Information technology — Power efficiency measurement specification for data center storage

This document describes a standardized method to assess the energy efficiency of commercial storage products in both active and idle states of operation. A taxonomy is defined that classifies storage products in terms of operational profiles and supported features. Test definition and execution rules for measuring the power efficiency of each taxonomy category are described; these include test sequence, test configuration, instrumentation, benchmark driver, IO profiles, measurement interval, and metric stability assessment. Qualitative heuristic tests are defined to verify the existence of several capacity optimization methods. Resulting power efficiency metrics are defined as ratios of idle capacity or active operations during a selected stable measurement interval to the average measured power.

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Published
Publication Date
21-Nov-2019
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6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Nov-2019
Completion Date
22-Nov-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 24091
First edition
2019-11
Information technology — Power
efficiency measurement specification
for data center storage
Reference number
ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details

of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC list of patent

declarations received (see http://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by SNIA (as SNIA Emerald™ Power Efficiency Measurement Specification

V3.0.3) and drafted in accordance with its editorial rules. It was adopted, under the JTC 1 PAS procedure,

by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
Contents

1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... vii

2 Scope ............................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1

2.3 Current Revision ........................................................................................................................ 1

2.4 Purpose ...................................................................................................................................... 1

2.5 Disclaimer .................................................................................................................................. 2

3 Normative References .................................................................................................................... 3

4 Definitions, Symbols, Abbreviations, and Conventions ............................................................ 4

4.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Definitions .................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Symbols and Abbreviated Terms ............................................................................................... 9

4.4 Expression of Provisions ............................................................................................................ 9

4.5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................. 10

5 Taxonomy ...................................................................................................................................... 11

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Taxonomy Categories .............................................................................................................. 12

5.3 Taxonomy Classifications ........................................................................................................ 12

5.4 Taxonomy Rules ...................................................................................................................... 12

5.5 Online Category ....................................................................................................................... 13

5.6 Near-Online Category .............................................................................................................. 15

5.7 Removable Media Library Category ........................................................................................ 15

5.8 Virtual Media Library Category ................................................................................................ 16

6 Capacity Optimization .................................................................................................................. 17

6.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 17

6.2 Space Consuming Practices .................................................................................................... 17

6.3 COMs Characterized ................................................................................................................ 17

7 Test Definition and Execution Rules .......................................................................................... 18

7.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................. 18

7.2 General Requirements and Definitions .................................................................................... 18

7.3 Block Access Online and Near-Online Tests ........................................................................... 30

7.4 File Access Online and Near-Online Active Test ..................................................................... 33

7.5 Block and File Access Ready Idle Test .................................................................................... 37

7.6 Block and File Access Capacity Optimization Test .................................................................. 37

7.7 Removable Media Library Testing ........................................................................................... 42

7.8 Virtual Media Library Testing ................................................................................................... 46

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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)

8 Metrics ........................................................................................................................................... 50

8.1 Taxonomy Considerations ....................................................................................................... 50

8.2 Block Access Primary Metrics .................................................................................................. 50

8.3 File Access Primary Metrics ..................................................................................................... 50

8.4 Power Efficiency Metric for Online and Near-Online Systems................................................. 50

8.5 Power Efficiency Metric for Removable Media Library Systems ............................................. 52

8.6 Storage Power Efficiency Metric for Virtual Media Library Systems ........................................ 52

8.7 Secondary Metrics ................................................................................................................... 52

9 Disclosure Requirements ............................................................................................................ 54

9.1 General..................................................................................................................................... 54

9.2 Product Identification ................................................................................................................ 54

9.3 Test Metrics .............................................................................................................................. 54

9.4 Test Characterization ............................................................................................................... 56

9.5 Product Under Test Description ............................................................................................... 57

Annex A (Normative) Suggested Power and Environmental Meters .......................................... 59

A.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................. 59

A.2 Alternate Meter Usage ............................................................................................................. 59

Annex B (Normative) Measurement Requirements ...................................................................... 60

B.1 Online and Near-Online Block Access Data Collection and Processing Requirements .......... 60

B.2 Removable and Virtual Media Library Block Access Data Collection and Processing

Requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 60

B.3 Online and Near-Online File Access Data Collection and Processing Requirements ............. 60

Annex C (Normative) Stable Storage ............................................................................................. 62

Annex D (Normative) Vdbench ....................................................................................................... 63

Annex E (Normative) Vdbench Test Scripts ................................................................................. 64

Annex F (Normative) SPEC SFS 2014 Benchmark ..................................................................... 65

Annex G (Normative) File Access IO Load Driver Configuration File ..................................... 66

Annex H (Informative) sFlow ......................................................................................................... 67

Annex I (Normative) COM Test Data Set Generator .................................................................... 68

Annex J (Informative) gzip ............................................................................................................. 69

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................ 70

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
List of Tables, Figures and Equations

Table 1 – Normative References ........................................................................................................... 3

Table 2 – Taxonomy Overview ............................................................................................................ 11

Table 3 – Common Category Attributes ............................................................................................... 12

Table 4 – Online Classifications ........................................................................................................... 14

Table 5 – Near-Online Classifications .................................................................................................. 15

Table 6 – Removable Media Library Classifications ............................................................................ 16

Table 7 – Virtual Media Library Classifications .................................................................................... 16

Figure 1 - Sample Configuration Block Access .................................................................................... 19

Figure 2 - Sample Configuration File Access ....................................................................................... 19

Table 8 – Example RAS Features ........................................................................................................ 20

Table 9 – Input Power Requirements (Products with Nameplate Rated Power ≤ 1 500 W) ............... 21

Table 10 – Input Power Requirements (Products with Nameplate Rated Power > 1 500 W) ............. 21

Table 11 – Power Meter Resolution ..................................................................................................... 22

Equation 7-1: Sequential Transfer Offset ............................................................................................. 24

Figure 3 - Percentage of Address Hit vs. Cache Size .......................................................................... 24

Table 12 – Workloads within the Hot Band IO Profile .......................................................................... 25

Table 13 – IO Transfer Size within the Hot Band IO Profile for 512 Byte Native Devices ................... 25

Table 14 – IO Transfer Size within the Hot Band IO Profile for 4 KiB Native Devices ........................ 26

Equation 7-2: Average Power .............................................................................................................. 27

Equation 7-3: Periodic Power Efficiency .............................................................................................. 28

Equation 7-4: Least Squares Linear Fit Calculation ............................................................................. 29

Equation 7-5: Weighted Moving Average Calculation .......................................................................... 29

Table 15 – Pre-fill Test IO Profile ......................................................................................................... 30

Table 16 – Online and Near-Online Testing: Conditioning Test IO Profiles ........................................ 31

Table 17 – Online and Near-Online Testing: Active Test Phase IO Profiles ....................................... 32

Table 18 – Business Metrics for Workload Type ................................................................................. 35

Table 19 – Business Metrics for File Access Active Test Sequence ................................................... 36

Table 20 – Data Sets............................................................................................................................ 38

Table 21 – Drive Counts ...................................................................................................................... 42

Table 22 – Removable Media Library Testing: Conditioning Test IO Profiles ..................................... 43

Table 23 – Removable Media Library Testing: Active Test Phase IO Profiles .................................... 44

Equation 7-6: Sequential Transfer Offset ............................................................................................. 45

Table 24 – Virtual Media Library Testing: Conditioning Test IO Profiles ............................................. 47

Table 25 – Virtual Media Library Testing: Active Test Phase IO Profiles ............................................ 48

Equation 7-7: Sequential Transfer Offset ............................................................................................. 48

Equation 8-1: Power Efficiency, Ready Idle ......................................................................................... 51

Equation 8-2: Power Efficiency, Active (Block Access) ....................................................................... 51

Equation 8-3: Power Efficiency, Active (File Access) .......................................................................... 51

Table B-1 Online and Near-Online Block Access Summary .......................................................... 60

Table B-2 Removable and Virtual Media Library Summary ........................................................... 60

Table B-3 Online and Near-Online File Access Summary ............................................................. 61

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
1 Introduction

There is a growing awareness of the environmental impact of IT equipment use. This impact takes several

forms: the energy expended in equipment manufacture and distribution, the impact of materials reclamation,

and the energy consumed in operation and cooling of the equipment. IT equipment users of all kinds now wish

to make their IT operations as energy efficient as possible. This new priority can be driven by one or more of

several requirements:

• Rising energy costs have made power and cooling expenses a more significant percentage of total cost of

ownership of server and storage equipment;

• Some data centers are physically unable to add more power and cooling load, which means that new

applications and data can only be brought on if old ones are retired or consolidated onto new, more

efficient configurations;

• Increased regulatory and societal pressures provide incentives for companies to lower their total energy

footprints. For many companies, IT is a significant portion of overall energy consumption, and corporate

Green goals can only be achieved by reducing IT’s energy needs or by making operations more efficient.

IT equipment users will seek advice on the most energy efficient approach to getting their work done. It is not

practical for customers to test a wide range of storage products and architectures for themselves. A more

effective approach is to create a collection of standard metrics that allow IT architects to objectively compare a

range of possible solutions. This objective, metric-based approach has a dual impact:

• Users can select the mode of storage usage that accomplishes their work objectives with the lowest

overall energy consumption;

• Companies will be driven to innovate and compete in the development of energy efficient products as

measured by the standard yardsticks.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved vii
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
2 Scope
2.1 Abstract

This document describes a standardized method to assess the energy efficiency of commercial

storage products in both active and idle states of operation. A taxonomy is defined that classifies

storage products in terms of operational profiles and supported features. Test definition and execution

rules for measuring the power efficiency of each taxonomy category are described; these include test

sequence, test configuration, instrumentation, benchmark driver, IO profiles, measurement interval,

and metric stability assessment. Qualitative heuristic tests are defined to verify the existence of

several capacity optimization methods. Resulting power efficiency metrics are defined as ratios of idle

capacity or active operations during a selected stable measurement interval to the average measured

power.
2.2 Introduction

This document defines methodologies and metrics for the evaluation of the related performance and

energy consumption of storage products in specific active and idle states.

Storage products and components are said to be in an “active” state when they are processing

externally initiated, application-level requests for data transfer between host(s) and the storage

product(s). For purposes of this document, idle is defined as “ready idle”, in which storage systems

and components are configured, powered up, connected to one or more hosts and capable of

satisfying externally initiated, application-level initiated IO requests within normal response time

constraints, but no such IO requests are being submitted.
2.3 Current Revision

This document addresses storage products supporting block or file data access. Block access and file

access refer to the type of service provided typically by Storage Area Network (SAN) and Network

Attached Storage (NAS) systems, respectively. It is not appropriate to use this document to ascertain

power efficiency for anything other than these two access modes. This document includes:

• A generalized taxonomy for storage products (clause 5);

• An assessment mechanism for software-based Capacity Optimization Methods (clause 6);

• Measurement and data collection guidelines for assessing the power efficiency of block- and file-

based storage products in both active and ready idle states (clause 7);
• Metrics describing storage product power efficiency (clause 8);
Power Efficiency
• Required disclosures for a test result published as a SNIA Emerald™
Measurement test result (clause 9 ).
2.4 Purpose

The purpose of a SNIA Emerald™ Power Efficiency Measurement is to provide a reproducible and

standardized assessment of the energy efficiency of commercial storage products in both active and

ready idle states.

1. Tested systems shall be comprised of commercially released products and components;

2. Tested systems shall employ settings, parameters, and configurations that would allow end-users

to achieve power efficiency levels equivalent to the published result;

3. All data published as an SNIA Emerald™ Power Efficiency Measurement test result shall be

gathered from test execution conducted according to this document;

SNIA Emerald™ is a trademark of the Storage Networking Industry Association. This information is

given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO

of the product named.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)

4. Test execution shall complete in its entirety and without test failure or test error messages;

5. Software features which invoke, generate, or use software designed specifically for the test shall

not be used. Configuration options chosen for test execution shall be options that are generally

recommended for the customer;

6. Energy for powering the equipment shall be provided by the power mains that are being

monitored (not by an internal UPS).

A SNIA Emerald™ Power Efficiency Measurement shall be a good faith effort to accurately

characterize the power requirements of the tested system. The precise configuration used in a SNIA

Emerald™ Power Efficiency Measurement is left to the sponsor of a test. Any commercially released

components may be used, and a focus on new or emerging components or technologies is

encouraged.
2.5 Disclaimer

A SNIA Emerald™ Power Efficiency Measurement test result provides a high-level assessment of the

energy efficiency of the tested system in specific ready idle and active states. It is not an attempt to

precisely model or reproduce any specific installation.

Actual performance and energy consumption behavior is highly dependent upon precise workload,

environmental and usage parameters. While a SNIA Emerald™ Power Efficiency Measurement test

result is intended to provide a realistic and reproducible assessment of the relative power efficiency of

a system across a broad range of configurations and usage patterns, it cannot completely match the

precise needs of any one specific installation.
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
3 Normative References

The following documents are referred to in the text in a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.
Table 1 lists these documents.
Table 1 – Normative References
Author/Owner Title Revision URL

ISO/IEC ISO/IEC Directives Part II Eighth edition, https://www.iso.org/directives-

2018 and-policies.html
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
4 Definitions, Symbols, Abbreviations, and Conventions
4.1 Overview
[2]

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in The SNIA Dictionary and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/

The terms and definitions defined in this document are based on those found in The SNIA

[2]

Dictionary . They have been extended, as needed, for use in this document. In cases where the

current definitions in the SNIA dictionary conflict with those presented in this document, the definitions

in this document shall apply.
4.2 Definitions
4.2.1
auto-tiering

policy-based system that automatically places and moves data across tiers to optimize performance

service levels, cost targets, and overall energy consumption

Note 1 to entry: Each storage tier may comprise different storage technologies, offering varying

performance, cost, and energy consumption characteristics.
4.2.2
cache

temporary storage used to transparently store data for expedited access to or from slower media, and

not directly addressable by end-user applications
4.2.3
capacity optimization method (COM)

subsystem, whether implemented in hardware or software, which reduces the consumption of space

required to store a data set
4.2.4
committed data
data that has been written to stable storage
4.2.5
compression
the process of encoding data to reduce its size
4.2.6
count-key-data (CKD)

disk data organization model in which the disk is assumed to consist of a fixed number of tracks, each

having a maximum data capacity

Note 1 to entry: The CKD architecture derives its name from the record format, which consists of a

field containing the number of bytes of data and a record address, an optional key field by which

particular records can be easily recognized, and the data itself.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24091:2019(E)
4.2.7
data deduplication

replacement of multiple copies of data—at variable levels of granularity—with references to a shared

copy in order to save storage space and/or bandwidth
4.2.8
dedupable

property that a collection of data is said to possess if the needed storage capacity for the data is

reduced significantly by data deduplication
4.2.9
delta snapshot

type of point in time copy that preserves the state of data at an instant in time, by storing only those

blocks that are different from an already existing full copy of the data
4.2.10
direct-connected

storage designed to be under the control of a single host, or multiple hosts in a non-shared

environment
4.2.11
efficiency
ratio of useful work to the power required to do the work
4.2.12
file

abstract data object made up of a) an ordered sequence of data bytes stored on a disk or tape, b) a

symbolic name by which the object can be uniquely identified, and c) a set of properties, such as

ownership and access permissions that allow the object to be managed by a file system or backup

manager
4.2.13
file system

software component that imposes structure on the address space of one or more physical or virtual

disks so that applications may deal more conveniently with abstract named data objects of variable

size (files)
4.2.14
fixed block architecture (FBA)

model of disks in which storage space is organized as linear, dense address spaces of blocks of a

fixed size

Note 1 to entry: Fixed block architecture is the disk model on which SCSI is predicated.

4.2.15
fixed content addressable storage (FCAS)

storage optimized to manage content addressable data that is not expected to change during its

lifetime
...

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