Solar heating — Domestic water heating systems — Part 2: Outdoor test methods for system performance characterization and yearly performance prediction of solar-only systems

Describes test procedures for characterizing the performance of solar domestic water heating systems operated without auxiliary boosting and for predicting annual performance in any given climatic and operating conditions.Suitable for testing all types of systems including forced circulation, thermosiphon, freon-charged collektor systems.

Chauffage solaire — Systèmes de chauffage de l'eau sanitaire — Partie 2: Méthode d'essai en extérieur pour la caractérisation de la performance des systèmes "tout solaire" et la prédiction de leur performance annuelle

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-1995
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
09-Nov-2004
Completion Date
15-May-2018
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ISO 9459-2:1995 - Solar heating -- Domestic water heating systems
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INTERNATIONAL
ISO
STANDARD
94592
First edition
1995-08-15
Solar heating - Domestic water heating
Systems -
Part 2:
Outdoor test methods for System
Performance characterization and yearly
Performance prediction of solar--only Systems
Chauffage solaire - Systemes de chauffage de I’eau sanitaire -
Partie 2: Methode d’essai en extbrieur pour Ia caract&isation de Ia
Performance des systemes “tout solaire” et Ia prkdiction de leur
Performance annuelle
Reference number
ISO 9459-2:1995(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)
Contents
Page

1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3 Def initions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

4 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

5 System classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

7 Test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

8 Analysis and presentation of results
....................................... 15
9 Prediction of long-term Performance ......................................
Annexes
A Format sheets for test and annual Performance prediction for solar
domestic water heating Systems

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

B Computer programs for long-term Performance prediction . . 51
C Test for Systems with a midday draw-off
............................. 59

D Bibliography ............................................................................

0 ISO 1995

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced

or utilized in any form or by any means, electronie or mechanical, including photocopying and

microfilm, without Permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case Postale 56 l CH-l 211 Geneve 20 l Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
0 ISO
ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national Standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work
of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Esch member body interested in a subject for
which a technical committee has been established has the right to be
represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental
and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take patt in the work. ISO
collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission
(1 EC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International
Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting
a vote.
International Standard ISO 9459-2 was prepared by Technical Committee
lSO/TC 180, Solar energy, Subcommittee SC 4, Systems - Thermal
Performance, reliability and durability.
ISO 9459 consists of the following Parts, under the general title Solar
hea ting - Domestic water heating Systems:
- Part 1: Performance rating procedure using indoor test methods
- Part 2: Outdoof fest methods for System Performance character-
ization and yearly Performance prediction of solar-only Systems
- Part 3: Performance test for solar plus supplementary Systems
- Part 4: System Performance characteriza tion by means
of com-
ponent tests and Computer simulation
System Performance characterization
- Part 5: by means of whole-
tests and Computer simulation
System
Annex A forms an integral part of this part of ISO 9459. Annexes B, C and
D are for information only.
. . .
Ill
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
0 ISO
ISO 9459-2: 1995(E) ’
Introduction
International Standard ISO 9459 has been developed to help facilitate the
international comparison of solar domestic water heating Systems. Be-
cause a generalized performante model which is applicable to all Systems
has not yet been developed, it has not been possible to obtain an inter-
national consensus for one test method and one Standard set of test
conditions. lt has therefore been decided to promulgate the currently
available simple methods while work continues to finalize the more
broadly applicable procedures. The advantage of this approach is that each
part tan proceed on its own.
into five within three
ISO9459 is divided Parts broad categories, as de-
scri bed below.
Rating test
ISO 9459-1 :1993, Solar heating - Domestic water heating Systems -
Part 1: Performance rating procedure using indoor test methods, involves
testing for periods of one day for a standardized set of reference con-
ditions. The results, therefore, allow Systems to be compared under
identical solar, ambient and load conditions.
Black box correlation procedures
ISO 9459-2 is applicable to solar-only Systems and solar-preheat Systems.
The performante test for solar-only Systems is a “black box” procedure
which produces a family of “input-output” characteristics for a System.
The test results may be used directly with daily mean values of local solar
irradiation, ambient air temperature and cold water temperature data to
predict annual System Performance.
ISO 9459-3 applies to solar plus supplementary Systems. The Performance
test is a “black box” procedure which produces coefficients in a corre-
lation equation that tan be used with daily mean values of local solar
irradiation, ambient air temperature and cold water temperature data to
predict annual System Performance. The test is limited to predicting annual
Performance for one load Pattern.
Testing and Computer Simulation
ISO 9459-4, a procedure for characterizing annual System Performance,
uses measured component characteristics in the Computer Simulation
program “TRNSYS”. Procedures for characterizing the Performance of
System components other than collectors are also presented in this part
of ISO 9459. Procedures for characterizing the Performance of collectors
are given in other International Standards.
ISO 9459-5 presents a procedure for dynamic testing of complete sys-
tems to determine System Parameters for use in a Computer model. This
model may be used with hourly values of local solar irradiation, ambient
air temperature and cold water temperature data to predict annual System
Performance.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
0 ISO ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)
The procedures defined in ISO 9459-2, ISO 9459-3, ISO 9459-4 and
ISO 9459-5 for predicting yearly Performance allow the ouput of a System
to be determined for a range of climatic conditions.
The results of tests performed in accordance with ISO 9459-1 provide a
rating for a Standard day.
The results of tests performed in accordance with ISO 9459-2 permit
Performance predictions for a range of System loads and operating con-
ditions, but only for an evening draw-off.
The results of tests performed in accordance with ISO 9459-3 permit an-
nual System Performance predictions for one daily load Pattern.
The results of tests performed in accordance with ISO 9459-4 or
ISO 9459-5 are directly comparable. These procedures permit perform-
ante predictions for a range of System loads and operating conditions.
System reliability and safety will be dealt with in ISO 11924:-, Solar
heating - Domestic water heating Systems - Test methods for the as-
sessment of reliability and safety.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD 0 ISO ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)
Solar heating - Domestic water heating Systems -
Part 2:
Outdoor test methods for System Performance
characterization and yearly Performance prediction of
solar-only Systems
1 Scope

This part of ISO 9459 establishes test procedures for characterizing the Performance of solar domestic water

heating Systems operated without auxiliary boosting, and for predicting annual Performance in any given climatic

and operating conditions, but only for an evening draw-off. A “black box” approach is adopted which involves no

assumptions about the type of System under test; the procedures are therefore suitable for testing all types of

Systems, including forced circulation, thermosiphon, freon-charged and integrated collector-storage Systems.

This part of ISO 9459 is not intended to be used for testing solar heating Systems which have an auxiliary heater

as an integral patt of the System, since the Operation of the auxiliary input may influence the Performance of the

solar heating System. To quantify the interaction between the energy inputs, the test procedure described in

ISO 9459-3 is recommended.

This part of ISO 9459 applies to solar-only domestic water heating Systems designed to heat potable water to be

supplied for domestic water usage and is not intended to be applied to other Systems. The test procedures are

applicable only to Systems of 0,6 m3 of solar storage capacity or less.

The test procedures in this part of ISO 9459 do not require the solar water heating System to be subjected to

freezing conditions. Consequently, the energy consumed or lost by a System while operating in the freeze-

protection mode is not determined.
This part of ISO 9459 is not generally applicable to concentrating Systems.

lt is not intended to be used for testing the individual components of the System, nor is it intended to abridge any

safety or health requirements.
2 Normative references

The following Standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this patt

of ISO 9459. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All Standards are subject to revision, and

Parties to agreements based on this patt of ISO 9459 are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the

most recent editions of the Standards indicated below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently

valid International Standards.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
0 ISO
ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)

ISO 9060:1990, Solar energy - Specification and classification of ins trumen ts for measuring hemispherical solar

and direct solar radiation.

ISO 9459-3: -‘1, Solar hea ting - Domestic water heating Systems - Part 3: Performance test for solar plus

supplementary Systems.

ISO 9846: 1993, Solar energy - Calibration of a pyranometer using a pyrheliometer.

ISO 9847:1992, Solar energy - Calibration of field pyranometers by comparison to a reference pyranometer.

lSO/TR 9901: 1990, Solar energy - Feld pyranometers - Recommended practice for use.

ISO 11924: -l) , Solar heating - Domestic water heating Systems - Test methods for the assessment of reliability

and safety.

World Meteorological Organization, Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation, No. 8, 5th

World Radiometric Reference, known as the WRR.
edition, WMO, Geneva, 1983, Chapter 9 -
3 Definitions

each part of ISO 9459 has been conceived as a self-contained document. Therefore,

As stated in the Introduction,
definitions given in this clause may also appear in other Part(s) of ISO 9459.
some of the terms with their

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following definitions apply.

3.1 absorber: Device within a solar collector for absorbing radiant energy and transferring this energy as heat into

a fluid.

3.2 accuracy: Ability of an instrument to indicate the true value of the measured phys’ical quantity.

3.3 ambient air: Air in the space (either indoors or outdoors) surrounding a thermal energy storage device, a solar

collector, or any Object being considered.

angle of incidence (of direct solar radiation): Angle between the solar radiation beam and the outward-drawn

34 .
normal from the plane considered.

Angle of incidence is often termed “incidence angle” or “incident angle”. The use of these terms is deprecated.

NOTE 1

3.5 aperture area: Maximum projected area through which the unconcentrated solar radiation enters a collector.

3.6 aperture plane: Plane at or above the solar collector through which the unconcentrated solar radiation is

admitted.
3.7 auxiliary energy: See auxiliary (heat) Source.

3.8 auxiliary (heat) Source: Source of heat, other than solar, used to Supplement the output provided by the

solar energy System.
3.9 collector: Device containing an absorber.

3.10 collector tilt angle: Angle between the aperture plane of a solar collector and the horizontal plane.

3.11 components: Parts of the solar hot water System including collectors, storage, Pumps, heat exchanger,

controls, etc.
1) To be published.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
0 ISO
ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)

3.12 concentrating collector: Solar collector that uses reflectors, lenses or other Optical elements to redirect

and concentrate the solar radiation passing through the aperture onto an absorber, the surface area of which is

smaller than the aperture area.

3.13 differential temperature controller: Device that is able to detect a small temperature differente, and to

control Pumps and other electrical devices in accordance with this temperature differente.

3.14 domestic: For use in residential and small commercial buildings.

3.15 draw-off rate; water draw-off rate: Rate at which water is withdrawn from a water heating System.

3.16 draw-off temperature: Temperature of hot water withdrawn from the System.

3.17 evacuated tube [tubular] collector: Solar collector employing transparent tubing (usually glass) with an

evacuated space between the tube wall and the absorber.

The absorber may consist of an inner tube or another shape, with means for removal of the thermal energy. The

pressure in the evacuated space is usually less than 1 Pa.

3.18 flat plate collector: Non-concentrating solar collector in which the absorbing surface is essentially planar.

3.19 fluid transport: Transfer of air, water, or other fluid between components.

3.20 gross collector area: Maximum projected area of a complete solar collector, excluding any integral means

of mounting and connecting fluid pipework.

For an array or assembly of flat plate collectors, evacuated tubes or concentrating collectors, the gross area in-

cludes the entire area of the array, i.e. also borders and frame.

3.21 heat exchanger: Device specifically designed to transfer heat between two physically separated fluids.

Heat exchangers tan have either Single or double Walls.

3.22 heat transfer fluid: Fluid that is used to transfer thermal energy between components in a System.

3.23 irradiance: Power density of radiation incident on a surface, i.e. the quotient of the radiant flux incident on

the surface and the area of that surface, or the rate at which radiant energy is incident on a surface, per unit area

of that surface.
lt is expressed in Watts per Square metre.

NOTE 2 Solar irradiance is often termed “incident solar radiation intensity”, “instantaneous insolation”, “insolation” or “in-

cident radiant flux density”; the use of these terms 1s deprecated.

3.24 Irradiation: lncident energy per unit area of a surface, found by integration of irradiance over a specified

time interval, often an hour or a day.
lt is expressed in megajoules per Square metre.

NOTE 3 Solar irradiation is often termed “radiant exposure” or “insolation”; the use of these terms is deprecated.

3.25 load: Heat supplied to the User, for example in the form of hot water.

NOTE 4 Because of heat losses in the distribution System, the location of the heat delivery must be specified.

3.26 lang-wave radiation: Radiation at wavelengths greater than 3 Pm, typically originating from sources at

terrestrial temperatures (e-g. ground and other terrestrial objects); sometimes called “thermal radiation”.

3.27 precision: Measure of the closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the same physical

quantity.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 9459-2: 1995(E) 0 ISO

3.28 pyranometer: Radiometer for measuring the irradiance on a plane receiver surface which results from the

radiant fluxes incident from the hemisphere above, within the wavelength range 0’3 Pm and 3 Pm.

surface which results from the
3.29 pyrgeometer: Instrument for determining the irradiance on a plane receiving
Pm to 50 Pm.
radiant fluxes incident from the hemisphere above, within the wavelength range 3

NOTE 5 The given spectral range is similar to that of atmospheric long-wave radiation and is only nominal. Depending on the

material used for the domes which protect the receiving surface of a pyrgeometer, the spectral limits of its responsivity meet

more or less accurately the limits mentioned above.

3.30 pyrheliometer: Radiometer for measuring the irradiance which results from the solar radiant flux incident

from a weil-defined solid angle whose axis is perpendicular to the plane receiver surface.

NOTE 6 Pyrheliometers are used to measure direct solar irradiance at normal incidence. Typical field-of-view angles of

pyrheliometers range from 5” to IO".
radiant energy: Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.
3.31

3.32 radiant flux: Power emitted, transferred or received in the form of radiation.

radiation: Transfer of radiant energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.
3.33
3.34 radiometer: Instrument for measuring radiant energy.
Its output tan be either irradiance or irradiation.

3.35 solar (thermal) collector: Device designed to absorb solar radiation and to transfer the thermal energy so

gained to a fluid passing through it.

NOTE 7 Sometimes called a solar “panel”. This term is deprecated to avoid potential confusion with photovoltaic Panels.

solar energy: Energy emitted by the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation (primarily in the wave-

3.36

length range of 0,3 Pm to 3 Pm) or any energy made available by the reception and conversion of solar radiation.

3.37 solar contribution: Heat supplied by the solar part of a System.
solar noon: Local time of day at which the sun crosses the observer’s meridian.
3.38

NOTE 8 For the solstices, solar noon occurs when the sun is at its highest altitude for that day.

3.39 solar radiation: Radiation emitted by the sun, practically all of which is incident at the earth’s surface at

wave lengths less than 3 Pm.

NOTE 9 lt is often termed “short-wave radiation”. Use of the term “insolation” to mean solar radiation is deprecated.

3.40 solar irradiance Simulator: Artificial Source of radiant energy simulating solar radiation, usually an electric

lamp or an array of such lamps.

3.41 solar storage capacity: Quantity of sensible heat that tan be stored per unit volume of store for every

degree of temperature Change.

3.42 solar hot water System: Complete assembly of Subsystems and components necessary to convert solar

energy into thermal energy for the heating of water; may include an auxiliary heat Source.

storage device (thermal): Container(s) plus all contents of the Container(s) used for storing thermal energy.

3.43
acces

NOTE 10 The transfer fluid and sories such as heat exchangers, flow switching devices, valves and baffles which are

e thermal storage conta iner
firmly fixed to th are considered a part of the storage device.

surrounding air Speed: Air Speed measured in a specified location near a collector or System.

3.44
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0 ISO
ISO 9459-2:1995(E)
3.45 tank capacity: Measured volume of the fluid in the tank when full.

3.46 temperature, ambient air: Temperature of the air surrounding the thermal energy storage device or solar

collectors being tested.

NOTE 11 Significant differentes in ambient occur over short distances; therefore, in a pa

air temperature tan appli-
cation the method of measurement should be specif ied.

3.47 time constant: Time required for a System, whose Performance tan be approximated by a first-Order dif-

ferential equation, to Change output by 63,2 % of its final Change in output, following a step Change in input.

3.48 thermopile: Set of thermocouples connected in series which tan measure small temperature differentes

by means of enhancement of the voltage Signal per unit temperature Change.
4 Symbols
The Symbols given in ISO 9459-1 and the following Symbols apply.
coefficients used in equation (2) (System Performance)
q , a2, a3
coefficients used in equation (3) (water temperature increase)
b, / b2t b3
specific heat capacity of water, in joules per kilogram kelvin [J/(kg.K)]
normalized draw-off temperature Profile, dimensionless
f(v)
normalized mixing draw-off temperature Profile, dimensionless
c!m

daily solar irradiation (radiance exposure) in the collector aperture, in megajoules per Square metre

daily diffuse solar irradiation in the collector aperture, in megajoules per Square metre

monthly average daily solar irradiation on a horizontal plane, in megajoules per Square metre

monthly average daily solar Irradiation on a tilted plane, in megajoules per Square metre

Htilt
useful energy extracted from the System, in megajoules
energy contained in a volume of water Vc, in megajoules
thermal loss from the store, in megajoules
QLOS
energy remaining in the store, in megajoules
ambient or surrounding air temperature, in degrees Celsius
t ambient air temperature adjacent to the store, in degrees Celsius
a,s
water temperature of load drawn off, in degrees Celsius
final water temperature [equation (1)], in degrees Celsius
required hot water temperature, in degrees Celsius
initial water temperature [equation (i)], in degrees Celsius
t cold water supply temperature, in degrees Celsius
main
average ambient air temperature during the night, in degrees Celsius
average temperature of water in the store, in degrees Celsius
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)
surrounding air Speed, in metres per second
storage tank heat loss coefficient, in Watts per kelvin
volume of daily hot water consumption, in litres
volume of water drawn off, in cubic metres
fluid capacity of the store, in litres
At time interval, in seconds
density of water, in kilograms per cubic metre
Subscripts
average (mean) value of Parameter
(ad

average (mean) value of Parameter during the period 6 h before solar noon to 6 h after solar noon

May)
maximum value of Parameter
(max)
5 System classifications

Solar domestic hot water Systems are classified by seven attributes, each divided into two or three categories.

The categories of each attribute are defined as shown in table 1.
5.1 Attribute 1

a) Solar only - System designed to provide solar heated domestic water without use of supplementary energy

other than that required for fluid transport and control purposes.

b) Solar preheat - System not incorporating any form of supplementary heating and installed to preheat cold

water Prior to its entry into any other type of household water heater.

c) Solar plus supplementary - System which utilizes both solar and auxiliary energy sources in an integrated

way and is able to provide a specified hot water Service independently of solar energy availability.

Table 1 - Classification of solar domestic hot water Systems
Category
Attribute
a b C
1 Solar only Solar preheat Solar plus supplementary
2 Direct Indirect
3 Open Vented Closed
4 Filled Drainback Draindown
5 Thermosiphon Forced
6 Circulating Series-connected
7 Remote storage Close-coupled collector storage Integral collector storage
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
0 ISO ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)
5.2 Attribute 2

a) Direct - System in which the heated water that wi ultimately be consumed Passes through the collector.

b) Indirect (heat exchange) - System in which a heat ransfer fluid other than the heated water ultimately con-

sumed Passes through the collector.
5.3 Attribute 3

Open - System in which the heat transfer fluid is in extensive contact with the atmosphere.

NOTE 12 In the USA the term “open System” encompasses both open and vented Systems as herein defined.

b) Vented - System in which contact between the heat transfer fluid and the atmosphere is restricted either

to the free surface of a feed and expansion cistern or to an open vent pipe only.

c) Closed (sealed or unvented) - System in which the heat transfer fluid is completely sealed from the atmos-

phere.
5.4 Attribute 4

Filled - System in which the collector remains filled with the heat transfer fluid.

b) Drainback - System in which, as part of the normal working cycle, the heat transfer fluid is drained from the

collector into a storage vessel for subsequent reuse.

System in which the heat transfer fluid tan be drained from the collector and run to waste.

c) Draindown -
5.5 Attribute 5

a) Thermosiphon - System which utilizes only density changes of the heat transfer fluid to achieve circulation

between collector and storage.

b) Forced - System in which heat transfer fluid is forced through the collector either by mechanical means or

by externally generated pressure.
5.6 Attribute 6

a) Circulating - System in which heat transfer fluid circulates between the collector and a storage vessel or heat

exchanger during operating periods.

Series-connected - System in which the water to be heated Passes directly from a supply Point through the

collector to a storage vessel or to a Point of use.
5.7 Attribute 7

a) Remote storage - System in which the storage vessel is separate from the collector and is located at some

distance from it.

Close-coupled collector storage - System in which storage vessel abuts the collector, and is mounted on

a common support frame.
System in which the functions of collection and storage of solar energy are
c) Integral collector storage -
performed within the same device.
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ISO 9459-2: 1995(E)
6 Requirements
6.1 System requirements
6.1.1 System type

Before applying the test procedure to a System with an auxiliary heater the following must be considered.

Systems with separate auxiliary heating
6.1.1.1

Only the solar part of the System shall be tested using the test procedure. The solar Performance of Systems

which have an auxiliary heater separated from the solar-heated storage tank will not be influenced by the auxiliary

heater. However, the load size will be influenced by the presence of the auxiliary heater. Therefore, if the System

is to be tested with both the solar preheater and separate auxiliary heater considered as par-t of the same System,

the test procedure described in ISO 9459-3 shall be used.
6.1.1.2 Systems with manual auxiliary heater control

Systems which have an auxiliary heater integrated in the solar-heated storage tank, and in which the auxiliary

heater is provided only for irregular intermittent Operation (manually operated switch), shall be tested with the

auxiliary heater switched off.
6.1 .1.3 Systems with integrated auxiliary boosting

The test procedure does not apply to Systems which have a continuous or nighttime-use auxiliary heater integrated

in the solar-heated storage tank. Such Systems should be assessed using the test procedure defined in ISO 9459-3

or other suitable International Standard.
6.1.2 Test System installation

Tests shall be performed with the System components installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation

instructions. Any controller included in the System shall be set in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

In the absence of specific instructions from the manufacturer, the System shall be installed as follows.

The System shall be mounted in a manner such as to ensure safety to personnel. Due consideration shall be paid

to the likelihood of glass failure and the leakage of hot liquids. Mountings shall be able to withstand the effects

of wind gusts.

Whenever possible the System shall be mounted on the mounting structure provided by the manufacturer. If no

mounting is provided then, unless otherwise specified (for example when the System is part of an integrated roof

array), an open mounting System shall be used. The System mounting shall in no way obstruct the aperture of the

collectors and the mounting structure shall not significantly affect the back or side insulation of the collectors or

storage vessel.

Except for Systems where the storage vessel is fixed to the collectors in some way (for example integral

collector-storage Systems and close-coupled thermosiphon Systems), the store shall be installed in the lowest

Position allowed in the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
For Systems where the hot water store is separate from
...

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