Information technology, cybersecurity and privacy protection -- Cybersecurity framework development guidelines

This document specifies guidelines for developing a cybersecurity framework. It is applicable to cybersecurity framework creators regardless of their organizations' type, size or nature.

Sécurité de l'information, cybersécurité et protection de la vie privée -- Lignes directrices relatives à l'élaboration d'un cadre en matière de cybersécurité

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Feb-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
29-Dec-2020
Completion Date
29-Dec-2020
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TS
SPECIFICATION 27110
First edition
2021-02
Information technology, cybersecurity
and privacy protection —
Cybersecurity framework
development guidelines
Sécurité de l'information, cybersécurité et protection de la vie
privée — Lignes directrices relatives à l'élaboration d'un cadre en
matière de cybersécurité
Reference number
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Concepts ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Identify ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Protect ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.4 Detect .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5 Respond......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Recover .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Creating a cybersecurity framework ............................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (informative) Considerations in the creation of a cybersecurity framework ....................................6

Annex B (informative) Considerations in the integration of a cybersecurity framework .........................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 27, Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
Introduction

Cybersecurity is a pressing issue due to the use of connected technologies. Cyber threats are continually

evolving, thus protecting users and organizations is a constant challenge. To cope with this challenge,

business groups, government agencies, and other organizations produce documents and tools called

cybersecurity frameworks to help organize and communicate cybersecurity activities of organizations.

These organizations producing the cybersecurity frameworks are referred to as “cybersecurity

framework creators.” Other organizations and individuals then use or reference the cybersecurity

framework in their cybersecurity activities.

Given that there are multiple cybersecurity framework creators, there are a multitude of cybersecurity

frameworks. The current set of cybersecurity frameworks is diverse and varied. Organizations

using cybersecurity frameworks are challenged with harmonizing different lexicons and conceptual

structures to meet their requirements. These cybersecurity frameworks then become competing

interests for finite resources. The additional effort could be better spent implementing cybersecurity

and combating threats.

The goal of this document is to ensure a minimum set of concepts are used to define cybersecurity

frameworks to help ease the burden of cybersecurity framework creators and cybersecurity

framework users.

As this document limits itself with a minimum set of concepts, its length is kept to a minimum on

purpose. This document is not intended to supersede or replace the requirements of an ISMS given in

ISO/IEC 27001.
The principles of this document are as follows:
— flexible — to allow for multiple types of cybersecurity frameworks to exist;
— compatible — to allow for multiple cybersecurity frameworks to align; and

— interoperable — to allow for multiple uses of a cybersecurity framework to be valid.

The audience of this document is cybersecurity framework creators.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
Information technology, cybersecurity and privacy
protection — Cybersecurity framework development
guidelines
1 Scope

This document specifies guidelines for developing a cybersecurity framework. It is applicable to

cybersecurity framework creators regardless of their organizations’ type, size or nature.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 27000, Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management

systems — Overview and vocabulary
ISO/IEC TS 27100, Information technology — Cybersecurity — Overview and concepts
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 27000, ISO/IEC TS 27100

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
cybersecurity framework
basic set of concepts used to organize and communicate cybersecurity activities
3.2
cyber persona

digital representation of an individual or organization necessary to interact in cyberspace

[SOURCE: U.S. DoD Joint Publication 3-12 and Caire, J, & Conchon, S:2016]
3.3
asset
anything that has value to an individual, an organization or a government
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27032:2012, 4.6, modified — The Note has been removed.]
4 Overview

Cybersecurity framework creators face a unique challenge: create a framework which is general enough

to allow for flexibility in use while providing a structure to allow for compatibility and interoperability

across frameworks and uses. Striking a balance between flexibility and compatibility while satisfying

stakeholder requirements can be difficult. Developing multiple cybersecurity frameworks using the

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)

same structure will help cybersecurity framework users maximize resources, while providing a way

for different uses of a cybersecurity framework to achieve interoperability.

To help ease the challenge of creating a cybersecurity framework, this document provides the minimum

set of concepts a cybersecurity framework should have: Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond, and Recover.

This document can be used to build a framework of the minimum set of cybersecurity concepts.

While cybersecurity framework creators are subject to their unique stakeholder requirements, as

shown in Figure 1, these concepts can also be used as pillars to help a cybersecurity framework creator

structure and start filling out its lower level concepts. Unique stakeholder requirements can result in

the creation of additional concepts to be contained in the resultant cybersecurity framework. However,

the concepts presented in this document remain foundational.

Structured within these concepts, the resultant cybersecurity framework can consist of standards,

guidelines, and practices to promote cybersecurity risk management. Cybersecurity frameworks

provide prioritized, flexible, repeatable, and cost-effective approaches to help cybersecurity framework

users manage cyber risk.

A cybersecurity framework helps persons executing these activities by providing a reference scheme.

Concepts and categories of a cybersecurity framework can be used as a guide, checklist or template

applicable in these activities.

A cybersecurity framework is not required in the implementation of an ISMS (ISO/IEC 27001). While

ISO/IEC 27001 and a cybersecurity framework are independent, the two approaches can be related.

Cybersecurity frameworks can be used in conjunction with ISMSs to organize cybersecurity activities

across multiple layers of an organization, communicate those activities outside of the organization, and

ensure continuous improvement of those activities over time. When a cybersecurity framework user

chooses to implement an ISMS in conjunction with a cybersecurity framework, the two approaches

work together to allow effective implementation of information security and cybersecurity activities,

organization of those activities, and communication of those activities. An example of a cybersecurity

framework and an ISMS working together is presented in Annex A. Considerations on the integration

of a cybersecurity framework into practice are provided in Annex B. Examples of cybersecurity

framework are listed in the Bibliography.

Many cybersecurity frameworks implement the concept of risk management, but not all. Cybersecurity

frameworks should consider the concept of risk management.
Figure 1 — Creating a cybersecurity framework using ISO/IEC TS 27110
2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)

The value of applying the guidelines in this document is that users of different cybersecurity

frameworks can communicate with each other. These concepts are intended to give a cybersecurity

framework creator a starting point, and when used collectively, provide an effective structure in

organizing a cybersecurity framework.
5 Concepts
5.1 General

The purpose of subclauses 5.2 to 5.6 is to describe the concepts in a cybersecurity framework. These

concepts are intended to give a cybersecurity framework creator a starting point. While every

cybersecurity framework has different stakeholders and requirements, the concepts below remain

constant and, thus, serve as the basis for any cybersecurity framework.

The concepts listed below are not intended to provide sufficient detail for implementation of

cybersecurity within an organization. These concepts can be arranged in a process model. However,

other configurations can work given the cybersecurity framework creator’s stakeholder requirements.

Cybersecurity framework creators can choose to augment the cybersecurity framework with additional

concepts which provide value to their stakeholders or satisfy specific requirements. Furthermore,

some cybersecurity framework creators can choose to enhance these concepts with categories and

subcategories to provide more guidance to their stakeholders or satisfy requirements. Some contexts

can warrant a greater level of detail than categories. If that is the case, cybersecurity framework

creators may specify additional, more detailed statements that would align at the subcategory level.

The concepts presented below are independent of time, context, granularity of scope, and market

conditions. While sequence of events, unique operating constraints, and business drivers are all

important factors when designing a cybersecurity framework, they are considered implementation

details.
5.2 Identify
A cybersecurity framework should include the Identify concept.

The Identify concept develops the ecosystem of cybersecurity which is being considered.

This ecosystem is used when developing the Protect, Detect, Respond and Recover concepts. Examples

of ecosystem considerations are: business objectives, business environment, stakeholders, assets,

business processes, laws, regulations, threat environment and cyber risks. The Identify concept

addresses people, policies, processes and technology when defining the scope of activities. The Identify

concept can include many categories relating to scoping particular activities to only those which are

relevant. Categories can include: business environment, risk assessment, risk management strategy,

governance, asset management, business context analysis and supply chain considerations.

The activities in scope of the Identify concept are foundational for cybersecurity. The Identify concept

can include an understanding of business context, stakeholders, the cybersecurity ecosystem and

dependencies. An organization’s presence in cyberspace, its cyber persona, the business-critical

functions and information and their related resources can also be important. The understanding gained

from the Identify concept enables a flexible and repeatable view of cybersecurity for an organization to

focus and prioritize its efforts.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider evolving cyber threats and emerging technology

when designing the Identify concept. Otherwise, the resulting cybersecurity framework can fail to

appropriately meet future requirements.
5.3 Protect
A cybersecurity framework should include the Protect concept.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)

The Protect concept develops appropriate safeguards to protect an organization’s cyber persona,

ensure preventative controls are working, and produce the desired readiness of the organization to

deliver critical services and maintain its operations and security of its information.

The Protect concept can contain many categories and activities related to the safeguarding of assets

against intentional or unintentional misuse. The Protect concept can include controls for traditional IT

system security, industrial control systems or internet of things. Categories can include: access control,

awareness and training, data security, information protection processes and procedures, maintenance,

protective technology, security architecture, asset configuration, systems segregation, traffic filtering,

cryptography, security administration and maintenance, identity and access management and data

security.

A cybersecurity framework creator should determine the scope of the Protect concept. Prevention

and threat-oriented approaches can be used. When developing the Protect concept, a cybersecurity

framework creator should consider protection for people, process and technology.
5.4 Detect
A cybersecurity framework should include the Detect concept.

The Detect concept develops the appropriate activities to discover cybersecurity events.

The activities in the Detect concept provide an organization the ability to proactively observe changes

in behaviours, states, traffic, configuration or processing of its key resources. These changes can be

internal or external, intentional or unintentional. By understanding the changing landscape, the

organization can make updates to policies, procedures and technology as needed.

The Detect concept can include traditional asset monitoring and attack detection. Categories can include:

anomalies and events, security continuous monitoring, detection process, logging, log correlation and

analysis, threat hunting, anomaly detection and operational baseline creation.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider the depth and scope of internal and external

changes to be observed. Increasing scope of the Detect concept can add value to a cybersecurity

framework as well as potential additional burden. Some cybersecurity frameworks can focus on the

system level while others focus on process level. When considering the Detect concept, cybersecurity

framework creators should determine the appropriate level of detail to guide organizations.

5.5 Respond
A cybersecurity framework should include the Respond concept.

The Respond concept develops the appropriate activities regarding the response to cybersecurity events.

The activities in the Respond concept allow an organization to qualify the cybersecurity events in

their environment and react to them. These activities allow an organization to categorize, evaluate,

and remediate cybersecurity events based on their specific needs, resources, stakeholders and

requirements.

The Respond concept can include the traditional incident response concepts as well as policies,

procedures and plans. Categories can include: response planning, communications, analysis, mitigation,

improvements, incident response, environment sterilization or malware eradication.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider the broader context of the Respond concept,

e.g. managerial and procedural aspects. In addition to incident response, the Respond concept can

incorporate communication to and from external parties. These communications can be vulnerability

disclosures, threat reports or other information provided by external sources. Additionally, the Respond

concept can include the sharing of information with external sources. A cybersecurity framework

creator should consider the entire ecosystem in which the cybersecurity framework will be deployed to

understand the Respond concept.
4 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
5.6 Recover
A cybersecurity framework should include the Recover concept.

The Recover concept develops the appropriate activities to restore services, repair systems and restore

reputation.

The activities in the Recover concept define the restoration and communication related activities after

a cybersecurity event. The Recover concept is not only a reactive concept, but also a proactive concept.

Effective and efficient planning and execution of the activities in the Recover concept should minimize

damage and help organizations resume operations.

It is possible that services have been degraded during a cybersecurity incident. The Recover concept

is an opportunity to provide guidance on how to restore those services. Services can be technical or

managerial processes in nature. Assets can have reached an inoperable or undesired state of operation.

The Recover concept is an opportunity to provide guidance on how to repair those assets. Reputation

can have been damaged during a cybersecurity incident. Reputation can be a key factor in maintaining

market share or consumer confidence. Categories can include: recovery planning, communications,

improvements, recovery training and recovery execution.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider a number of factors influencing priority of service

restoration when producing a cybersecurity framework. These include business impact, stakeholder

needs, implementation scenarios and technological maturity. While some cybersecurity frameworks

do not incorporate business goals, the non-technical ramifications of a recovery can be severe and can

be addressed by a cybersecurity framework.
6 Creating a cybersecurity framework

Cybersecurity framework creators should use Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond and Recover

concepts to structure and organize desired cybersecurity and information security activities into a

cybersecurity framework. As shown in Figure 1, the cybersecurity and information security activities

to be organized into a cybersecurity framework depend on the context and requirements that guide

cybersecurity framework creators. Once all activities are identified, they should be organized under

the concepts and then, if needed, split into categories and subcategories depending on the desired level

of detail. If an additional level of detail is desired, cybersecurity framework creators can add more

detailed statements to align at the subcategory level.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Considerations in the creation of a cybersecurity framework
A.1 General

The considerations proposed in this annex aim to guide cybersecurity framework creators in designing

a cybersecurity framework.

While there can be other interpretations of the concepts and standards listed, A.2 to A.4 are presented

as a compendium of three examples.

Example 1 is a replication of ISO/IEC TR 27103 which demonstrates a cybersecurity framework created

from selected ISO/IEC standards. This example provides additional categories which are a further

subdivision of the base concepts. While categories within a specific concept can vary, concepts remain

constant per this document. Tables A.1 to A.5 show example categories and references within each

concept.

Example 2 is also a replication of ISO/IEC TR 27103 which demonstrates a cybersecurity framework

created from selected ISO/IEC standards. While categories within a specific concept can vary, concepts

remain constant per this document. This example provides an additional layer of specification with

both categories and subcategories. Tables A.6 to A.27 show example categories, subcategories and

references within each category.

Example 3 is a generic cybersecurity framework which is does not reference other standards or

guidance. This cybersecurity framework specifies categories within each concept and subcategories

within each category.
A.2 Example 1
Table A.1 — Example categories and references within Identify
Category Description References
Business environment The organization’s objectives, ISO/IEC 27001:2013, Clause 4
stakeholders, and activities are
ISO/IEC 27001:2013, Clause 5
understood and used to inform
roles, responsibilities and risk ISO/IEC 27036 (all parts)
management decisions. Compre-
hensive security measures are
necessary covering the company
itself, its group companies, busi-
ness partners of its supply chain
and IT system control outsourcing
companies.
Risk assessment The organization understands the ISO/IEC 27001:2013, Clause 6
risks to the organization’s opera-
ISO/IEC 27014
tions and assets. The management
are required to drive cybersecuri-
ty risk measures considering any
possible risk while in proceeding
with the utilization of IT.
6 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
Table A.1 (continued)
Category Description References
Risk management strategy An organization’s approach, the ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 9.3
management components and
resources to be applied to the
management of risk.
Governance To monitor and manage the ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 5
organization’s regulatory, legal,
ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 6
environmental and operational
requirements. This information is
then used to inform the appropri-
ate levels of management.
Asset Management Identification and management of ISO/IEC 27002:2013
the systems, data, devices, people
ISO/IEC 27019:2017, Clause 7
and facilities in relation to the
business.
Table A.2 — Example categories and references within Protect
Category Description References
Access control Limiting access to facilities and ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 9
assets to only authorized entities
ISO/IEC 29146
and associated activities. Included
in access management is entity ISO/IEC 29115
authentication

Awareness and training Ensuring users and stakeholders ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clauses 6 and 7

are aware of policies, procedures,
and responsibilities relating to
cybersecurity responsibilities.
Data security Responsible for the confidentiality, ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 8
integrity, and availability of data
and information.

Information protection processes Security policies, processes, and ISO/IEC 27002:2013

and procedures procedures are maintained and
used to manage protection of infor-
mation systems.
Maintenance Processes and procedures for ongo- ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 11
ing maintenance and modernization
Protective technology Technical security solutions (such ISO/IEC 27002:2013
as logging, removable media, least
ISO/IEC 27033 (all parts)
access principles, and network
protection)
Table A.3 — Example categories and reference within Detect
Category Description References

Anomalies and events Detection of anomalies and events ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 16

and understanding of the impact
ISO/IEC 27035 (all parts)
of those events.

Security continuous monitoring Systems being monitored on a reg- ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 12

ular basis to validate the effective-
ness of security measures in place.
Detection process Processes and procedures to ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 16
ensure timely awareness and com-
ISO/IEC 27035 (all parts)
munication of events.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2021(E)
Table A.4 — Example categories and references within Respond
Category Description References
Response planning Plan for how to respond to ev
...

TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TS
SPECIFICATION 27110
First edition
Information technology, cybersecurity
and privacy protection —
Cybersecurity framework
development guidelines
Sécurité de l'information, cybersécurité et protection de la vie
privée — Lignes directrices relatives à l'élaboration d'un cadre en
matière de cybersécurité
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Concepts ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Identify ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Protect ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.4 Detect .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5 Respond......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Recover .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Creating a cybersecurity framework ............................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (informative) Considerations in the creation of a cybersecurity framework ....................................6

Annex B (informative) Considerations in the integration of a cybersecurity framework .........................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 27, Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TS 27110:2020(E)
Introduction

Cybersecurity is a pressing issue due to the use of connected technologies. Cyber threats are continually

evolving, thus protecting users and organizations is a constant challenge. To cope with this challenge,

business groups, government agencies, and other organizations produce documents and tools called

cybersecurity frameworks to help organize and communicate cybersecurity activities of organizations.

These organizations producing the cybersecurity frameworks are referred to as “cybersecurity

framework creators.” Other organizations and individuals then use or reference the cybersecurity

framework in their cybersecurity activities.

Given that there are multiple cybersecurity framework creators, there are a multitude of cybersecurity

frameworks. The current set of cybersecurity frameworks is diverse and varied. Organizations

using cybersecurity frameworks are challenged with harmonizing different lexicons and conceptual

structures to meet their requirements. These cybersecurity frameworks then become competing

interests for finite resources. The additional effort could be better spent implementing cybersecurity

and combating threats.

The goal of this document is to ensure a minimum set of concepts are used to define cybersecurity

frameworks to help ease the burden of cybersecurity framework creators and cybersecurity

framework users.

As this document limits itself with a minimum set of concepts, its length is kept to a minimum on

purpose. This document is not intended to supersede or replace the requirements of an ISMS given in

ISO/IEC 27001.
The principles of this document are as follows:
— flexible — to allow for multiple types of cybersecurity frameworks to exist;
— compatible — to allow for multiple cybersecurity frameworks to align; and

— interoperable — to allow for multiple uses of a-cybersecurity framework to be valid.

The audience of this document is cybersecurity framework creators
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/IEC TS 27110:2020(E)
Information technology, cybersecurity and privacy
protection — Cybersecurity framework development
guidelines
1 Scope

This document specifies guidelines for developing a cybersecurity framework. It is applicable to

cybersecurity framework creators regardless of their organizations’ type, size or nature.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 27000, Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management

systems — Overview and vocabulary
ISO/IEC TS 27100, Information technology — Cybersecurity — Overview and concepts
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 27000, ISO/IEC TS 27100

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
cybersecurity framework
basic set of concepts used to organize and communicate cybersecurity activities
3.2
cyber persona

digital representation of an individual or organization necessary to interact in cyberspace

[SOURCE: U.S. DoD Joint Publication 3-12 and Caire, J, & Conchon, S:2016]
3.3
asset
anything that has value to an individual, an organization or a government
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27032:2012, 4.6, modified — The Note has been removed.]
4 Overview

Cybersecurity framework creators face a unique challenge: create a framework which is general enough

to allow for flexibility in use while providing a structure to allow for compatibility and interoperability

across frameworks and uses. Striking a balance between flexibility and compatibility while satisfying

stakeholder requirements can be difficult. Developing multiple cybersecurity frameworks using the

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same structure will help cybersecurity framework users maximize resources, while providing a way

for different uses of a cybersecurity framework to achieve interoperability.

To help ease the challenge of creating a cybersecurity framework, this document provides the minimum

set of concepts a cybersecurity framework should have: Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond, and Recover.

This document can be used to build a framework of the minimum set of cybersecurity concepts.

While cybersecurity framework creators are subject to their unique stakeholder requirements, as

shown in Figure 1, these concepts can also be used as pillars to help a cybersecurity framework creator

structure and start filling out its lower level concepts. Unique stakeholder requirements can result in

the creation of additional concepts to be contained in the resultant cybersecurity framework. However,

the concepts presented in this document remain foundational.

Structured within these concepts, the resultant cybersecurity framework can consist of standards,

guidelines, and practices to promote cybersecurity risk management. Cybersecurity frameworks

provide prioritized, flexible, repeatable, and cost-effective approaches to help cybersecurity framework

users manage cyber risk.

A cybersecurity framework helps persons executing these activities by providing a reference scheme.

Concepts and categories of a cybersecurity framework can be used as a guide, checklist or template

applicable in these activities.

A cybersecurity framework is not required in the implementation of an ISMS (ISO/IEC 27001). While

ISO/IEC 27001 and a cybersecurity framework are independent, the two approaches can be related.

Cybersecurity frameworks can be used in conjunction with ISMSs to organize cybersecurity activities

across multiple layers of an organization, communicate those activities outside of the organization, and

ensure continuous improvement of those activities over time. When a cybersecurity framework user

chooses to implement an ISMS in conjunction with a cybersecurity framework, the two approaches

work together to allow effective implementation of information security and cybersecurity activities,

organization of those activities, and communication of those activities. An example of a cybersecurity

framework and an ISMS working together is presented in Annex A. Considerations on the integration

of a cybersecurity framework into practice are provided in Annex B. Examples of cybersecurity

framework are listed in the Bibliography.

Many cybersecurity frameworks implement the concept of risk management, but not all. Cybersecurity

frameworks should consider the concept of risk management.
Figure 1 — Creating a cybersecurity framework using ISO/IEC 27101
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The value of applying the guidelines in this document is that users of different cybersecurity

frameworks can communicate with each other. These concepts are intended to give a cybersecurity

framework creator a starting point, and when used collectively, provide an effective structure in

organizing a cybersecurity framework.
5 Concepts
5.1 General

The purpose of subclauses 5.2 to 5.6 is to describe the concepts in a cybersecurity framework. These

concepts are intended to give a cybersecurity framework creator a starting point. While every

cybersecurity framework has different stakeholders and requirements, the concepts below remain

constant and, thus, serve as the basis for any cybersecurity framework.

The concepts listed below are not intended to provide sufficient detail for implementation of

cybersecurity within an organization. These concepts can be arranged in a process model. However,

other configurations can work given the cybersecurity framework creator’s stakeholder requirements.

Cybersecurity framework creators can choose to augment the cybersecurity framework with additional

concepts which provide value to their stakeholders or satisfy specific requirements. Furthermore,

some cybersecurity framework creators can choose to enhance these concepts with categories and

subcategories to provide more guidance to their stakeholders or satisfy requirements. Some contexts

can warrant a greater level of detail than categories. If that is the case, cybersecurity framework

creators may specify additional, more detailed statements that would align at the subcategory level.

The concepts presented below are independent of time, context, granularity of scope, and market

conditions. While sequence of events, unique operating constraints, and business drivers are all

important factors when designing a cybersecurity framework, they are considered implementation

details.
5.2 Identify
A cybersecurity framework should include the Identify concept.

The Identify concept develops the ecosystem of cybersecurity which is being considered.

This ecosystem is used when developing the Detect, Protect, Respond and Recover concepts. Examples

of ecosystem considerations are: business objectives, business environment, stakeholders, assets,

business processes, laws, regulations, threat environment and cyber risks. The Identify concept

addresses people, policies, processes and technology when defining the scope of activities. The Identify

concept can include many categories relating to scoping particular activities to only those which are

relevant. Categories can include: business environment, risk assessment, risk management strategy,

governance, asset management, business context analysis and supply chain considerations.

The activities in scope of the Identify concept are foundational for cybersecurity. The Identify concept

can include an understanding of business context, stakeholders, the cybersecurity ecosystem and

dependencies. An organization’s presence in cyberspace, its cyber persona, the business-critical

functions and information and their related resources can also be important. The understanding gained

from the Identify concept enables a flexible and repeatable view of cybersecurity for an organization to

focus and prioritize its efforts.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider evolving cyber threats and emerging technology

when designing the Identify concept. Otherwise, the resulting cybersecurity framework can fail to

appropriately meet future requirements.
5.3 Protect
A cybersecurity framework should include the Protect concept.
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The Protect concept develops appropriate safeguards to protect an organization’s cyber persona,

ensure preventative controls are working, and produce the desired readiness of the organization to

deliver critical services and maintain its operations and security of its information.

The Protect concept can contain many categories and activities related to the safeguarding of assets

against intentional or unintentional misuse. The Protect concept can include controls for traditional IT

system security, industrial control systems or internet of things. Categories can include: access control,

awareness and training, data security, information protection processes and procedures, maintenance,

protective technology, security architecture, asset configuration, systems segregation, traffic filtering,

cryptography, security administration and maintenance, identity and access management and data

security.

A cybersecurity framework creator should determine the scope of the Protect concept. Prevention

and threat-oriented approaches can be used. When developing the Protect concept, a cybersecurity

framework creator should consider protection for people, process and technology.
5.4 Detect
A cybersecurity framework should include the Detect concept.

The Detect concept develops the appropriate activities to discover cybersecurity events.

The activities in the Detect concept provide an organization the ability to proactively observe changes

in behaviours, states, traffic, configuration or processing of its key resources. These changes can be

internal or external, intentional or unintentional. By understanding the changing landscape, the

organization can make updates to policies, procedures and technology as needed.

The Detect concept can include traditional asset monitoring and attack detection. Categories can include:

anomalies and events, security continuous monitoring, detection process, logging, log correlation and

analysis, threat hunting, anomaly detection and operational baseline creation.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider the depth and scope of internal and external

changes to be observed. Increasing scope of the Detect concept can add value to a cybersecurity

framework as well as potential additional burden. Some cybersecurity frameworks can focus on the

system level while others focus on process level. When considering the Detect concept, cybersecurity

framework creators should determine the appropriate level of detail to guide organizations.

5.5 Respond
A cybersecurity framework should include the Respond concept.

The Respond concept develops the appropriate activities regarding the response to cybersecurity events.

The activities in the Respond concept allow an organization to qualify the cybersecurity events in

their environment and react to them. These activities allow an organization to categorize, evaluate,

and remediate cybersecurity events based on their specific needs, resources, stakeholders and

requirements.

The Respond concept can include the traditional incident response concepts as well as policies,

procedures and plans. Categories can include: response planning, communications, analysis, mitigation,

improvements, incident response, environment sterilization or malware eradication.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider the broader context of the Respond concept,

e.g. managerial and procedural aspects. In addition to incident response, the Respond concept can

incorporate communication to and from external parties. These communications can be vulnerability

disclosures, threat reports or other information provided by external sources. Additionally, the Respond

concept can include the sharing of information with external sources. A cybersecurity framework

creator should consider the entire ecosystem in which the cybersecurity framework will be deployed to

understand the Respond concept.
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5.6 Recover
A cybersecurity framework should include the Recover concept.

The Recover concept develops the appropriate activities to restore services, repair systems and restore

reputation.

The activities in the Recover concept define the restoration and communication related activities after

a cybersecurity event. The Recover concept is not only a reactive concept, but also a proactive concept.

Effective and efficient planning and execution of the activities in the Recover concept should minimize

damage and help organizations resume operations.

It is possible that services have been degraded during a cybersecurity incident. The Recover concept

is an opportunity to provide guidance on how to restore those services. Services can be technical or

managerial processes in nature. Assets can have reached an inoperable or undesired state of operation.

The Recover concept is an opportunity to provide guidance on how to repair those assets. Reputation

can have been damaged during a cybersecurity incident. Reputation can be a key factor in maintaining

market share or consumer confidence. Categories can include: recovery planning, communications,

improvements, recovery training and recovery execution.

A cybersecurity framework creator should consider a number of factors influencing priority of service

restoration when producing a cybersecurity framework. These include business impact, stakeholder

needs, implementation scenarios and technological maturity. While some cybersecurity frameworks

do not incorporate business goals, the non-technical ramifications of a recovery can be severe and can

be addressed by a cybersecurity framework.
6 Creating a cybersecurity framework

Cybersecurity framework creators should use Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond and Recover

concepts to structure and organize desired cybersecurity and information security activities into a

cybersecurity framework. As shown in Figure 1, the cybersecurity and information security activities

to be organized into a cybersecurity framework depend on the context and requirements that guide

cybersecurity framework creators. Once all activities are identified, they should be organized under

the concepts and then, if needed, split into categories and subcategories depending on the desired level

of detail. If an additional level of detail is desired, cybersecurity framework creators can add more

detailed statements to align at the subcategory level.
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Annex A
(informative)
Considerations in the creation of a cybersecurity framework
A.1 General

The considerations proposed in this annex aim to guide cybersecurity framework creators in designing

a cybersecurity framework.

While there can be other interpretations of the concepts and standards listed, A.2 to A.4 are presented

as a compendium of three examples.

Example 1 is a replication of ISO/IEC TR 27103 which demonstrates a cybersecurity framework created

from selected ISO/IEC standards. This example provides additional categories which are a further

subdivision of the base concepts. While categories within a specific concept can vary, concepts remain

constant per this document. Tables A.1 to A.5 show example categories and references within each

concept.

Example 2 is also a replication of ISO/IEC TR 27103 which demonstrates a cybersecurity framework

created from selected ISO/IEC standards. While categories within a specific concept can vary, concepts

remain constant per this document. This example provides an additional layer of specification with

both categories and subcategories. Tables A.6 to A.27 show example categories, subcategories and

references within each category.

Example 3 is a generic cybersecurity framework which is does not reference other standards or

guidance. This cybersecurity framework specifies categories within each concept and subcategories

within each category.
A.2 Example 1
Table A.1 — Example categories and references within Identify
Category Description References
Business environment The organization’s objectives, ISO/IEC 27001:2013, Clause 4
stakeholders, and activities are
ISO/IEC 27001:2013, Clause 5
understood and used to inform
roles, responsibilities and risk ISO/IEC 27036 (all parts)
management decisions. Compre-
hensive security measures are
necessary covering the company
itself, its group companies, busi-
ness partners of its supply chain
and IT system control outsourcing
companies.
Risk assessment The organization understands the ISO/IEC 27001:2013, Clause 6
risks to the organization’s opera-
ISO/IEC 27014
tions and assets. The management
are required to drive cybersecuri-
ty risk measures considering any
possible risk while in proceeding
with the utilization of IT.
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Table A.1 (continued)
Category Description References
Risk management strategy An organization’s approach, the ISO/IEC 27001:2013, 9.3
management components and
resources to be applied to the
management of risk.
Governance To monitor and manage the ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 5
organization’s regulatory, legal,
ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 6
environmental and operational
requirements. This information is
then used to inform the appropri-
ate levels of management.
Asset Management Identification and management of ISO/IEC 27002:2013
the systems, data, devices, people
ISO/IEC 27019:2017, Clause 7
and facilities in relation to the
business.
Table A.2 — Example categories and references within Protect
Category Description References
Access control Limiting access to facilities and ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 9
assets to only authorized entities
ISO/IEC 29146
and associated activities. Included
in access management is entity ISO/IEC 29115
authentication

Awareness and training Ensuring users and stakeholders ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clauses 6 and 7

are aware of policies, procedures,
and responsibilities relating to
cybersecurity responsibilities.
Data security Responsible for the confidentiality, ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 8
integrity, and availability of data
and information.

Information protection processes Security policies, processes, and ISO/IEC 27002:2013

and procedures procedures are maintained and
used to manage protection of infor-
mation systems.
Maintenance Processes and procedures for ongo- ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 11
ing maintenance and modernization
Protective technology Technical security solutions (such ISO/IEC 27002:2013
as logging, removable media, least
ISO/IEC 27033 (all parts)
access principles, and network
protection)
Table A.3 — Example categories and reference within Detect
Category Description References

Anomalies and events Detection of anomalies and events ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 16

and understanding of the impact
ISO/IEC 27035 (all parts)
of those events.

Security continuous monitoring Systems being monitored on a reg- ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 12

ular basis to validate the effective-
ness of security measures in place.
Detection process Processes and procedures to ISO/IEC 27002:2013, Clause 16
ensure timely awareness and com-
ISO/IEC 27035 (all parts)
munication of events.
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