Corrosion of metals and alloys — Overview of metal corrosion protection when using disinfectants

This document provides an overview of the corrosivity of disinfectants and corrosion protection when using disinfectants, including an overview of test methods that can be used to determine their corrosivity. This document is generic and applicable to organizations of all sizes in all industries, as well as to families and individuals, and it is intended to assist in determining appropriate health and safety measures regarding the use of disinfectants. The resolution of security issues related to the use of disinfectants is outside the scope of this document.

Corrosion des métaux et alliages — Vue d'ensemble de la protection contre la corrosion des métaux lors de l'utilisation de désinfectants

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Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Mar-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Mar-2022
Due Date
18-Dec-2022
Completion Date
16-Mar-2022
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 7655
First edition
2022-03
Corrosion of metals and alloys —
Overview of metal corrosion
protection when using disinfectants
Corrosion des métaux et alliages — Vue d'ensemble de la protection
contre la corrosion des métaux lors de l'utilisation de désinfectants
Reference number
ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Corrosivity and main properties of commonly used disinfectants ...............................................................2

6 Good practice for metal corrosion protection when using disinfectants ...............................................6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Corrosion hazards ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Corrosion protection measures............................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Overview of test methods to determine the corrosivity of

disinfectants ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex B (informative) Commonly used disinfectants for disinfection of infectious disease .............10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

iii
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

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ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

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www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156, Corrosion of metals and alloys.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Introduction

This document provides information on protection against metal corrosion risks when disinfectants

are used in response to infectious diseases.

Governments, regulatory agencies and other professional organizations around the world have issued

guidelines in response to pandemics, but these contain no specific information on metal corrosion

protection when using disinfectants.

This document provides supplementary information intended to help organizations, families and

individuals, as well as other stakeholders, take more effective actions to prevent users from being

injured and reduce or avoid possible risks of metal corrosion during the use of disinfectants.

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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Corrosion of metals and alloys — Overview of metal
corrosion protection when using disinfectants
1 Scope

This document provides an overview of the corrosivity of disinfectants and corrosion protection

when using disinfectants, including an overview of test methods that can be used to determine their

corrosivity.

This document is generic and applicable to organizations of all sizes in all industries, as well as to

families and individuals, and it is intended to assist in determining appropriate health and safety

measures regarding the use of disinfectants.

The resolution of security issues related to the use of disinfectants is outside the scope of this document.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
organization

company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, person or persons or part or

combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and

administration
[SOURCE: ISO 30000:2009, 3.10]
3.2
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

[SOURCE: ISO 15188:2001, 3.6]
3.3
disinfectant
agent capable of causing disinfection
[SOURCE: ISO 15190:2020, 3.8]
3.4
corrosivity

ability of an environment to cause corrosion of a metal in a given corrosion system

[SOURCE: ISO 8044:2020, 3.14]
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
3.5
corrosion protection
modification of a corrosion system so that corrosion damage is reduced
[SOURCE: ISO 8044:2020, 5.1]
3.6
common areas
spaces and amenities provided for the use of more than one person

Note 1 to entry: Canteens, lifts/elevators, stairs, reception areas, meeting rooms, areas of worship, toilets,

gardens, fire escapes, kitchens, fitness facilities, store rooms, laundry facilities.

[SOURCE: ISO/PAS 45005:2020, 3.11]
4 Overview

4.1 Disinfecting is an important process of defending against infectious diseases, which can corrode

metals. When disinfecting, avoid corrosion, injury and, if possible, discomfort to individuals, damage

to the environment that can affect public health and damage to baggage, cargo, containers, vehicles,

articles and mailbags.

4.2 Guidance on disinfection for the prevention of infectious diseases provided by public health

agencies can include information on the corrosivity to metals.

4.3 Professional disinfectant-related institutions can provide detection methods of metal corrosion

caused by various types of disinfectants under different testing or application conditions, and reports

on corrosion tests for commonly used metals for public use or reference.

4.4 Disinfectant manufacturers can test the corrosivity of their products to metals and clearly note

it on their instructions, provide corrosion data of their products to commonly used metals and put

forward protective measures for reference.

4.5 When disinfecting, organizations, families or individuals, use disinfectants according to the

relevant guidance documents and product specifications on metal corrosivity. Corrosion risks cannot

be neglected and effective measures are important to avoid corrosion hazards; disinfection service

providers are commonly required to receive training in the safe and effective use of disinfectants to

avoid corrosion.
5 Corrosivity and main properties of commonly used disinfectants

Commonly used disinfectants can be classified by active ingredients into alcohol disinfectants, halogen

disinfectants, peroxide disinfectants, guanidine disinfectants, phenol disinfectants, quaternary

ammonium disinfectants and other disinfectants; classified by use into object surface disinfectants,

disinfectants for medical items, air disinfectants, hand disinfectants, skin disinfectant, mucous

membrane disinfectants, and disinfectants for infectious focus; classified by the microorganism killing

ability into high-level disinfectants, intermediate-level disinfectants and low-level disinfectants.

Annex B provides an overview of the physical and chemical properties, types, disinfection mechanisms,

application scope and methods of disinfectants commonly used in infectious disease disinfection.

Usually, peroxide disinfectants and halogen disinfectants are highly corrosive to metals in the range

of their disinfection concentration. In general, the corrosivity increases with the strength of oxidation

and acidity.

The corrosivity, active ingredients, main properties, uses, application methods, etc., of commonly used

disinfectants are shown in Table 1.
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Table 1 — Corrosivity and main properties of commonly used disinfectants
Active ingredi-
Oxi-
ents of com- Alkalinity Corrosivity to Application
Type diz-abil- Main uses
a b
monly used or acidity metals methods
ity
products
The presence of
small amount of Disinfection of ob-
Immersion
formic acid in for- ject surfaces and
Formaldehyde No Acidic
maldehyde solu- medical devices,
Fumigation
tions can corrode etc.
Aldehyde
metals.
Disinfection of
Immersion
Acid, neutral Corrosive to car-
Glutaraldehyde No medical devices,
or alkaline bon steel
Wiping
etc.
Slightly corrosive
to stainless steel,
Immersion
alloy steel and Disinfection of
chrome-plated object surfaces,
Wiping
Peracetic acid Yes Acidic metal, and heavily medical devices,
Spraying
corrosive to com- air and infectious
mon metals such focuses, etc.
Fumigation
as iron, copper
and aluminium.
Peroxide Disinfection of
object surfaces, Immersion
Hydrogen per- Corrosive to met- medical devices,
Yes Acidic Wiping
oxide als skin and mucosa,
air and infectious Spraying
focuses, etc.
Disinfection of Immersion
Corrosive to met- object surfaces,
Ozone Yes Neutral Wiping
als medical devices,
air and water, etc. Spraying
Strong corrosive
to aluminium, low Disinfection of
Immersion
alloy steel and object surfaces,
Chlorine dioxide Yes Acidic carbon steel, and medical devices, Wiping
moderately cor- air and infectious
Spraying
rosive to stainless focuses, etc.
steel.
Corrosive to cop- Disinfection of
per, aluminium object surfaces, Immersion
Electrolyzed
and carbon steel, medical devices,
oxidizing water Yes Acidic Wiping
and not obviously skin, hands and
(EOW)
corrosive to stain- infectious focus- Spraying
less steel es, etc.
Disinfection of
object surfaces, Immersion
Potassium Corrosive to met- medical devices,
Yes Acidic Wiping
monopersulfate als skin, water and
infectious focus- Spraying
es, etc.
Alkalinity or acidity refers to that of commonly used disinfectant products.

Metal corrosivity is usually graded as no obvious corrosion, mild corrosion, moderate corrosion and heavy corrosion;

there is no unified corrosion classification standard for disinfectants so far, which will be developed in the future; in the

table, "corrosive to metals" only indicates the existence of metal corrosion, as a warning when using disinfectants; the

specific corrosion classification is related to the standards used in the test, the type of metal materials used, test conditions

and the basis for evaluation.
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Active ingredi-
Oxi-
ents of com- Alkalinity Corrosivity to Application
Type diz-abil- Main uses
a b
monly used or acidity metals methods
ity
products
Sodium hy-
Heavily corrosive
Yes Alkaline
pochlorite
to aluminium,
steel and carbon
Calcium hy-
Yes Alkaline
steel, and mod-
pochlorite
erately corrosive Disinfection of ob- Immersion
Chlorinated so-
Yes Alkaline to stainless steel, ject surface, water
dium phosphate Wiping
which can cause and infectious fo-
Sodium di-
hydrogen embrit- cuses, etc. Spraying
chloroisocya- Yes Acidic
tlement or stress
nurate
corrosion crack-
ing of stainless
Trichloroisocya-
Yes Acidic
steel.
nuric acid
Disinfection of
Slightly corrosive
Immersion
medical devices,
Iodophor Yes Alkaline to aluminium and
skin and mucosa,
Wiping
Halogen
stainless steel
etc.
Disinfection of
Slightly corrosive
Immersion
medical devices,
Iodine tincture Yes Alkaline to aluminium and
skin and mucosa,
Wiping
stainless steel
etc.
Disinfection of
Slightly corrosive Immersion
D i br o m o d i - object surfaces,
to copper, alumin-
met-hylhydantoin Yes Acidic medical devices, Wiping
ium and carbon
(DBDMH) water and infec-
steel Spraying
tious focuses, etc.
Slightly corrosive
to copper, alumin- Immersion
Bromochlorodi- Disinfection of ob-
ium and carbon
methylhydanto- Yes Acidic ject surfaces and Wiping
steel, and almost
in (BCDMH) water, etc.
corrosion-free to Spraying
stainless steel
Disinfection of ob-
Wiping
No obvious cor-
Ethanol No Neutral ject surfaces, skin
rosivity
Spraying
and hands, etc.
Disinfection of
object surfaces,
Immersion
Isopropyl alco- No obvious cor-
No Neutral medical devices,
hol rosivity
Wiping
Alcohol skin and hands,
etc.
Disinfection of
Immersion
object surfaces,
Chlorhex- No obvious cor-
No Alkaline medical devices, Wiping
idine-ethanol rosivity
skin and hands,
Spraying
etc.
Alkalinity or acidity refers to that of commonly used disinfectant products.

Metal corrosivity is usually graded as no obvious corrosion, mild corrosion, moderate corrosion and heavy corrosion;

there is no unified corrosion classification standard for disinfectants so far, which will be developed in the future; in the

table, "corrosive to metals" only indicates the existence of metal corrosion, as a warning when using disinfectants; the

specific corrosion classification is related to the standards used in the test, the type of metal materials used, test conditions

and the basis for evaluation.
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Active ingredi-
Oxi-
ents of com- Alkalinity Corrosivity to Application
Type diz-abil- Main uses
a b
monly used or acidity metals methods
ity
products
Immersion
Disinfection of ob-
No obvious cor-
Phenol No Acidic ject surfaces and Wiping
rosivity
skin, etc.
Spraying
Phenol
Disinfection of ob-
Immersion
Halogenated No obvious cor-
No — ject surfaces, skin
Phenols rosivity
Wiping
and hands, etc.
Disinfection of Immersion
No obvious cor- object surfaces,
Guanidine Chlorhexidine No Acidic Wiping
rosivity skin, hands and
mucosa, etc. Spraying
Disinfection of
Polyhexameth-
No obvious cor- object surfaces,
ylene guanidine No —
rosivity skin, hands, air
(PHMG)
and water, etc.
Not obviously cor-
rosive to copper
Double-chain and stainless steel
Disinfection of
quaternary am- No — sheets, and slight-
Immersion
object surfaces,
monium salt ly corrosive to
Quaternary am-
medical devices, Wiping
carbon steel and
monium salt
skin and mucosa,
aluminium sheets.
Spraying
etc.
Single-stranded
Corrosive to met-
quaternary am- No —
als
monium salt
Disinfection of
object surfaces,
No obvious cor-
Ethylene oxide No Neutral medical devices, Fumigation
rosivity
skin, hands and
mucosa, etc.
Disinfection of ob-
Immersion
Potassium per- Corrosive to met-
Yes Alkaline ject surfaces, skin
manganate als
Wiping
and mucosa, etc.
Others
Disinfection of
Immersion
Compound object surfaces,
lysostaphin — — — medical devices, Wiping
disinfectant skin, hands and
Spraying
mucosa, etc.
Disinfection of ob- Immersion
Plant extracts
ject surfaces, air,
based disinfect- — — — Wiping
skin and hands,
ant
etc. Spraying
Alkalinity or acidity refers to that of commonly used disinfectant products.

Metal corrosivity is usually graded as no obvious corrosion, mild corrosion, moderate corrosion and heavy corrosion;

there is no unified corrosion classification standard for disinfectants so far, which will be developed in the future; in the

table, "corrosive to metals" only indicates the existence of metal corrosion, as a warning when using disinfectants; the

specific corrosion classification is related to the standards used in the test, the type of metal materials used, test conditions

and the basis for evaluation.
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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
6 Good practice for metal corrosion protection when using disinfectants
6.1 General

6.1.1 It is important that relevant management and disinfection personnel, as well as the general

public have adequate knowledge of the physical and chemical properties, corrosivity, corrosion

protection measures and application methods of disinfectants.

6.1.2 Before planning and implementing disinfection, testers assess the corrosion degree of

disinfectants to metals. This can be based on relevant international, regional, national or industrial

standards. See also the overview of test methods that can be used to determine the corrosivity of

disinfectants in Annex A.

6.1.3 According to the assessment results and the importance of metal equipment or components in

the disinfected area, corrosion risks can be assessed in order to take measures to reduce the corrosion

hazards.

6.1.4 Before disinfecting important facilities, vehicles or equipment, personnel obtain the corrosivity

data of the proposed disinfectants to the corresponding metals, or select appropriate methods to test

their corrosivity. When disinfecting other metal objects, reference is made to the relevant disinfectant

corrosivity description or data, or relevant experience of correct use of disinfectant.

6.1.5 Alternative measures to mitigate or eliminate corrosion risks, on the premise of satisfying the

disinfection effect, include but are not limited to the following:
— replacement of disinfectants with less corrosive or non-corrosive ones;

— protection of the surface of the disinfected objects before disinfecting, such as plugging or coating

the parts or cracks where disinfectants are easy to accumulate, or painting or spraying anticorrosive

coatings;

— use of inhibitors that cause no damage to the disinfected objects during disinfecting;

— wiping or rinsing the surface of the disinfected objects with clean water to remove the residual

disinfectant after the contact time of disinfection.
6.2 Corrosion hazards

6.2.1 Halogen and oxidizing disinfectants can cause serious corrosion hazards during disinfecting.

6.2.2 If the disinfected objects contain metals and alloys prone to stress corrosion or hydrogen

embrittlement, halogen disinfectants are not permitted to disinfect key components in aviation

industry and important facilities. In other cases, through technical and economic comparison, halogen

disinfectants can be used with appropriate corrosion protection measures based on 6.1.5.

6.2.3 Oxidizing disinfectants usually corrode commonly used metals to varying degrees with

incorrect usage.
6.3 Corrosion protection measures

6.3.1 Under normal circumstances, alternative corrosion protection measures can be used when

disinfecting different metals.

6.3.2 Alloy steel is often used as a key component of vehicles or important facilities, while carbon steel

is often used for guardrails in common areas, steel structure components or concrete reinforcement,

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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)

etc. When disinfecting alloy steel or carbon steel without a surface protective layer, the disinfectant can

corrode it to varying degrees. Even if there is a surface protection layer, when there are defects on the

surface of the protection layer (such as pinholes, cracks, or scratches) that exposes the substrate, the

substrate can be corroded, eroded or interface corroded, leading to peeling and debonding, and finally

affected by chemical corrosion. Commonly used anti-corrosion methods include using low-corrosive

or non-corrosive disinfectants, setting up a complete and corrosion-resistant protective layer, and

thoroughly rinsing after disinfection.

6.3.3 Aluminium alloys are commonly used in vehicle parts, building doors and windows, etc.

Disinfectants usually corrode them to varying degrees. Generally, corrosive disinfectants are not used

to disinfect the aluminium alloy parts of vehicles to avoid possible accidents; when used in other less

hazardous environments such as building doors and windows, in addition to choosing less corrosive

disinfectants, it can also be wiped or rinsed with clean water after the disinfectant contact time has

passed.

6.3.4 Stainless steel is the commonly used type of metal. The classes of stainless steels have relatively

good corrosion resistance, but some of them can also be corroded by exposure to some oxidizing

or halogen disinfectants. Corrosion forms of stainless steels usually include but not limited to the

following:

— Pitting corrosion can be caused by exposure to halide disinfectant solution. It is a kind of local

corrosion, resulting in shallow to deep penetration. Halide-induced pitting corrosion is a typical

corrosion phenomenon of corrosion-resistant austenitic stainless steel.

— Crevice corrosion occurs in small, shielded crevices, which are prone to corrosion when the

equipment is immersed in the non-flowing corrosive disinfectant solution.

— Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement can cause serious harm. Increasing

corrosion cracks on stainless steel are caused by residual stresses applied to the steel and exposure

to the corrosive disinfectant solution. Relieving stress or reducing the corrosivity of disinfectants

is helpful to slow down or avoid corrosion cracking.

6.3.5 Titanium has outstanding corrosion resistance, and conventional disinfection concentration

does not cause titanium metal corrosion.

6.3.6 When disinfecting other metals, the corrosivity of the disinfectant is a major factor to consider,

including confirmation that its corrosion does not cause safety hazards, or the corrosion does not affect

its appearance or function.

6.3.7 When disinfection is conducted in different environments, alternative protection measures

can be taken based on the possible risk levels caused by corrosion, including but not limited to the

following.

— When disinfecting aircraft including its components, corrosivity tests of disinfectants are carried

out according to aviation-related standards and disinfectants are selected that meet the industry

requirements or disinfectants without obvious corrosivity.

— When disinfecting other vehicles (such as ships, trains and automobiles), related standards and

technically and economically feasible disinfectants are selected. See also the overview of test

methods that can be used to determine the corrosivity of disinfectants in Annex A.

— When disinfecting metal parts of important infrastructures or structures that can affect safety (such

as steel structure bridge and their metal accessories, airports, stadiums, amusement facilities and

other metal structures, etc.), non-oxidative or non-halogen or non-obvious corrosive disinfectants

are preferred, or other corrosion protection measures as listed in 6.1.5 are taken.

— When disinfecting metal parts of medical apparatus and instruments or important equipment,

appropriate disinfectants and disinfection methods are selected that are comprehensively in

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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)

accordance with the corrosion resistance of the metal material to be disinfected, the corrosivity

of disinfectants, disinfection methods and other conditions. When there is no reference data or

experience, a specific test evaluation is required.

— When disinfecting other environments or objects with less risk of corrosion (such as common

areas, streets, shopping malls, hospitals, tourist attractions, non-motor vehicles, etc.), oxidation

disinfectants or halogen disinfectants or non-obvious corrosive disinfectants can be used without

causing health hazards and corrosion safety hazards. When using oxidizing or halogen disinfectants,

clean water is used to wipe or rinse after the disinfection contact time has passed, or less corrosive

disinfectants are chosen, or alternative measures are adopted as mentioned in 6.1.5.

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ISO/TR 7655:2022(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Overview of test methods to determine the corrosivity of
disinfectants

An overview of test methods used to determine the corrosivity of disinfectants is given in Table A.1.

Table A.1 — Test methods to determine the corrosivity of disinfectants
No. Test method Scope of application
a) Use full immersion to disinfect metal products, such as immersion
disinfection of medical instruments or other articles.
b) Factory inspection of disinfectants.
1 Full immersion
c) Evaluation of corrosivity of chemical agents involved in transportation.
d) Disinfectant corrosivity comparison experiment, etc.
The environment in which metal products are disinfected by spraying, such as the

2 Spraying disinfection of an enclosed space or an open environment (e.g. airplane, vehicle,

road, steel structure, and public area).
The metal products are disinfected in a closed environment by fumigation with
3 Fumigation
disinfectant.
a) Corrosion test when metal products are disinfected by wiping
4 Wiping
b) Corrosion test of disinfection towel

5 Corrosion evaluation Evaluation of corrosion degree based on the test results of various disinfectants

It is useful to study corrosion behaviour or test corrosion data of various disinfect-

Study on corrosivity

6 ants under different test conditions, so as to provide a reference for the prevention

test of disinfectants
and control of infectious diseases when using disinfectants.
Other situations where test methods can be developed for specific purposes. For

7 Other methods example, for ships, high-speed railways, motor vehicles and other transportation

tools, as well as important infrastructure or structures.

NOTE It is useful to consider and include limiting values, such as disinfectant effective concentration, test parameters,

dosage of disinfectants, treatment time and metal corrosion rate.
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...

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