when selecting the

operational orbit of a spacecraft by comparing the impact flux for each candidate orbit, the model can be chosen

according to criteria other than the magnitude of its flux values. This is because the analysis involves relative

fluxes.
5.3 Implementation procedure

5.3.1 Traceability of the implementation of the meteoroid and space debris environment models shall

be assured, including during all design and operation phases, if applied to a spacecraft.

5.3.2 When applying a model to calculate meteoroid or space debris impact fluxes, a record of the

following shall be kept:
a) the justification of the selected model;
b) all input and output parameters and their values for each analysis case;

c) any assumptions made regarding the input parameters and the technical justification for the

assumptions;

d) any corrections and/or additional assumptions made to output parameters, their technical

justification, and details of correction methods and their effects on the results.

NOTE Output parameters can be corrected by applying a safety factor, life factor or margin of safety.

Such corrections can also be applied to the debris population, especially if there has been a sudden large

increase in the population due to a debris generation event that has not yet been modelled.

e) The results of the impact flux assessment and the methodology used.

5.3.3 The records shall be evaluated and confirmed by reviewers during the appropriate review stages

of a project.
6 International project

For an international project, the following items should be agreed amongst member bodies before

starting the project:
a) the applicable meteoroid and space debris environment models for the project;

b) the method of maintenance of the meteoroid and space debris environment models.

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Capability of some meteoroid environment models
A.1 Model overview
A.1.1 Gruen et al. model
[3]

The Gruen model assumes an isotropic meteoroid distribution that is based on lunar crater, zodiacal

light and in situ measurement data.
A.1.2 Divine model
[4]

The Divine model assumes a non-isotropic distribution that is based on five populations in particle

mass, inclination, eccentricity and perihelion distance.
A.1.3 Divine-Staubach model
[5]

The Divine-Staubach model is a follow-up of the Divine model, using new data from GALILEO and

ULYSSES dust detectors.
A.1.4 NASA SSP-30425 model
[6]

The SSP-30425 (Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design) model describes

a space environment for ISS design.
A.1.5 IMEM model

Dikarev used an improved and controlled data set and applied refined mathematical methods in

order to describe three-dimensional distributions of orbital elements (instead of the mathematically

[7]
separable distributions of Divine) .
A.1.6 MEM model

Near 1 AU fluxes are calibrated from the Gruen model. A constant mass density of 1,0 g/cm is assumed

[8][9]
and the velocity distributions are independent from the particle sizes .
A.2 Model specifications
Table A.1 shows specifications of meteoroid models listed in A.1.
Table A.1 — Meteoroid model specifications
Model
Model
Gruen et Divine-
[4] [6] [7] [8][9]
specifications
Divine SSP 30425 IMEM MEM
[3] [5]
al. Staubach
Sporadic or
Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic
stream
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14200
Second edition
Space environment (natural
and artificial) — Process-based
implementation of meteoroid and
debris environment models (orbital
altitudes below GEO + 2 000 km)
Environnement spatial (naturel et artificiel) — Lignes directrices
pour une mise en œuvre fondée sur les processus des modèles
environnementaux des météoroïdes et des débris (altitudes d'orbite
inférieures à GEO + 2 000 km)
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 14200:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative reference ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Procedures for the selection and implementation of meteoroid and space debris

environment models ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Selection procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.3 Implementation procedure .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 International project ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (informative) Capability of some meteoroid environment models ..............................................................5

Annex B (informative) Capability of some space debris environment models ........................................................8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14200:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— removal of impact risk assessment requirements;

— in Annexes A and B, information on space debris environment models has been updated (SDEEM 2015

and SDEEM 2019);

— debris flux models: The latest version of each model is briefly described. Descriptions of historical

models have been moved to NOTEs or deleted;

— since this document now focuses on models that have been developed primarily for impact flux

assessment, those models whose main purpose is to study the long-term evolution of the space

debris environment have been deleted.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
Introduction

Every spacecraft in an Earth orbit is exposed to a certain flux of micrometeoroids and man-made space

debris. Collisions with these particles take place with hypervelocity. Many meteoroid and space debris

environment models have been studied and developed which describe populations of meteoroids and/

or space debris. Those models can be used for estimation the impact flux required when selecting the

spacecraft operation orbit, evaluation the impact flux in a specific orbit, prediction of the frequency of

collision avoidance operations, and estimate of the impact flux required for protection design. However,

there are different methods in existence for reproducing the observed environment by means of

mathematical and physical models of release processes, for propagating orbits of release products, and

for mapping onto spatial and temporal distributions of objects densities, transient velocities, and impact

fluxes. Until a specific standard for the space debris environment is defined, a common implementation

process of models should be indicated.

This document specifies a common implementation process for meteoroid and space debris

environment models. In the first edition, requirements were also included relating to impact risk

assessment. However, with the publication of ISO 16126 in 2014, such requirements were no longer

necessary in this document, and so they have been removed. The second edition now focuses on models

used for estimating the impact flux.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14200:2021(E)
Space environment (natural and artificial) — Process-based
implementation of meteoroid and debris environment
models (orbital altitudes below GEO + 2 000 km)
1 Scope

This document specifies a common process for selecting and implementing meteoroid and space debris

environment models used in the impact flux assessment for design and operation of spacecraft and

other purposes. This document provides guidelines and requirements for the process.

2 Normative reference
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
impact flux
number of impacts per unit area per unit time
3.2
mass density
mass per unit volume
3.3
meteoroid
small celestial body of natural origin

Note 1 to entry: Generally, a meteoroid is a solid, rocky object of a size considerably smaller than an asteroid and

considerably larger than an atom.

Note 2 to entry: It is thought that most meteoroids result from the disintegration and fragmentation of comets

and asteroids orbiting the sun, whereas others are collision impact debris ejected from bodies such as the Moon

or Mars.
3.4
meteoroid environment model

type of analysis model that computationally simulates the meteoroid (3.3) population orbiting the sun

Note 1 to entry: Typically, this type of model is used to predict the flux of meteoroids on a target object in space,

such as a spacecraft.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
3.5
space debris
DEPRECATED: orbital debris

objects of human origin in Earth orbit or re-entering the atmosphere, including fragments and elements

thereof, that no longer serve a useful purpose

Note 1 to entry: Spacecraft in reserve or standby modes awaiting possible reactivation are considered to serve a

useful purpose.
[1]
[SOURCE: ISO 24113:2019, 3.23]
3.6
space debris environment model

type of analysis model that computationally simulates the space debris (3.5) population

Note 1 to entry: Typically, this type of model is used to predict the flux of space debris on a target object in space,

such as a spacecraft.
3.7
spacecraft

system designed to perform a set of tasks or functions in outer space, excluding launch vehicle

[SOURCE: ISO 24113:2019 3.25]
3.8
traceability
ability to trace the history, application or location of an object
[2]

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015 ,3.6.13, modified — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been removed.]

4 Abbreviated terms
AU astronomical units
CME chemistry of meteoroid experiment
ESA European Space Agency
EuReCa European retrievable carrier
GEO geostationary earth orbit
GUI graphical user interface
HAX haystack auxiliary radar
HST-SA Hubble space telescope solar array
HST (SM1) Hubble space telescope (service mission 1)
HST (SM3B) Hubble space telescope (service mission 3B)
IMEM interplanetary meteoroid engineering model
ISS international space station
LDEF long duration exposure facility
LEO low earth orbit
MASTER meteoroid and space debris terrestrial environment reference
2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
MEM meteoroid engineering model
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
ORDEM orbital debris engineering model
PROOF program for radar and observation forecasting
SDEEM space debris environment engineering model
SSN space surveillance network
SSP space station program
STS space transportation system
5 Procedures for the selection and implementation of meteoroid and space
debris environment models
5.1 General

Meteoroid and space debris environment models can be used to estimate the impact fluxes of

meteoroids and space debris on a spacecraft. This flux information can be used in

a) the selection of the spacecraft operation orbit in mission analysis,
b) the evaluation of the safety of specific orbit(s),
c) the prediction of the frequency of collision avoidance operations, and
d) the design of suitable impact protection, especially for critical components.

There is a variety of environment models available, each with its own set of characteristics and

capabilities. 5.2 and 5.3 specify procedures that are available to guide a user in the selection and

implementation of a suitable model.
5.2 Selection procedure

5.2.1 The customer and the supplier of the spacecraft shall coordinate in selecting the meteoroid and

space debris environment models that are applied to their project and agree to the conclusion.

5.2.2 To select a suitable environment model, the capabilities of available candidate models should be

considered.

NOTE Annex A describes the capabilities of some meteoroid environment models and Annex B describes the

capabilities of some space debris environment models.
5.2.3 Models other than those listed in Annexes A and B may be used.
5.2.4 When selecting an environment model, the following should be considered:
a) transparency of the characteristics of the model;
b) whether the model is used by a national space agency;
c) whether the model is maintained on a regular and frequent basis;

d) the format of the output flux data, including its suitability for transfer to another model, such as an

impact risk analysis code;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 14200:2021(E)
e) the ease of use of the model.

5.2.5 When selecting an environment model, consideration should be given to the fact that there can

be significant differences in the calculated fluxes among the available candidate models. The customer

and/or the supplier should compare the fluxes of several models. See A.3 and B.3.

NOTE The choice of model to be applied depends on the mission objectives and requirements of the customer

(and the supplier, if necessary). For example, to achieve adequate safety margin in the design of a spacecraft or its

subsystems, it is reasonable to select the model with the highest flux values when analysing the risk caused by space

debris and meteoroid impacts. This ensures that the worst-case scenario is evaluated. On the other hand, in the case

of in situ debris sensor design, the worst-case scenario is achieved by using the model that generates the lowest

impact flux values, since it results in the smallest observation opportunity. Finally, when selecting the operational

orbit of a spacecraft by comparing the impact flux for each candidate orbit, the model can be chosen according to

criteria other than the magnitude of its flux values. This is because the analysis involves relative fluxes.

5.3 Implementation procedure

5.3.1 Traceability of the implementation of the meteoroid and space debris environment models shall

be assured, including during all design and operation phases, if applied to a spacecraft.

5.3.2 When applying a model to calculate meteoroid or space debris impact fluxes, a record of the

following shall be kept:
a) the justification of the selected model;
b) all input and output parameters and their values for each analysis case;

c) any assumptions made regarding the input parameters and the technical justification for the

assumptions;

d) any corrections and/or additional assumptions made to output parameters, their technical

justification, and details of correction methods and their effects on the results.

NOTE Output parameters can be corrected by applying a safety factor, life factor or margin of safety.

Such corrections can also be applied to the debris population, especially if there has been a sudden large

increase in the population due to a debris generation event that has not yet been modelled.

e) The results of the impact flux assessment and the methodology used.

5.3.3 The records shall be evaluated and confirmed by reviewers during the appropriate review stages

of a project.
6 International project

For an international project, the following items should be agreed amongst member bodies before

starting the project:
a) the applicable meteoroid and space debris environment models for the project;

b) the method of maintenance of the meteoroid and space debris environment models.

4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14200:2021(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Capability of some meteoroid environment models
A.1 Model overview
A.1.1 Gruen et al. model
[3]

The Gruen model assumes an isotropic meteoroid distribution that is based on lunar crater, zodiacal

light and in situ measurement data.
A.1.2 Divine model
[4]

The Divine model assumes a non-isotropic distribution that is based on five populations in particle

mass, inclination, eccentricity and perihelion distance.
A.1.3 Divine-Staubach model
[5]

The Divine-Staubach model is a follow-up of the Divine model, using new data from GALILEO and

ULYSSES dust detectors.
A.1.4 NASA SSP-30425 model
[6]

The SSP-30425 (Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design) model describes

a space environment for ISS design.
A.1.5 IMEM model

Dikarev used an improved and controlled data set and applied refined mathematical methods in

order to describe three-dimensional distributions of orbital elements (instead of the mathematically

[7]
separable distributions of Divine) .
A.1.6 MEM model

Near 1 AU fluxes are calibrated from the Gruen model. A constant mass density of 1,0 g/cm is assumed

[8][9]
and the velocity distributions are independent from the particle sizes .
A.2 Model specifications
Table A.1 shows specifications of meteoroid models listed in A.1.
Table A.1 — Meteoroid model specifications
Model
Model
Gruen et Divine-
[4] [6] [7] [8][9]
specifications
Divine SSP 30425 IMEM MEM
[3] [5]
al. Staubach
Sporadic or
Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic Sporadic
stream
Force of the E
...

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