This document specifies a common process for selecting and implementing meteoroid and space debris environment models used in the impact flux assessment for design and operation of spacecraft and other purposes. This document provides guidelines and requirements for the process.

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    14 pages
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    14 pages
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The document considers peculiarities of the space environment impact on a special kind of materials: nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1Â nm to 100Â nm) and specifies the methods of mathematical simulation of such processes. It emphasizes the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and does not include any special details concerning concrete materials, elements of spacecraft construction and equipment, etc. This document provides the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scales to modelling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. The document can be applied as a reference document in spacecraft designing, forecasting the spacecraft lifetime, conducting ground-based tests, and analysing changes of material properties during operation.

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    29 pages
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This document outlines the evaluation methods for environmental tests that can be conducted on COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) spacecraft parts intended for use on LEO satellites. The radiation effects considered consist of total dosage, single event, and displacement damage. In addition, this document describes tests that are useful for satellites operating in LEO.

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    47 pages
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This document provides guidelines for specifying the qualitative estimation of the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere with use of operative ground-based information on the polar cap magnetic activity (PC index). The solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere predetermines development of the magnetospheric disturbances: magnetic storms and substorms. Magnetospheric disturbances include a wide range of phenomena and processes directly affecting human activity, such as satellite damage, radiation hazards for astronauts and airline passengers, telecommunication problems, outrages of power and electronic systems, effects in the atmospheric processes, and impact on human health. This document is intended for on-line monitoring the magnetosphere state and nowcasting the intensity and extent of magnetic disturbances as well as parameters of the high-latitude ionosphere. The method and accuracy of estimating is ascertained by close relationship between the PC index and interplanetary electric field (as the most geoeffective solar wind parameter), on the one hand, and between the PC index and magnetoshpheric disturbances, on the other hand.

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    11 pages
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This document specifies the methods used for estimating geomagnetic indices for time intervals ranging from short-term (hours to a few months) to long-term (months to years). This document is intended for use to predict future geomagnetic indices and space environment.

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This document, by using a model that reproduces the fluctuations of radiation belts, defines the calculation method (orbit, operation period) of the radiation fluence received by a satellite. The quasi-dynamic model of Earth's radiation belts adopts input parameters (index values) to predict variation. The input parameters are selected from those that are easy to obtain data and have high correlation with the variation in Earth's radiation belts. NOTE This method is an engineering method used for satellite design and similar purposes.

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ISO 17761:2015 describes the fluxes of charged particles for near-Earth space on base of the PAMELA experiment data. This International Standard can be used to calculate fluxes of protons with energy more than 100 MeV up to geomagnetic cut-off rigidity at low altitudes (300 km to 600 km). The main goal of this International Standard is determining the impact of energetic charged particle flux upon spacecraft instrumentation and astronauts.

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ISO 12208:2015 describes a method to estimate energetic proton fluences in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) over a long duration (beyond the 11-year solar cycle), and presents guidelines for the selection of a confidence level in a model of solar proton fluences to estimate solar cell degradation. Many of the proton data observed in GEO are archived, for example from GMS (Japan), METEOSAT (ESA) and GOES (USA). This method is a direct integration of these fluence data (or the observed data over 11 years is used periodically). As a result, the confidence level can be selected from a model of solar proton fluences. ISO 12208:2015 is an engineering-oriented method used for specific purposes such as estimating solar panel degradation.

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    9 pages
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ISO 10788:2014 is a reference for quantitative measures of lunar simulants.

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    10 pages
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    10 pages
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ISO 16457:2014 provides guidance to potential users for the specification of the global distribution of ionosphere densities and temperatures, as well as the total content of electrons in the height interval from 50 km to 1 500 km. It includes and explains several options for a plasmaspheric extension of the model, embracing the geographical area between latitudes of 80°S and 80°N and longitudes of 0°E to 360°E, for any time of day, any day of year, and various solar and magnetic activity conditions.

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    15 pages
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ISO 14222:2013 specifies the structure of Earth's atmosphere above 120 km, provides accepted empirical models that can specify the details of the atmosphere, and uses annexes to describe the details of those models. Its purpose is to create a standard method for specifying Earth atmosphere properties (densities, etc.) in the low Earth orbit regime for space systems and materials users.

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    38 pages
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ISO/TR 11225:2012 provides guidelines for selected reference and standard atmospheric models for use in engineering design or scientific research. It describes the content of the models, uncertainties and limitations, technical basis, databases from which the models are formed, publication references, and sources of computer code where available for over seventy (70) Earth and planetary atmospheric models, for altitudes from surface to 4 000 km, which are generally recognized in the aerospace sciences. ISO/TR 11225:2012 is intended to assist aircraft and space vehicle designers and developers, geophysicists, meteorologists, and climatologists in understanding available models, comparing sources of data, and interpreting engineering and scientific results based on different atmospheric models. ISO/TR 11225:2012 summarizes the principal features of the models to the extent the information is available: - model content; - model uncertainties and limitations; - basis of the model; - publication references; - dates of development, authors and sponsors; - model codes and sources.

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    107 pages
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ISO 11221:2011 specfies qualification and characterization test methods to simulate plasma interactions and electrostatic discharges on solar array panels in space. ISO 11221:2011 is applicable to solar array panels made of crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide (GaAs) or multi-junction solar cells. ISO 11221:2011 addresses only surface discharges on solar panels.

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    44 pages
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ISO 15856:2009 is the first part of a series on space environment simulation for on-ground tests of materials used in space. This International Standard covers the testing of non-metallic materials exposed to simulated space radiation. Non-metallic materials include glasses, ceramics and polymer-metal composite materials such as metal matrix composites and laminated materials. ISO 15856:2009 does not cover semiconductor materials used for electronic components. The types of simulated radiation include charged particles (electrons and protons), solar ultraviolet radiation and soft X-radiation of solar flares. Synergistic interactions of the radiation environment are covered only for these natural, and some induced, environmental effects. ISO 15856:2009 outlines the recommended methodology and practices for the simulation of space radiation effects on materials. Simulation methods are used to reproduce the effects of the space radiation environment on materials that are located on surfaces of space vehicles and behind shielding.

  • Standard
    24 pages
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  • Standard
    24 pages
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ISO 22009:2009 describes the main magnetospheric large-scale current systems and the magnetic field in the earth's magnetosphere and provides the main requirements for a model of the magnetospheric magnetic field. Ionospheric currents are not considered in ISO 22009:2009. ISO 22009:2009 includes a worked example of the model and establishes the parameters of magnetospheric large-scale current systems that change according to conditions in the space environment. ISO 22009:2009 can be used to develop new models of the magnetospheric magnetic field. Such models are useful in investigating the physical processes in the earth's magnetosphere as well as in calculations associated with developing, testing and estimating the results of exploitation of spacecrafts and other equipment operating in the space environment. The main goals of standardizing the concepts of the earth's magnetospheric magnetic field are to provide an unambiguous presentation of the magnetic field in the earth's magnetosphere; compatibility for the results of the interpretation and analysis of space experiments; less labour-intensive calculations of the magnetic field of magnetospheric currents in space at geocentric distances of 1,0 to 6,6 earth radii, RE; and the most reliable calculations of all elements of the geomagnetic field in the space environment. The magnetic field model presented in ISO 22009:2009 can be used to predict the radiation conditions in space, including the periods of intense magnetic disturbances (magnetic storms), when developing systems of spacecraft magnetic orientation and when forecasting the influence of magnetic disturbances on transcontinental piping and power transmission lines.

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    15 pages
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ISO 15390:2004 specifies a model for estimating the radiation impact of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on hardware and on biological and other objects when in space. ISO 15390:2004 can also be used in scientific research to generalize the available experimental evidence for GCR fluxes. ISO 15390:2004 establishes the model parameters and characteristics of variations in the 101 MeV to 105 MeV GCR particles (electrons, protons, and Z = 2 to 92 nuclei in the near-Earth space beyond the Earth's magnetosphere).

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    6 pages
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  • Standard
    6 pages
    French language
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ISO/TS 12208:2011 describes a method to estimate energetic proton fluences in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) over a long duration (beyond the 11-year solar cycle), and presents guidelines for the selection of a confidence level in a model of solar proton fluences to estimate solar cell degradation. Many of the proton data observed in GEO are archived, for example GMS (Japan), METEOSAT (ESA) and GOES (USA). This method is a direct integration of these fluence data (or the observed data over 11 years is used periodically). As a result, the confidence level can be selected from a model of solar proton fluences. ISO/TS 12208:2011 is an engineering-oriented method used for specific purposes such as estimating solar panel degradation.

  • Technical specification
    10 pages
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ISO/TS 16457:2009 provides guidance to potential users for the specification of the global distribution of ionosphere densities and temperatures, as well as the total content of electrons in the height interval from 50 km to 1 500 km. It includes and explains several options for a plasmaspheric extension of the model, embracing the geographical area between latitudes of 80°S and 80°N and longitudes of 0°E to 360°E, for any time of day, any day of year, and various solar and magnetic activity conditions.

  • Technical specification
    7 pages
    English language
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