Information technology -- Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management -- Data protocol: application interface

The data protocol used to exchange information in a radio-frequency identification (RFID) system for item management is specified in ISO/IEC 15961:2004 and in ISO/IEC 15962:2004. Both are required for a complete understanding of the data protocol in its entirety; but each focuses on one particular interface: ISO/IEC 15961:2004 addresses the information interface with the application system. ISO/IEC 15962:2004 deals with the processing of data and its presentation to the RF tag, and the initial processing of data captured from the RF tag. ISO/IEC 15961:2004 focuses on the interface between the application and the data protocol processor, and includes the specification of the transfer syntax and definition of application commands and responses. It allows data and commands to be specified in a standardized way, independent of the particular air interface of ISO/IEC 18000. ISO/IEC 15961:2004 provides guidelines on how data shall be presented as objects; defines the structure of object identifiers, based on ISO/IEC 9834-1; specifies the commands that are supported for transferring data between the application and the RF tag; specifies the responses that are supported for transferring data between the RF tag and the application; provides a formal description of all the processes using ASN.1, as specified in ISO/IEC 8824-1; specifies the transfer syntax, based on the Basic Encoding Rules of ISO/IEC 8825-1, for data to be transferred from and to the application. It is expected that ISO/IEC 15961:2004 will be used as a reference to develop software appropriate for particular applications, or for particular RF equipment.

Technologies de l'information -- Identification par radiofréquence (RFID) pour la gestion d'objets -- Protocole de données: interface d'application

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
17-Oct-2004
Withdrawal Date
17-Oct-2004
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
17-Sep-2004
Completion Date
18-Oct-2004
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 15961
First edition
2004-10-15
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification (RFID) for item
management — Data protocol:
application interface
Technologies de l'information — Identification par radiofréquence
(RFID) pour la gestion d'objets — Protocole de données: interface
d'application
Reference number
ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
ISO/IEC 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
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© ISO/IEC 2004

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ii © ISO/IEC 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................................................. 4

4 Protocol model ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2 Layered protocol ................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Functional processes ........................................................................................................................... 6

5 Data structure........................................................................................................................................ 9

5.1 Notation.................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Structure of the transfer between ISO/IEC 15961 and ISO/IEC 15962 ............................................. 9

6 Abstract and transfer syntax ............................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Abstract syntax ..................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Transfer syntax ................................................................................................................................... 14

7 Data flows and processes.................................................................................................................. 19

7.1 Establishing communications between the application and the RF tag....................................... 19

7.2 Preparing the basic objects ............................................................................................................... 24

7.3 Application system services.............................................................................................................. 27

7.4 Data security........................................................................................................................................ 29

8 Application commands and responses............................................................................................ 30

8.1 Final arc values of the command and response modules.............................................................. 30

8.2 completionCode (elementName) ....................................................................................................... 31

8.3 executionCode (elementName) ......................................................................................................... 32

8.4 Command-related elementNames ..................................................................................................... 33

8.5 ConfigureAfiModules.......................................................................................................................... 35

8.6 ConfigureStorageFormatModules..................................................................................................... 37

8.7 InventoryTagsModules....................................................................................................................... 39

8.8 AddSingleObjectModules................................................................................................................... 41

8.9 DeleteObjectModules.......................................................................................................................... 43

8.10 ModifyObjectModules......................................................................................................................... 44

8.11 ReadSingleObjectModules................................................................................................................. 46

8.12 ReadObjectIdsModules ...................................................................................................................... 48

8.13 ReadAllObjectsModules..................................................................................................................... 49

8.14 ReadLogicalMemoryMapModules.....................................................................................................51

8.15 InventoryAndReadObjectsModules ..................................................................................................52

8.16 EraseMemoryModules........................................................................................................................ 55

8.17 GetApplication-basedSystemInformationModules ......................................................................... 56

8.18 AddMultipleObjectsModules.............................................................................................................. 57

8.19 ReadMultipleObjectsModules............................................................................................................ 59

8.20 ReadFirstObjectModules.................................................................................................................... 61

8.21 Development commands.................................................................................................................... 63

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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)

9 Compliance, or classes of compliance, to this standard................................................................63

9.1 Application compliance ......................................................................................................................63

9.2 Compliance of the Data Protocol Processor ....................................................................................63

9.3 Compliance of the RF tag and RF interrogator ................................................................................63

Annex A (normative) First, Second and Third Arcs of Object Identifier Tree.............................................65

Annex B (normative) Code Assignments for ApplicationFamilyId..............................................................67

Annex C (informative) Accommodating established data formats..............................................................69

Annex D (informative) Contact Addresses for Managers of Main Application Data Dictionaries ..........71

D.1 EAN.UCC System ................................................................................................................................71

D.2 Data Identifiers.....................................................................................................................................71

D.3 IATA data elements .............................................................................................................................71

D.4 UPU data elements..............................................................................................................................71

Annex E (normative) Converting alphanumeric Data Identifiers to the final arc of the Object

Identifier ...............................................................................................................................................72

Annex F (informative) Relating data objects..................................................................................................73

F.1 Concatenation technique ...................................................................................................................73

F.2 Object identifier extension technique ...............................................................................................73

Annex G (informative) Data security issues...................................................................................................75

G.1 Object identifier issues.......................................................................................................................75

G.2 The data object ....................................................................................................................................75

G.3 Using the TagId....................................................................................................................................75

G.4 Advice on public key methods of encryption...................................................................................76

Annex H (informative) Example of a transfer encoding................................................................................77

H.1 Functional description of the command...........................................................................................77

H.2 The abstract syntax for the AddMultipleObjects command ...........................................................77

H.3 The AddMultipleObjects command with the data values................................................................78

H.4 The transfer encoding for the example command...........................................................................78

H.5 Functional description of the response............................................................................................79

H.6 The abstract syntax for the AddMultipleObjects response ............................................................79

H.7 The AddMultipleObjects response with the data values.................................................................80

H.8 The transfer encoding for the example response............................................................................80

Annex I (informative) Guidance to implementers of development commands ..........................................81

iv © ISO/IEC 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 15961 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.
© ISO/IEC 2004 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
Introduction

The technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is based on non-contact electronic communication

across an air interface. The structure of the bits stored on the memory of the RF tag is invisible and

accessible between the RF tag and the interrogator only by the use of the appropriate air interface protocol, as

specified in the appropriate part of ISO/IEC 18000. The transfer of data between the application and the

interrogator in open systems requires data to be presented in a consistent manner on any RF tag that is part

of that open system. Application commands from the application and responses from the interrogator also

require being processed in a standard way. This is not only to allow equipment to be interoperable, but in the

special case of data carrier, for the data to be encoded on the RF tag in one systems implementation for it to

be read at a later time in a completely different and unknown systems implementation. The data bits stored

on each RF tag must be formatted in such a way as to be reliably read at the point of use if the RF tag is to

fulfil its basic objective. The integrity of this is achieved through the use of a data protocol as specified in this

International Standard and ISO/IEC 15962.

Manufacturers of radio frequency identification equipment (interrogators, RF tags, etc) and the users of RFID

technology require a publicly available data protocol for RFID for item management. This International

Standard and ISO/IEC 15962 specify this data protocol, which is independent of any of the air interface

standards defined in ISO/IEC 18000. As such, the data protocol is a consistent component in the RFID

system that may independently evolve to include additional air interface protocols.

The transfer of data to and from the application, supported by appropriate application commands is the

subject of this International Standard. The companion International Standard, ISO/IEC 15962, specifies the

overall process and the methodologies developed to format the application data into a structure to store on the

RF tag.
vi © ISO/IEC 2004 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for
item management — Data protocol: application interface
1 Scope

The data protocol used to exchange information in an RFID system for item management is specified in this

International Standard and in ISO/IEC 15962. Both International Standards are required for a complete

understanding of the data protocol in its entirety; but each focuses on one particular interface:

• This International Standard addresses the information interface with the application system.

• ISO/IEC 15962 deals with the processing of data and its presentation to the RF tag, and the initial

processing of data captured from the RF tag.

This International Standard focuses on the interface between the application and the data protocol processor, and

includes the specification of the transfer syntax and definition of application commands and responses. It allows

data and commands to be specified in a standardised way, independent of the particular air interface of ISO/IEC

18000.
This International Standard
• provides guidelines on how data shall be presented as objects;
• defines the structure of object identifiers, based on ISO/IEC 9834-1;

• specifies the commands that are supported for transferring data between the application and the RF tag;

• specifies the responses that are supported for transferring data between the RF tag and the application;

• provides a formal description of all the processes using ASN.1, as specified in ISO/IEC 8824-1;

• specifies the transfer syntax, based on the Basic Encoding Rules of ISO/IEC 8825-1, for data to be

transferred from and to the application.

It is expected that this International Standard will be used as a reference to develop software appropriate for

particular applications, or for particular RF equipment.

NOTE Conventionally in International Standards, long numbers are separated by a space character as a "thousands

separator". This convention has not been followed in this International Standard, because the arcs of an object identifier are

defined by a space separator (according to ISO/IEC 8824 and ISO/IEC 8825). As the correct representation of these arcs is

vital to this International Standard, all numeric values have no space separators except to denote a node between two arcs of

an object identifier.
© ISO/IEC 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references,

only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 8824-1, Information technology — Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) — Specification of basic

notation (equivalent to ITU-T Recommendation X.680)

ISO/IEC 8825-1, Information technology — ASN.1 encoding rules — Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER),

Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) (equivalent to ITU-T Recommendation

X.690)

ISO/IEC 9834-1, Information technology — Open Systems Interconnection — Procedures for the operation of OSI

Registration Authorities: General procedures (equivalent to ITU-T Recommendation X.660)

ISO/IEC 15962:2004, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management —

Data protocol: data encoding rules and logical memory functions

ISO/IEC 18000 (all parts), Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management

ISO/IEC 19762-1, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 1: General terms relating to AIDC

ISO/IEC 19762-3, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 3: Radio frequency identification (RFID)
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762-1, 19762-3 and the following

apply.

NOTE: For terms defined below and in ISO/IEC 19762-1 or ISO/IEC 19762-3, the definitions given below apply.

3.1.1 Application command

The instruction issued from the application to the Data Protocol Processor in order to initiate an action or operation

with the RF tag(s) via the interrogator.
3.1.2 Application memory

The area on the RF tag available for storing data written to it. Sometimes known as user memory.

3.1.3 Arc

A specific branch of an object identifier tree, with new arcs added as required to define a particular object. The top

three arcs of all object identifiers compliant with ISO/IEC 9834-1 are defined in Annex A.

3.1.4 BER = Basic Encoding Rules
An ASN.1 encoding method.
3.1.5 Block

The minimum number of bytes on an RF tag that can be in a write transaction, or read transaction, across the air

interface.
1) To be published.
2 © ISO/IEC 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
3.1.6 Command / Response Unit

That part of the Data Protocol Processor that processes application commands and sends responses to control

encoding, decoding, structuring of the Logical Memory and transfer to the Tag Driver.

3.1.7 Data carrier

A device or medium used to store data as a relay mechanism in an AIDC system, e.g. bar code, OCR character

string, RF tag.
3.1.8 Data compaction

A mechanism, or algorithm, to process the original data so that it is represented efficiently in fewer octets in a data

carrier than in the original presentation.
3.1.9 Data Compactor
The implementation of the data compaction process defined in ISO/IEC 15962.
3.1.10 Data Protocol Processor

The implementation of the processes defined in ISO/IEC 15962, including the Data Compactor, Formatter, Logical

Memory, and Command / Response Unit.
3.1.11 Element name
A component of a Reference Type or enumerated list in ASN.1 syntax.
3.1.12 Formatter
The implementation of the data formatting process defined in ISO/IEC 15962.
3.1.13 Logical Memory
A software analogue on the Data Protocol Processor of the Logical Memory Map.
3.1.14 Logical Memory Map

An array of contiguous octets of memory on the RF tag, representing the application (or user) memory to be used

exclusively for the encoding of objects, objectIds and their associated Precursor on the RF tag. The system

information (see 7.1.2) shall be defined by different means, or stored in a separate area on the RF tag. This can

be achieved by partitioning memory, partly for system information and mainly for the Logical Memory Map purpose.

3.1.15 Object

A well-defined piece of information, definition, or specification which requires a name in order to identify its use in

an instance of communication.
3.1.16 Object identifier

A value (distinguishable from all other such values) which is associated with an object.

3.1.17 OBJECT IDENTIFIER type

A simple ASN.1 type whose distinguished values are the set of all object identifiers allocated in accordance with the

rules of ISO/IEC 8824-1 (ITU-T X.680).
3.1.18 Octet

An ordered sequence of eight bits considered as a unit, equivalent to an 8-bit byte.

NOTE: The term is used in preference to "byte" in this International Standard and in the ASN.1 standards to

avoid confusion in cases where there is a hardware association e.g. 7-bit byte, 16-bit byte.

3.1.19 RELATIVE-OID type

A particular object identifier where a common root-OID (for the first and subsequent arcs) is implied, and remaining

arcs after the root-OID are defined by the RELATIVE-OID.
3.1.20 Response

The feedback received by the application from an application command sent to the Data Protocol Processor.

© ISO/IEC 2004 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
3.1.21 System information

Information held on the RF tag, or generated by unique features of the air interface, that specify Data Protocol

parameters to establish the Logical Memory and other formatting rules.
3.1.22 Tag Driver

The implementation of the process to transfer data between the Data Protocol Processor and the RF tag.

3.1.23 Transfer syntax

The abstract syntax and concrete syntax used in the transfer of data between open systems.

NOTE: The term "transfer syntax" is sometimes used to mean encoding rules, and sometimes used to mean

the representation of bits in data while in transit.
3.1.24 Type reference

A name, in ASN.1 syntax, associated uniquely with a characteristic e.g. ObjectId.

3.1.25 Unique item identifier

A code assigned to an item (for example a product, transport unit, returnable asset) that is unique within the

domain and scope of a code system. When used with this Data Protocol, the particular ObjectId that defines the

unique item identifier shall rely on the fact that each instance of its object shall be unique and unambiguous with all

others related objects. As the object is unique, its use in the RF tag confers uniqueness to the RF tag itself.

3.2 Abbreviated terms
BER Basic Encoding Rules (of ASN.1)
EAN.UCC EAN International & Uniform Code Council, Inc
IATA International Air Transport Association
UPU Universal Postal Union
4 Protocol model
4.1 Overview

RFID supports bit encodation in the RF tag memory. Unlike other data carrier standards prepared by ISO/IEC

JTC1 SC31 which require encodation schemes that are specific to the individual data carrier technology, ISO/IEC

18000 does not specify the interpretation of bits or octets encoded on the RF tag memory. However, as an RF tag

is a relay in a communication system, each tag used for open systems item management needs to have data

encoded in a consistent manner. The prime function of this International Standard is to specify a common interface

between the application programs and the RF interrogator. The prime function of ISO/IEC 15962 is to specify the

common encoding rules and logical memory functions.

RF tags utilise electronic memory, which is typically capable of increasing data capacity as new generations of

product are introduced. Differences in data capacity of each RF tag type, whether similar or dissimilar, are

recognised by the data protocol defined in these two International Standards.

Different application standards may have their own particular data sets or data dictionaries. Each major application

standard for item management needs to have its data treated in an unambiguous manner, avoiding confusion with

data from other applications and even with data from closed systems. The data protocol specified in these

International Standards ensures the unambiguous identification of data.
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ISO/IEC 15961:2004(E)
4.2 Layered protocol

The protocol layers of an implementation of RFID for item management are illustrated schematically in Figure 1.

Application data - existing format,
not Object based
Advice in
15961
Data conversion between existing
and Object-based formats
Application capable of handling
data in Object-based format
Scope of
APPLICATION
15961
Application Commands &
LAYER
Responses
Data Compactor
DATA
Scope of
Data Formatter
PROTOCOL
15962
PROCESSOR
Logical Memory
Annexes
Tag Driver
of 15962
Air interface hardware / software
Scope of
AIR
18000
INTERFACE
tag

Figure 1 — Schematic of Protocol Layers for an Implementation of RFID for Item Management

The data protocol specified in this International Standard is independent of the different RF tag technologies

specified in ISO/IEC 18000, which is concerned with different air interface protocols that function between the

interrogator and the RF tag. This independence is achieved by implementing the standards at different levels in the

protocol hierarchy. The RFID data protocol defined in this International Standard is primarily concerned with the

upper layers as described below:
Application layer - as defined in this International Standard

• The RFID data protocol specifies how data is presented as objects, each uniquely identified with an object

identifier, which are meaningful to the application and can be encoded on the RF tag.

• This RFID data protocol defines application commands and responses so that application programs can

specify what data to transfer to and from the RF tag and to append, update or delete data on the RF tag.

• This RFID data protocol also defines error messages as responses to the application.

The application interface of this RFID data protocol is based on ASN.1, which:

• provides a means of defining the protocol which is independent of the host application, operating system,

...

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