Information technology — Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) — Part 3: Entities and interface

ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 The 30140 series provides general requirements, reference architecture and high-level interface guidelines supporting interoperability among underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs). Part 3 provides descriptions for the entities and interfaces of the UWASN reference architecture.

Technologies de l'information — Réseau de capteurs acoustiques sous-marins — Partie 3: Entités et interface

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Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Jul-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
26-Jul-2018
Completion Date
26-Jul-2018
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ISO/IEC 30140-3
Edition 1.0 2018-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Information technology – Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UWASN) –
Part 3: Entities and interfaces
ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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ISO/IEC 30140-3
Edition 1.0 2018-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Information technology – Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UWASN) –
Part 3: Entities and interfaces
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.110 ISBN 978-2-8322-5912-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 6

5 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 7

6 UWASN entities ............................................................................................................... 7

6.1 UWASN physical entities......................................................................................... 7

6.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 7

6.1.2 UWASN domain physical entities ..................................................................... 8

6.1.3 Network domain physical entities ..................................................................... 8

6.1.4 Application domain physical entities ................................................................ 9

6.2 UWASN functional entities ...................................................................................... 9

6.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 UWA-APS entities .......................................................................................... 10

6.2.3 UWA-BUN entities ......................................................................................... 10

6.2.4 UWA-NWK entities......................................................................................... 10

6.2.5 UWA-DL entities ............................................................................................ 11

6.2.6 UWA-PHY entities ......................................................................................... 11

6.2.7 UWA-Cross layer entities ............................................................................... 11

7 UWASN interfaces ......................................................................................................... 12

7.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 12

7.2 Interfaces between UWASN physical entities ........................................................ 12

7.2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 12

7.2.2 Interface 1 – User / UWA-GW ........................................................................ 14

7.2.3 Interface 2 – UWA-GW / Relay node .............................................................. 15

7.2.4 Interface 3 – Relay node / UWA-SNode ......................................................... 15

7.2.5 Interface 4 – Between UWA-SNodes.............................................................. 16

7.2.6 Interface 5 – UWA-SNode / UWA-GW ............................................................ 17

7.3 Interfaces between UWASN functional entities ...................................................... 17

7.3.1 Interface – UWA-PHY / DL ............................................................................. 17

7.3.2 Interface – UWA-DL / NWK ............................................................................ 18

7.3.3 Interface – UWA-NWK / BUN ......................................................................... 18

7.3.4 Interface – UWA-BUN / APS .......................................................................... 19

7.3.5 Interface – UWA-CLM / APS/BUN/NWK/DL/PHY ............................................ 19

7.4 Interfaces between functional layers enabling UWASN services ............................ 19

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 1 – Interfaces between UWASN functional layers and functional entities ...................... 9

Figure 2 – Overview of interfaces enabling UWASN services ................................................ 12

Figure 3 – Interfaces between physical entities ..................................................................... 13

Figure 4 – Functional view of interfaces between the physical entities .................................. 14

Figure 5 – Information exchange via interface 1 .................................................................... 14

Figure 6 – Information exchange between different layers via interface 2 .............................. 15

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ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 3 –

Figure 7 – Information exchange in different layers via interface 3 ........................................ 16

Figure 8 – Information exchange in different layers via interface 4 ........................................ 16

Figure 9 – Information exchange in different layers via interface 5 ........................................ 17

Figure 10 – Service access point provided by the UWA-PHY / DL ......................................... 18

Figure 11 – Service access point provided by the UWA-DL / NWK ........................................ 18

Figure 12 – Service access point provided by the UWA-NWK / BUN ..................................... 18

Figure 13 – Service access point provided by the UWA-BUN/APS ........................................ 19

Figure 14 – Service access point provided by the UWA-CLM / APS/BUN/NWK/DL/PHY ........ 19

Table 1 – UWASN domain physical entities ............................................................................. 8

Table 2 – Network domain physical entities............................................................................. 8

Table 3 – Interfaces between functional layers enabling UWASN services ............................ 20

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
Part 3: Entities and interfaces
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC

participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees

collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have

established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies.

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International Standard ISO/IEC 30140-3 was prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things

and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.

The list of all currently available parts of the ISO/IEC 30140 series, under the general title

Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN), can be found on the

IEC and ISO websites.

This International Standard has been approved by vote of the member bodies, and the voting

results may be obtained from the address given on the second title page.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
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ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Water covers approximately 71 % of the surface of the Earth. Modern technologies introduce

new methods to monitor the body of water, for example pollution monitoring and detection.

Underwater data gathering techniques require exploring the water environment, which can be

most effectively performed by underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs). Applications

developed for the UWASNs can record underwater climate, detect and control water pollution,

monitor marine biology, discover natural resources, detect pipeline leakages, monitor and

locate underwater intruders, perform strategic surveillance, and so on.

The ISO/IEC 30140 series provides general requirements, reference architecture (RA)

including the entity models and high-level interface guidelines supporting interoperability

among UWASNs in order to provide the essential UWASN construction information to help

and guide architects, developers and implementers of UWASNs.

Additionally, the ISO/IEC 30140 series provides high-level functional models related to

underwater sensor nodes and relationships among the nodes to construct architectural

perspective of UWASNs. However, the ISO/IEC 30140 series is an application agnostic

standard. Thus, the ISO/IEC 30140 series specifies neither any type of communication

waveforms for use in UWASNs nor any underwater acoustic communication frequencies.

Specifying communication waveforms and/or frequencies are the responsibility of architects,

developers and implementers.

Acoustical data communication in sensor networks necessitates the introduction of acoustical

signals that overlap biologically important frequency bands into the subject environment.

These signals can conflict with regional, national, or international noise exposure regulations.

Implementers of acoustical communication networks should consult the relevant regulatory

agencies prior to designing and deployment of these systems to ensure compliance with

regulations and avoid conflicts with the agencies.

The purpose of the ISO/IEC 30140 series is to provide general requirements, guidance and

facilitation in order for the users of the ISO/IEC 30140 series to design and develop the target

UWASNs for their applications and services.
The ISO/IEC 30140 series comprises four parts as shown below.
• Part 1 provides a general overview and requirements of the UWASN reference
architecture.
• Part 2 provides reference architecture models for UWASN.

• Part 3 provides descriptions for the entities and interfaces of the UWASN reference

architecture.

• Part 4 provides information on interoperability requirements among the entities within a

UWASN and among various UWASNs.
___________

1 Architects, developers, and implementers need to be aware of the submarine emergency frequency band, near

and below 12 kHz, and it is recommended to provide a provision for such submarine emergency band in their

UWASN design and applications.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
Part 3: Entities and interfaces
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 30140 specifies the various entities in UWASNs. Moreover, it describes

the interfaces between different physical and functional entities.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 29182-2, Information technology – Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference

Architecture (SNRA) – Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 29182-2 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Abbreviated terms
A/C analog-to-digital converter
CLM cross layer management
I C inter integrated circuit
IP Internet protocol
MLDE MAC layer data entity
MLME MAC layer management entity
NLDE network layer data entity
NLME network layer management entity
PLDE physical layer data entity
PLME physical layer management entity
PWM pulse width modulation
QoS quality of service
SAP service access point
SCI serial communication interface
SPI serial peripheral interface
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ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 7 –
USV underwater surface vehicle
UUV unmanned underwater vehicle
UWA-APS underwater application layer
UWA-BUN underwater bundle layer
UWA-CH underwater acoustic cluster head
UWA-DL underwater datalink layer
UWA-DTN underwater delay tolerant network
UWA-DTN-GW underwater DTN gateway
UWA-FN underwater acoustic fundamental network
UWA-GW underwater acoustic gateway
UWA-NWK underwater network layer
UWA-PHY underwater physical layer
UWA-SNode underwater acoustic sensor node
UWASN underwater acoustic sensor network
UWA-UN underwater acoustic united network
5 Overview

The purpose of this document is to provide basic information about and high-level models for

the various entities and interfaces that comprise an UWASN. Entities can be roughly

categorized into two classes, physical and functional. An underwater sensor node is a

physical entity that contains many sensors. A functional entity represents a certain task that

can be carried out on one or more types of physical entities. Routing and authentication are

examples of functional entities. More often than not, functional entities are pieces of code that

run on physical entities.

UWASN physical entities are categorized into three groups, namely underwater domain

physical entities, network domain physical entities, and application domain physical entities.

Examples of such physical entities include sensors and actuators, surface gateways, relay

nodes, cluster head and user, access and backbone networks, etc. Similarly, more detailed

models have been provided for functional entities such as environmental monitoring, disaster

prevention, aquafarm monitoring, data forwarding, persistent storage, network coding, data

processing, privacy management, self-localization, group management/clustering,

collaborative information processing, and device management. A more detailed model can

include an input-output relationship for what the entity does, some features of the entity that

characterize its capabilities, and a taxonomy of various ways in which the entity can be

implemented.
6 UWASN entities
6.1 UWASN physical entities
6.1.1 General

Physical entities comprise hardware, devices and/or components. UWASN physical entities

can be divided into three categories:
• UWASN domain physical entities;
• network domain physical entities;
• application domain physical entities.
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– 8 – ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
6.1.2 UWASN domain physical entities

Underwater domain physical entities exist in the seabed. These include underwater moving

and fixed gateways (UWA-GWs), underwater acoustic sensor nodes (UWA-SNodes),

underwater acoustic cluster heads (UWA-CHs), fouling cleaner, acoustic modem, node

reclamation, UUV, etc.
Table 1 shows the UWASN domain physical entities and corresponding examples.
Table 1 – UWASN domain physical entities
Entities Examples
Surface domain UWA-GW – Moving gateway (ships)
UWA-DTN-GW – Fixed gateway (buoys), etc.
– USV
Controlling domain UWA-CH – Ad-hoc UWA-SNode
Relay node – UUV, etc.
Sensing domain UWA-SNode – Sensors
– Acoustic tag
– UUV
UWA-GW: UWA-GWs facilitate communication between underwater sensor networks and
the Internet. The surface gateway receives underwater related data from
sensor nodes (relay node, UWA-CHs or UWA-SNodes) and transmits the data
to the monitoring centre via wireless communication channels. In general,
UWA-GWs are moving or fixed nodes. For example, a buoy is a fixed gateway,
and ships and UUVs are the moving gateways. UWA-SNodes transmit
packets to the nearest gateway rather than using a long path.
UWA-CH: UWA-CHs receive information from all cluster sensor nodes and transmit
information to the relay node or directly to the surface gateway.
Relay node: Relay nodes transfer underwater data from UWA-SNodes to UWA-GWs.

UWA-SNode: UWA-SNodes, such as acoustic tags, UUVs, and sensors, collect data from

water and transmit the data to the UWA-CH, relay nodes, or UWA-GW.
6.1.3 Network domain physical entities

The network domain entities comprise access networks and backbone networks. An access

network provides connectivity between the backbone network and underwater domain
physical entities.
Table 2 shows the network domain physical entities and corresponding examples.
Table 2 – Network domain physical entities
Entities Examples
a a
Access network Wi-Fi® , 3G / 4G, Ethernet, and ZigBee®
Backbone network Internet, and Intranet

ZigBee and Wi-Fi are registered trademarks of ZigBee Alliance and Wi-Fi Alliance, respectively. This

information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement

by ISO or IEC.

Access network: Access networks provide connectivity between the Internet and the

surface gateway.
Backbone network: The Internet is the most widely used backbone network.
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ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 9 –
6.1.4 Application domain physical entities

Users are considered application domain entities. Users can connect to the UWASN for

accessing of scientific, military, business, and aqua applications.
User: The user can visualize information produced by an UWASN. The
applications of UWASN include environmental monitoring, assisted
navigation, disaster prevention, and locating intruder submarines.
6.2 UWASN functional entities
6.2.1 General

Typically, the sensor node architecture comprises six functional layers, as shown in Figure 1:

• UWA-APS;
• UWA-BUN;
• UWA-NWK;
• UWA-DL;
• UWA-PHY;
• UWA-Cross layer.

Sensor nodes and gateways can have similar layers; however, the modules in each layer can

differ. For example, sensor nodes can integrate different sensors but gateways do not have

sensing capability.
Figure 1 – Interfaces between UWASN functional layers and functional entities

Communication between functional modules in layers is implemented by the interface

between the layers (Figure 1). The following interfaces are defined.
• The BUN / APS interface is between the UWA-BUN and the UWA-APS.
• The NWK / BUN interface is between the UWA-NWK and the UWA-BUN.
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– 10 – ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
• The DL / NWK interface is between the UWA-DL and the UWA-NWK.
• The PHY / DL interface is between the UWA-PHY and the UWA-DL.

• The CLM / APS/BUN/NWK/DL/PHY interface is between the cross layer management and

the UWA-APS, UWA-BUN, UWA-NWK, UWA-DL and UWA-PHY.
6.2.2 UWA-APS entities

The UWA-APS layer provides application processes to exchange data and contains different

scientific, business, civilian, aqua and military application functionalities such as

environmental monitoring, disaster prevention, aquafarm monitoring, fish farming, assisted

navigation, intruder submarine detection, and ocean bottom imaging and mapping.
6.2.3 UWA-BUN entities
The UWA-BUN layer carries bundles between the UWA-APS and UWA-NWK layers. These
bundles are transmitted using a store-and-forward approach.

1) Custody accept UWA-Bundle: This is sent by a candidate custodian after accepting the

custody transfer of the underwater bundle.

2) Segmentation: The UWA-BUN layer divides a bundle into smaller segments to maximize

the probability that each can be delivered to the destination correctly.

3) Data forwarding: After receiving an underwater bundle from a source node, these bundles

are forwarded to the destination node via intermediate nodes.

4) Convergence layer adapter: In each of the corresponding protocols, functions required to

carry UWA-DTN protocol data units or UWA-Bundles are provided by protocol-specific

convergence layer adapters.

5) Persistent storage: After receiving the data, the UWA-BUN layer stores the data until a

connection is established.
6.2.4 UWA-NWK entities

The UWA-NWK layer is an intermediary system that performs routing functions between the

underwater devices.

1) Network management: This manages the network topology, routing table, configuration

information, network performance, and reconfigures network information. Manages
algorithms and protocols to detect and handle disconnections due to failure.

2) Routing management: This manages the different routing algorithms based on underwater

communication. It is required to manage routing algorithms for intermittent connectivity of

acoustic channels.
3) Localization management: This manages different localization technologies and
algorithms to identify the location of underwater sensor nodes in underwater
communication.
4) Pac

ket generation: This generates packets according to underwater properties such as

low bandwidth, and data rate.

5) Network coding: This improves throughput and provides redundancy for error recovery.

6) Group management/Clustering: This manages the cluster based network for underwater

communication. Clustering provides parallel processing, load balancing between
underwater sensor nodes, and fault tolerance.

7) Address management: Each underwater sensor node has a unique IP address. Address

management manages the mechanisms for binding IP addresses to MAC addresses.

8) Integration management: This manages the mechanisms for integration of UUVs in the

UWASN and enables communication among sensor nodes and UUVs.
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ISO/IEC 30140-3:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 11 –
6.2.5 UWA-DL entities
The UWA-DL layer provides a channel to access control mechanisms between various

underwater devices. It is also responsible for detecting and possibly correcting errors that can

occur in the UWA-PHY layer.

1) MAC-Function management: MAC-Function management maintains time synchronization

between underwater devices, channel scanning, and power management.

2) Error detection and handling: The UWA-DL layer manages technologies for handling and

detecting errors.

3) Scheduling management: This manages scheduling techniques for energy saving and

controlling communication between underwater sensor nodes by assigning time slots.

4) MAC-Frame generation: MAC-Frame generation can increase network efficiency by using

optimum frame length.

5) Time synchronization management: Time synchronization management is responsible for

synchronization between underwater devices.
6.2.6 UWA-PHY entities

The UWA-PHY layer establishes, maintains, and releases connections to transfer bits for

underwater transmission.
1) Actuation: The actuator is responsible for controlling UWA-SNodes.
2) Energy harvesting: This manages energy mechanisms in UWASN.
3) PHY-Frame generation: The PHY frame generation process comprises random bit
generation for the encoding, modulation, and mapping of equivalent transmission
channels.

4) Hardware drivers: This manages power efficient transducer hardware drivers for

underwater wireless acous
...

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