Information technology -- Telecommunications and information exchange between systems -- Close capacitive coupling communication physical layer (CCCC PHY)

This document specifies the close capacitive coupling communication physical layer (CCCC PHY) for full duplex and broadcast communication in time slots on frequency division multiplex channels. NOTE      An implementation for small size and low power devices is provided in Annex B.

Technologies de l'information -- Téléinformatique -- Couche physique pour communication par couplage capacitif fermé

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Published
Publication Date
02-May-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
01-Apr-2021
Completion Date
01-Apr-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 17982
Second edition
2021-04
Information technology —
Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems — Close
capacitive coupling communication
physical layer (CCCC PHY)
Technologies de l'information — Téléinformatique — Couche
physique pour communication par couplage capacitif fermé
Reference number
ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

4 Conventions and notations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Reference plate-electrode assembly ................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 PHY parameters .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 Voltage conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.2 Bit representation ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.2.1 Bit duration........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2.2 Bit encoding ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3 Transmission ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.4 DC balance of a P-PDU ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.5 Reception of a P-PDU ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 P-PDU ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

9.1 Structure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Space ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

9.3 Level adjust ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

9.4 Pre-amble and Sync ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

9.5 Attribute ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.6 TDS number ............................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.7 Sequence number ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

9.7.1 Initial and range ............................................................................................................................................................10

9.7.2 Acknowledgement .......................................................................................................................................................10

9.8 Payload ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.9 CRC .................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.10 Post-amble ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.11 Null P-PDU ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.12 Data P-PDU ..............................................................................................................................................................................................10

10 PHY data unit (P-DU) .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Segmentation and reassembly ............................................................................................................................................................11

12 TDS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

13 LBT and synchronisation ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

13.1 LBT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

13.2 Synchronisation ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

14 Association procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................13

15 Communication ...................................................................................................................................................................................................15

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

15.2 Full duplex communication.......................................................................................................................................................15

15.3 Broadcast communication .........................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (normative) Tests ...........................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Guidance for implementation of this document ......................................................................57

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................58

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Telecommunications and information exchange between systems in cooperation with

Ecma International.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 17982:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— The document has been fully aligned with the editorial rules in ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

— Annex B has been added to guide an implementation for small size and low power devices.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Information technology — Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems — Close capacitive
coupling communication physical layer (CCCC PHY)
1 Scope

This document specifies the close capacitive coupling communication physical layer (CCCC PHY) for full

duplex and broadcast communication in time slots on frequency division multiplex channels.

NOTE An implementation for small size and low power devices is provided in Annex B.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 7498-1, Information technology — Open Systems Interconnection — Basic Reference Model: The

Basic Model

ITU-T Rec. V.41, Data communication over the telephone network — Code-independent error-control

system
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 7498-1 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
listener
entity that does not initiate communication
3.1.2
talker
entity that initiates communication
3.2 Abbreviated terms
CRC cyclic redundancy check
CCCC close capacitive coupling communication
DUT device under test
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
FDC frequency division channel
LBT listen before talk
LEN length
P-DU PHY data unit
P-PDU PHY PDU
PHY physical layer
RFU reserved for future use
TDS time division slot
4 Conventions and notations
The following conventions and notations apply in this document.

— A sequence of characters of ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C”, ‘D, ‘E’ or ‘F’ and decimal digits in parentheses represent

numbers in hexadecimal notation unless followed by a ‘b’ character.

— Numbers in binary notation and bit patterns are represented by a sequence of 0 and 1 digits or ‘X’

characters in parentheses followed by a ‘b’ character, e.g. (0X11X010)b. Where X indicates that the

setting of a bit is not specified, and the leftmost bit is the most significant bit unless the sequence is

a bit pattern.
5 Conformance
Conforming entities implement:
— both talker and listener;
— listen before talk (LBT) for both talker and listener;

— the capability to execute association on FDC2 and to communicate on (FDC0 and FDC1), (FDC3 and

FDC4), or (FDC0, FDC1, FDC3 and FDC4);
— the capability for talkers and listeners to use any of the 8 TDS on an FDC;

— both full duplex and broadcast communication, and pass the tests specified in Annex A.

6 Architecture

The protocol architecture of CCCC follows ISO/IEC 7498-1 as the basic model. CCCC devices communicate

through mediators, such as conductive and dielectric materials.

Plate-electrodes for CCCC device E and F are equivalent to the reference plate-electrode assembly.

The plate-electrode A faces to the imaginary point at infinity and the plate-electrode B faces to the

mediator. The plate-electrode C faces to the mediator and the plate-electrode D faces to the imaginary

point at infinity. See Figure 1.

Figure 2 is the equivalent circuit of Figure 1. The voltage of X is the potential of the point at infinity. The

voltage of Y is the potential of the point at infinity. It is deemed that the potential of X and Y is identical.

Therefore, X and Y is imaginary short. Consequently, devices E and F are able to send and receive signal.

Regarding the information transfers from CCCC devices E to F, device E changes the voltage between

plate-electrode A and B. It changes the electric charge between plate-electrode B and the mediator.

2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)

The change in electric charge affects device F by the capacitive coupling between plate-electrode C and

mediator. Plate-electrodes A and B and plate-electrodes C and D have potential differences of reverse

polarity; therefore, device F senses the information as changes in voltage between plate-electrode C

and D.
Key
Components
A plate-electrode A
B plate-electrode B
C plate-electrode C
D plate-electrode D
E CCCC device E
F CCCC device F
Mediator, conductive materials or dielectric materials.
Point at infinity.
Electrostatic capacity.
Figure 1 — Electrical models
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
a) Device E is listening and device F is talking
b) Device E is talking and device F is listening
Key
Components
A plate-electrode A
B plate-electrode B
C plate-electrode C
D plate-electrode D
E Closed Capacitive Coupling Communication device E
F Closed Capacitive Coupling Communication device F
Conductive materials or dielectric materials.
Imaginary short.
Figure 2 — Equivalent circuit

Information transfer between CCCC devices E and F takes place by synchronous communication, see

subclause 13.1. Subclause 8.2.1 specifies five frequency division channels (FDC) by division of the

centre frequency. Each FDC consists of a sequence of time-segments. Each time-segment consists of

eight time division slots (TDS) for time division multiple-access, see Clause 12. Peers use the listen

before talk (LBT) procedure in subclause 13.1 to ascertain that a TDS is not occupied. The TDSs are

negotiated using the association procedure specified in Clause 14.

Subclauses 15.1 and 15.2 specify full duplex and broadcast communication respectively. In full duplex

communication, talkers and listeners exchange P-PDUs (see Clause 9) by synchronous communication.

In broadcast communication, talkers broadcast P-PDUs and listeners receive P-PDUs without

acknowledgment.

Length information and CRC is added to the SDU to construct a PHY data unit (P-DU), see Clause 10. The

sender segments the P-DU into P-PDUs. The receiving entity reassembles the P-PDUs into the P-DU, see

Clause 11, and forwards the SDU to its PHY user as illustrated in Figure 3.
4 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Key
Segmentation.
Reassembly.
Segmented P-PDU.
t time
Figure 3 — PHY model
7 Reference plate-electrode assembly

The reference plate-electrode assembly for the CCCC devices shall consist of plate-electrode A and plate-

electrode B as specified in Figure 4. Dimensional characteristics are specified for those parameters

deemed to be mandatory.
a = 20,0 ± 0,1 mm
b = 20,0 ± 0,1 mm

The distance c between plate-electrode A and B shall be 5,0 ± 0,1 mm by horizontal flat surface.

d = 0,30 ± 0,03 mm

The displacement of centre of area e between plate-electrode A and B shall be a maximum of 0,1 mm.

The material of the plate-electrodes shall be 99 % to 100 % copper or equivalent.

The twisted-pair wire shall be connected inside the circle area f specified in Figure 4. The circle area f

has a diameter of 2,0 ± 0,5 mm. The twisted-pair wire shall be stranded wire and 26, 27, or 28 specified

American Wire Gauge. The length of the twisted-pair wire for the reference plate-electrode assembly

shall be less than 1,0 m.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Key
Components
A plate-electrode A
B plate-electrode B
C twist-pair wire
Figure 4 — CCCC reference plate-electrode assembly
8 PHY parameters
8.1 Voltage conditions

The following conditions of the voltage between the outer and the inner plate-electrode shall be used

for communication:
— +m Volts;
— –m Volts;
— 0 Volt;
— OPEN.

The value m depends on implementations. 0 Volt is achieved by shorting the two plate-electrodes in a

plate-electrode assembly. OPEN is achieved by disconnection of the plate-electrode assembly from the

driver circuits.
8.2 Bit representation
8.2.1 Bit duration
The centre frequency f is 40,68 MHz ± 50 Hz/MHz.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
The bit duration T equals D/f seconds.
Table 1 specifies the relation between FDC and D.
Table 1 — FDC and D
FDC D
0 11
1 7
2 5
3 3
4 1
8.2.2 Bit encoding

Manchester bit encoding is specified in Figure 5. Depending on the relative orientation, bits are received

with either positive or negative polarity. The half bit time transition shall be between 0,4 T and 0,6 T.

a) bit (1)b encoding
b) bit (0)b encoding
Key
X time
T bit time
Figure 5 — Bit encoding
8.3 Transmission

P-PDUs shall be transmitted byte-wise in the sequence specified in subclause 9.1. Bytes shall be

transmitted with the least significant bit first.
8.4 DC balance of a P-PDU

The DC balance of a P-PDU is (Sp - Sn) / (Sp + Sn) x 100 [%] where Sp is the integral of the positive

voltage parts of one P-PDU and where Sn is the integral of the negative voltage parts of one P-PDU. The

DC balance shall be less than ± 10 % per P-PDU.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
8.5 Reception of a P-PDU
While receiving a P-PDU, receivers shall put the voltage condition to OPEN.
9 P-PDU
9.1 Structure

Figure 6 specifies the P-PDU as a sequence of 0,5 T of space, 1,5 T of level adjust, 2 T of pre-amble, 5 T

of sync, 2 T of attribute, 3 T of TDS number, 2 T of sequence number, 32 T of payload, 16 T of CRC, and

2 T of post-amble. The P-PDU continues/ends with 1,5T of level adjust and another 0,5T space. The bit

encoding specified in 8.2.2 shall be applied to attribute, TDS number, sequence number, payload, and

CRC.
66 T is represented by t , t , t , … t .
1 2 3 66
Key
1 pre-amble (2 T)
2 sync (5 T)
3 attribute (2 T)
4 TDS number (3 T)
5 sequence number (2 T)
6 payload (32 T)
7 CRC (16 T)
8 postamble (2 T)
9 P-PDU (66 T)
Space (0,5 T).
Level adjust (1,5 T).
Figure 6 — P-PDU structure
9.2 Space
The space duration shall be 0,5 T with voltage condition OPEN.
9.3 Level adjust
Level adjust shall be 1,5 T of 0 Volt.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
9.4 Pre-amble and Sync

Figure 7 specifies pre-amble and sync patterns. The transmitter shall apply pattern P. If the receiver

detects sync pattern P then it shall decode the bits in a P-PDU as positive polarity. If the receiver detects

sync pattern Q then it shall decode the bits in a P-PDU as negative polarity. The divisor value shall be

detected from pre-amble and sync. Other patterns shall not be handled as pre-amble and sync.

Key
1 pre-amble (2 T)
2 sync (5 T)
X time
T bit time
Figure 7 — Pre-amble and sync patterns
9.5 Attribute

Table 2 specifies the bit encodings of the attribute settings in a P-PDU. If a receiver gets RFU attribute

settings it shall ignore the P-PDU and stay mute.
Table 2 — Attribute settings
t t Definition
10 11
FDC2 FDC0, FDC1, FDC3, and FDC4
0 0 Association request 1 or Associ- null P-PDU
ation response 2
0 1 Association response 1 or Asso- last data P-PDU
ciation request 2
1 0 RFU first data P-PDU
1 1 RFU data P-PDU between the first and the last data P-PDU
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
9.6 TDS number

The TDS number field shall indicate the slot number in which the P-PDU is send; numbers 1 to 8 are

identified by (000)b to (111)b.
9.7 Sequence number
9.7.1 Initial and range

P-PDUs shall be identified by the sequence numbers in the range of (00)b to (11)b. The first P-PDU shall

have (00)b in the sequence number field.
9.7.2 Acknowledgement

To acknowledge correct reception, receivers shall increment the sequence number by 1 (modulo 4) from

the correctly received P-PDU as the sequence number in the next P-PDU.
9.8 Payload
The payload field of a P-PDU contains 4 bytes.
9.9 CRC

The scope of CRC shall be the last 1 T of sync as a bit, attribute, TDS number, sequence number, and

payload. The CRC shall be calculated according to ITU-T V.41 with pre-set value (FF FF). If the CRC of the

received P-PDU and the calculated CRC upon reception differ, the P-DU shall be ignored.

Example with attribute (11)b, TDS number (010)b, sequence number (10)b, payload (55 AA 00 FF) the CRC

is (6F AB).
9.10 Post-amble
Post-ambles consist of 1,5 T of level adjust and 0,5 T of Space.
9.11 Null P-PDU
Null P-PDUs have attribute of (00)b and a payload (00 00 00 00).
9.12 Data P-PDU
Data P-PDUs have a payload with a (possibly segmented) P-DU.
10 PHY data unit (P-DU)
Figure 8 specifies the P-DU. It shall consist of LEN, SDU, and CRC.
10 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Key
1 2 byte
2 LEN bytes
3 16 bit
Figure 8 — PHY data unit (P-DU)

LEN contains the length of SDU in bytes + 2. The CRC shall be calculated over the LEN value and the SDU

according to ITU-T V.41. The pre-set value shall be (FFFF).
11 Segmentation and reassembly

P-DU shall be segmented and reassembled into 4 byte payloads of P-PDU as illustrated in Figure 9, by

using the attribute settings in Table 2.
Segmentation.
Reassembly.
Duration to be ignored for information exchange.
Figure 9 — Segmentation and reassembly
12 TDS

A TDS is 64 T wide. A P-PDU which is 66 T wide (see Figure 6), shall be transmitted in one TDS. See

Figure 11.

TDSs shall be numbered from 1 to 8 in each time segment as illustrated in Figure 10.

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Time-segment.
Figure 10 — Time-segment and TDS
Figure 11 — Mapping of a P-PDU and a TDS

This document specifies full duplex and broadcast communication. A TDS is used for unidirectional

communication. A full duplex channel consists of two TDSs and one TDS is used for broadcast

communication.
The TDS may be either fixed by configuration or be negotiated.

Talkers may either use fixed configured TDS(s) on FDC1 or FDC3 or alternatively negotiate using TDS(s)

on FDC1 or FDC3 using the association procedure. Talkers that select FDC0 or FDC4 shall negotiate TDS

using the association procedure in Clause 14.
Before using a TDS, entities shall use LBT and synchronisation.
13 LBT and synchronisation
13.1 LBT

During LBT, entities shall listen for 576 T on the selected FDC to seek a free TDS. A TDS is occupied

when the entities receive a correct P-PDU.
13.2 Synchronisation

If all TDSs on the FDC that the talker selects are found to be free using LBT, then that talker shall

generate the TDS timing on its selected FDC. Otherwise the talkers shall synchronise to the TDS timing

on the FDC using LBT. Listeners shall always synchronise to the TDS timing on the FDC using LBT.

12 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
14 Association procedure

Talkers use the association procedure to negotiate the communication TDS(s). During this procedure,

talkers and listeners exchange the P-PDUs on 2 full duplex TDS in FDC2, in the following steps:

1) Talker selects a free association TDS in the range from 0 to 3 in FDC2, using LBT.

2) Talker selects (1 for broadcast and 2 for full duplex) free slot(s) in an FDC other than FDC2, using

LBT.

3) Talker sends association request 1 P-PDU specified in Table 3 on the association TDS from step

1 with attribute (00)b, sequence number (00)b and FDC/TDS(s) from step 2 and the selected

communication mode.
4) Listener sends association response 1 P-PDU spec
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 17982
Second edition
Information technology —
Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems — Close
capacitive coupling communication
physical layer (CCCC PHY)
Technologies de l'information — Téléinformatique — Couche
physique pour communication par couplage capacitif fermé
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

4 Conventions and notations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Reference plate-electrode assembly ................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 PHY parameters .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 Voltage conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.2 Bit representation ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.2.1 Bit duration........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2.2 Bit encoding ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3 Transmission ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.4 DC balance of a P-PDU ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.5 Reception of a P-PDU ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 P-PDU ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

9.1 Structure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Space ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

9.3 Level adjust ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

9.4 Pre-amble and Sync ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

9.5 Attribute ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.6 TDS number ............................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.7 Sequence number ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

9.7.1 Initial and range ............................................................................................................................................................10

9.7.2 Acknowledgement .......................................................................................................................................................10

9.8 Payload ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.9 CRC .................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.10 Post-amble ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.11 Null P-PDU ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.12 Data P-PDU ..............................................................................................................................................................................................10

10 PHY data unit (P-DU) .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Segmentation and reassembly ............................................................................................................................................................11

12 TDS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

13 LBT and synchronisation ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

13.1 LBT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

13.2 Synchronisation ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

14 Association procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................12

15 Communication ...................................................................................................................................................................................................15

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

15.2 Full duplex communication.......................................................................................................................................................15

15.3 Broadcast communication .........................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (normative) Tests ...........................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Guidance for implementation of this document ......................................................................57

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................58

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

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_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

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list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

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expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Telecommunications and information exchange between systems in cooperation with

Ecma International.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 17982:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— The document has been fully aligned with the editorial rules in ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

— Annex B has been added to guide an implementation for small size and low power devices.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Information technology — Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems — Close capacitive
coupling communication physical layer (CCCC PHY)
1 Scope

This document specifies the close capacitive coupling communication physical layer (CCCC PHY) for full

duplex and broadcast communication in time slots on frequency division multiplex channels.

NOTE An implementation for small size and low power devices is provided in Annex B.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 7498-1, Information technology — Open Systems Interconnection — Basic Reference Model: The

Basic Model

ITU-T Rec. V.41, Data communication over the telephone network — Code-independent error-control system

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 7498-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
listener
entity that does not initiate communication
3.1.2
talker
entity that initiates communication
3.2 Abbreviated terms
CRC cyclic redundancy check
CCCC close capacitive coupling communication
DUT device under test
FDC frequency division channel
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
LBT listen before talk
LEN length
P-DU PHY data unit
P-PDU PHY PDU
PHY physical layer
RFU reserved for future use
TDS time division slot
4 Conventions and notations
The following conventions and notations apply in this document.

— A sequence of characters of ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C”, ‘D, ‘E’ or ‘F’ and decimal digits in parentheses represent

numbers in hexadecimal notation unless followed by a ‘b’ character.

— Numbers in binary notation and bit patterns are represented by a sequence of 0 and 1 digits or ‘X’

characters in parentheses followed by a ‘b’ character, e.g. (0X11X010)b. Where X indicates that the

setting of a bit is not specified, and the leftmost bit is the most significant bit unless the sequence is

a bit pattern.
5 Conformance
Conforming entities implement:
— both talker and listener;
— listen before talk (LBT) for both talker and listener;

— the capability to execute association on FDC2 and to communicate on (FDC0 and FDC1), (FDC3 and

FDC4), or (FDC0, FDC1, FDC3 and FDC4);
— the capability for talkers and listeners to use any of the 8 TDS on an FDC;

— both full duplex and broadcast communication, and pass the tests specified in Annex A.

6 Architecture

The protocol architecture of CCCC follows ISO/IEC 7498-1 as the basic model. CCCC devices communicate

through mediators, such as conductive and dielectric materials.

Plate-electrodes for CCCC device E and F are equivalent to the reference plate-electrode assembly.

The plate-electrode A faces to the imaginary point at infinity and the plate-electrode B faces to the

mediator. The plate-electrode C faces to the mediator and the plate-electrode D faces to the imaginary

point at infinity. See Figure 1.

Figure 2 is the equivalent circuit of Figure 1. The voltage of X is the potential of the point at infinity. The

voltage of Y is the potential of the point at infinity. It is deemed that the potential of X and Y is identical.

Therefore, X and Y is imaginary short. Consequently, devices E and F are able to send and receive signal.

Regarding the information transfers from CCCC devices E to F, device E changes the voltage between plate-

electrode A and B. It changes the electric charge between plate-electrode B and the mediator. The change

in electric charge affects device F by the capacitive coupling between plate-electrode C and mediator.

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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)

Plate-electrodes A and B and plate-electrodes C and D have potential differences of reverse polarity;

therefore, device F senses the information as changes in voltage between plate-electrode C and D.

Key
Components
A plate-electrode A
B plate-electrode B
C plate-electrode C
D plate-electrode D
E CCCC device E
F CCCC device F
Mediator, conductive materials or dielectric materials.
Point at infinity.
Electrostatic capacity.
Figure 1 — Electrical models
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
a) Device E is listening and device F is talking
b) Device E is talking and device F is listening
Key
Components
A plate-electrode A
B plate-electrode B
C plate-electrode C
D plate-electrode D
E Closed Capacitive Coupling Communication device E
F Closed Capacitive Coupling Communication device F
Conductive materials or dielectric materials.
Imaginary short.
Figure 2 — Equivalent circuit

Information transfer between CCCC devices E and F takes place by synchronous communication, see

subclause 13.1. Subclause 8.2.1 specifies five frequency division channels (FDC) by division of the

centre frequency. Each FDC consists of a sequence of time-segments. Each time-segment consists of

eight time division slots (TDS) for time division multiple-access, see Clause 12. Peers use the listen

before talk (LBT) procedure in subclause 13.1 to ascertain that a TDS is not occupied. The TDSs are

negotiated using the association procedure specified in Clause 14.

Subclauses 15.1 and 15.2 specify full duplex and broadcast communication respectively. In full duplex

communication, talkers and listeners exchange P-PDUs (see Clause 9) by synchronous communication.

In broadcast communication, talkers broadcast P-PDUs and listeners receive P-PDUs without

acknowledgment.

Length information and CRC is added to the SDU to construct a PHY data unit (P-DU), see Clause 10. The

sender segments the P-DU into P-PDUs. The receiving entity reassembles the P-PDUs into the P-DU, see

Clause 11, and forwards the SDU to its PHY user as illustrated in Figure 3.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Key
Segmentation.
Reassembly.
Segmented P-PDU.
t time
Figure 3 — PHY model
7 Reference plate-electrode assembly

The reference plate-electrode assembly for the CCCC devices shall consist of plate-electrode A and plate-

electrode B as specified in Figure 4. Dimensional characteristics are specified for those parameters

deemed to be mandatory.
a = 20,0 ± 0,1 mm
b = 20,0 ± 0,1 mm

The distance c between plate-electrode A and B shall be 5,0 ± 0,1 mm by horizontal flat surface.

d = 0,30 ± 0,03 mm

The displacement of centre of area e between plate-electrode A and B shall be a maximum of 0,1 mm.

The material of the plate-electrodes shall be 99 % to 100 % copper or equivalent.

The twisted-pair wire shall be connected inside the circle area f specified in Figure 4. The circle area f

has a diameter of 2,0 ± 0,5 mm. The twisted-pair wire shall be stranded wire and 26, 27, or 28 specified

American Wire Gauge. The length of the twisted-pair wire for the reference plate-electrode assembly

shall be less than 1,0 m.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
Key
Components
A plate-electrode A
B plate-electrode B
C twist-pair wire
Figure 4 — CCCC reference plate-electrode assembly
8 PHY parameters
8.1 Voltage conditions

The following conditions of the voltage between the outer and the inner plate-electrode shall be used

for communication:
— +m Volts;
— –m Volts;
— 0 Volt;
— OPEN.

The value m depends on implementations. 0 Volt is achieved by shorting the two plate-electrodes in a

plate-electrode assembly. OPEN is achieved by disconnection of the plate-electrode assembly from the

driver circuits.
8.2 Bit representation
8.2.1 Bit duration
The centre frequency f is 40,68 MHz ± 50 Hz/MHz.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
The bit duration T equals D/f seconds.
Table 1 specifies the relation between FDC and D.
Table 1 — FDC and D
FDC D
0 11
1 7
2 5
3 3
4 1
8.2.2 Bit encoding

Manchester bit encoding is specified in Figure 5. Depending on the relative orientation, bits are received

with either positive or negative polarity. The half bit time transition shall be between 0,4 T and 0,6 T.

a) bit (1)b encoding
b) bit (0)b encoding
Key
X time
T bit time
Figure 5 — Bit encoding
8.3 Transmission

P-PDUs shall be transmitted byte-wise in the sequence specified in subclause 9.1. Bytes shall be

transmitted with the least significant bit first.
8.4 DC balance of a P-PDU

The DC balance of a P-PDU is (Sp - Sn) / (Sp + Sn) x 100 [%] where Sp is the integral of the positive

voltage parts of one P-PDU and where Sn is the integral of the negative voltage parts of one P-PDU. The

DC balance shall be less than ± 10 % per P-PDU.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
8.5 Reception of a P-PDU
While receiving a P-PDU, receivers shall put the voltage condition to OPEN.
9 P-PDU
9.1 Structure

Figure 6 specifies the P-PDU as a sequence of 0,5 T of space, 1,5 T of level adjust, 2 T of pre-amble, 5 T of

sync, 2 T of attribute, 3 T of TDS number, 2 T of sequence number, 32 T of payload, 16 T of CRC, and 2 T of

post-amble. The P-PDU continues/ends with 1,5T of level adjust and another 0,5T space. The bit encoding

specified in 8.2.2 shall be applied to attribute, TDS number, sequence number, payload, and CRC.

66 T is represented by t , t , t , … t .
1 2 3 66
Key
1 pre-amble (2 T)
2 sync (5 T)
3 attribute (2 T)
4 TDS number (3 T)
5 sequence number (2 T)
6 payload (32 T)
7 CRC (16 T)
8 postamble (2 T)
9 P-PDU (66 T)
Space (0,5 T).
Level adjust (1,5 T).
Figure 6 — P-PDU structure
9.2 Space
The space duration shall be 0,5 T with voltage condition OPEN.
9.3 Level adjust
Level adjust shall be 1,5 T of 0 Volt.
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)
9.4 Pre-amble and Sync

Figure 7 specifies pre-amble and sync patterns. The transmitter shall apply pattern P. If the receiver

detects sync pattern P then it shall decode the bits in a P-PDU as positive polarity. If the receiver detects

sync pattern Q then it shall decode the bits in a P-PDU as negative polarity. The divisor value shall be

detected from pre-amble and sync. Other patterns shall not be handled as pre-amble and sync.

Key
1 pre-amble (2 T)
2 sync (5 T)
X time
T bit time
Figure 7 — Pre-amble and sync patterns
9.5 Attribute

Table 2 specifies the bit encodings of the attribute settings in a P-PDU. If a receiver gets RFU attribute

settings it shall ignore the P-PDU and stay mute.
Table 2 — Attribute settings
t t Definition
10 11
FDC2 FDC0, FDC1, FDC3, and FDC4
0 0 Association request 1 or Associ- null P-PDU
ation response 2
0 1 Association response 1 or Asso- last data P-PDU
ciation request 2
1 0 RFU first data P-PDU
1 1 RFU data P-PDU between the first and the last data P-PDU
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9.6 TDS number

The TDS number field shall indicate the slot number in which the P-PDU is send; numbers 1 to 8 are

identified by (000)b to (111)b.
9.7 Sequence number
9.7.1 Initial and range

P-PDUs shall be identified by the sequence numbers in the range of (00)b to (11)b. The first P-PDU shall

have (00)b in the sequence number field.
9.7.2 Acknowledgement

To acknowledge correct reception, receivers shall increment the sequence number by 1 (modulo 4) from

the correctly received P-PDU as the sequence number in the next P-PDU.
9.8 Payload
The payload field of a P-PDU contains 4 bytes.
9.9 CRC

The scope of CRC shall be the last 1 T of sync as a bit, attribute, TDS number, sequence number, and

payload. The CRC shall be calculated according to ITU-T V.41 with pre-set value (FF FF). If the CRC of the

received P-PDU and the calculated CRC upon reception differ, the P-DU shall be ignored.

Example with attribute (11)b, TDS number (010)b, sequence number (10)b, payload (55 AA 00 FF) the CRC

is (6F AB).
9.10 Post-amble
Post-ambles consist of 1,5 T of level adjust and 0,5 T of Space.
9.11 Null P-PDU
Null P-PDUs have attribute of (00)b and a payload (00 00 00 00).
9.12 Data P-PDU
Data P-PDUs have a payload with a (possibly segmented) P-DU.
10 PHY data unit (P-DU)
Figure 8 specifies the P-DU. It shall consist of LEN, SDU, and CRC.
Key
1 2 byte
2 LEN bytes
Figure 8 — PHY data unit (P-DU)
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ISO/IEC 17982:2021(E)

LEN contains the length of SDU in bytes + 2. The CRC shall be calculated over the LEN value and the SDU

according to ITU-T V.41. The pre-set value shall be (FFFF).
11 Segmentation and reassembly

P-DU shall be segmented and reassembled into 4 byte payloads of P-PDU as illustrated in Figure 9, by

using the attribute settings in Table 2.
Key
Segmentation.
Reassembly.
Duration to be ignored for information exchange.
Figure 9 — Segmentation and reassembly
12 TDS

A TDS is 64 T wide. A P-PDU which is 66 T wide (see Figure 6), shall be transmitted in one TDS. See

Figure 11.

TDSs shall be numbered from 1 to 8 in each time segment as illustrated in Figure 10.

Time-segment.
Figure 10 — Time-segment and TDS
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Figure 11 — Mapping of a P-PDU and a TDS

This document specifies full duplex and broadcast communication. A TDS is used for unidirectional

communication. A full duplex channel consists of two TDSs and one TDS is used for broadcast

communication.
The TDS may be either fixed by configuration or be negotiated.

Talkers may either use fixed configured TDS(s) on FDC1 or FDC3 or alternatively negotiate using TDS(s)

on FDC1 or FDC3 using the association procedure. Talkers that select FDC0 or FDC4 shall negotiate TDS

using the association procedure in Clause 14.
Before using a TDS, entities shall use LBT and synchronisation.
13 LBT and synchronisation
13.1 LBT

During LBT, entities shall listen for 576 T on the selected FDC to seek a free TDS. A TDS is occupied

when the entities receive a correct P-PDU.
13.2 Synchronisation

If all TDSs on the FDC that the talker selects are found to be free using LBT, then that talker shall

generate the TDS timing on its selected FDC. Otherwise the talkers shall synchronise to the TDS timing

on the FDC using LBT. Listeners shall always synchronise to the TDS timing on the FDC using LBT.

14 Association procedure

Talkers use the association procedure to negotiate the communication TDS(s). During this procedure,

talkers and listeners exchange the P-PDUs on 2 full duplex TDS in FDC2, in the following steps:

1) Talker selects a free association TDS in the range from 0 to 3 in FDC2, using LBT.

2) Talker selects (1 for broadcast and 2 for full duplex) free slot(s) in an FDC other than FDC2, using LBT.

3) Talker sends association request 1 P-PDU specified in Table 3 on the association TDS from step

1 with attribute (00)b, sequence number (00)b and FDC/TDS(s) from step 2 and the selected

communication mode
...

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