IEC 62862-5-2:2022 specifies the requirements and the test methods for the characterization of a large-size linear Fresnel collector.
This document covers the determination of optical and thermal performance of linear Fresnel collectors, and the tracking accuracy of the collector one-axis tracking system. This test method is for outdoor testing only.
This document applies to linear Fresnel collectors according to Annex A equipped with the manufacturer-supplied sun tracking mechanism.
This document applies to the whole collector field in-situ or as a minimum unit to be tested to an individual collector string (loop) connected to the main piping (flow, return flow) to and from a heat sink, covering the full temperature range of the field.

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This International Standard lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of power conversion equipment (PCE) suitable for long-term operation in terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems.
1.1 Equipment included in this scope
This document covers the following items in its scope: electronic power conversion equipment intended for use in terrestrial PV applications. The term PCE refers to equipment and components for electronic power conversion of electric power into another kind of electric power with respect to voltage, current, and frequency. This standard is suitable for PCE for use in both indoor and outdoor climates as defined in IEC 60721-3-3 and IEC 60721-3-4. Such equipment may include, but is not limited to, grid-tied and off-grid DC-to-AC PCEs, DC-to-DC converters, battery charger converters, and battery charge controllers.
This standard covers PCE that is connected to PV arrays that do not nominally exceed a maximum circuit voltage of 1500 V DC. The equipment may also be connected to systems not exceeding 1000 V AC at the AC mains circuits, non-main AC load circuits, and to other DC source or load circuits such as batteries. If particular ancillary parts whereby manufacturers and models are specified in the manual for use with the PCE, then those parts shall be tested with the PCE.
1.2 Equipment for which other requirements may apply This standard has not been written to address characteristics of power sources other than PV systems, such as wind turbines, fuel cells, rotating machine sources, etc.
This standard has not been written with the intent of addressing the characteristics of power electronic conversion equipment fully integrated into photovoltaic modules. Separate standards exist or are in development for those types of devices. It is, however, applicable to devices where the manufacturer explicitly specifies the capability of full detachment from and subsequent reattachment to the PV module or if the input and output terminals can be accessed and a specification sheet for the PCE is available. Devices meeting these requirements may be tested as individual samples independent from the PV module.
This standard does not apply to power conversion equipment with integrated (built-in) electrochemical energy storage (e.g. lead acid or lithium-ion). It is, however, applicable to equipment where the manufacturer specifies and permits complete removal of the electrochemical energy storage from the PCE so that stand-alone assessment of the PCE with the storage removed becomes possible.
1.3 Object
The object of the test sequences contained herein is to establish a basic level of durability and to show, as far as it is possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the PCE is capable of maintaining this performance after prolonged exposure to the simulated environmental stresses described herein that are based on the intended use conditions specified by the manufacturer. Optional tests contained herein may be selected depending on the intended installation, market, or special environmental conditions that the PCE is anticipated to experience. The categorization imposes differentiated test sequences and test severity levels
reflecting the different requirements of mechanical and electrical 56 components in different environments.
PCE are grouped into categories based on size and installation environment.
The actual life expectancy of components so qualified will depend on their design, their environment, and the conditions under which they are operated. Estimation of a lifetime and wear out is not generally covered by this standard.

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IEC TS 62804-2:2022 defines apparatus and procedures to test and evaluate the durability of photovoltaic (PV) modules to power loss by the effects of high voltage stress in a damp heat environment, referred to as potential-induced degradation (PID). This document defines a test method that compares the coulomb transfer between the active cell circuit and ground through the module packaging under voltage stress during accelerated stress testing with the coulomb transfer during outdoor testing to determine an acceleration factor for the PID.
This document tests for the degradation mechanisms involving mobile ions influencing the electric field over the semiconductor absorber layer or electronically interacting with the films such that module power is affected.

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IEC TS 63106-2:2022 provides recommendations for Low Voltage (LV) DC power simulators used for testing photovoltaic (PV) power conversion equipment (PCE) to utility interconnection or PV performance standards. This document primarily addresses DC power simulators used for testing of grid-interactive PCE, also referred to as grid-connected power converters (GCPCs). It also addresses some uses of DC power simulators for testing stand-alone and multi-mode PCEs.

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IEC TS 63109:2022 specifies a method to measure the diode ideality factor of photovoltaic cells and modules by quantitative analysis of electroluminescence (EL) images. This document provides a definition of the term diode ideality factor n, as the inverse of increment ratio of natural logarithm of current as a function of applied voltage, which is related to the fill factor FF, and is useful as an effective indicator to represent the output efficiency of photovoltaic cells and modules with the other key parameters open circuit voltage Voc and short circuit current Isc.

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IEC 62788-7-3:2022 defines the test methods that can be used for evaluating the abrasion of materials and coatings in photovoltaic modules or other solar devices. This document may be applied to components on the incident surface (including coatings, frontsheet, and glass) as well as the back surface (including backsheets or back glass). This document is intended to address abrasion of PV module surfaces and any coatings present using representative specimens (e.g. which can be centimetres in size); the methods and apparatus used here can also be used on PV module specimens (e.g. meters in size).

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This European Standard specifies requirements on durability, reliability and safety for Factory Made solar heating systems. The standard also includes provisions for evaluation of conformity to these requirements. Concept of system families is included, as well. The requirements in this standard apply to Factory Made solar systems as products. The installation of these systems including their integration with roofs or facades is not considered, but requirements are given for the documentation for the installer and the user to be delivered with the system. External auxiliary water heating devices that are placed in series with the Factory Made system are not considered to be part of the system. Cold water piping from the cold water grid to the system as well as piping from the system to an external auxiliary heater or to draw-off points is not considered to be part of the system. Piping between components of the Factory Made system is considered to be part of the system. Any integrated heat exchanger or piping for space heating is not considered to be part of the system.

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IEC TS 63349-2:2022 defines operation modes of photovoltaic direct-driven appliance (PVDDA) controllers and describes one example of a graphic display. The graphic display is an interface to PVDDA users, which uses easily understood graphics to show a real-time operation mode, such as what equipment is installed, controlled and monitored in the system, which equipment is generating power and how much it generates, and which equipment is consuming power and how much it consumes. This helps with user’s interest, knowledge, planning on renewable energy usage.

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This document defines procedures to be followed for temperature and irradiance corrections to the measured I-V (current-voltage) characteristics (also known as I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices. It also defines the procedures used to determine factors relevant to these corrections. Requirements for I-V measurement of PV devices are laid down in IEC 60904-1 and its relevant subparts. The PV devices include a single solar cell with or without a protective cover, a sub-assembly of solar cells, or a module. A different set of relevant parameters for I-V curve correction applies for each type of device. The determination of temperature coefficients for a module (or subassembly of cells) may be calculated from single cell measurements, but this is not the case for the internal series resistance and curve correction factor, which should be separately measured for a module or subassembly of cells. Refer to Annex A for alternative procedures for series resistance determination. The use of I-V correction parameters are valid for the PV device for which they have been measured. Variations may occur within a production lot or the type class.

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IEC TS 63217:2021 provides a test procedure for evaluating the performance of Over Voltage Ride-Through (OVRT) functions in inverters used in utility-interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems.
This document is most applicable to large systems where PV inverters are connected to utility high voltage (HV) distribution systems. However, the applicable procedures may also be used for low voltage (LV) installations in locations where evolving OVRT requirements include such installations, e.g. single-phase or 3-phase systems. This document is for testing of PV inverters, though it contains information that may also be useful for testing of a complete PV power plant consisting of multiple inverters connected at a single point to the utility grid. It further provides a basis for utility-interconnected PV inverters numerical simulation and model validation.

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IEC 60891:2021 defines procedures to be followed for temperature and irradiance corrections to the measured I-V (current-voltage) characteristics (also known as I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices. It also defines the procedures used to determine factors relevant to these corrections. Requirements for I-V measurement of PV devices are laid down in IEC 60904-1 and its relevant subparts.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2009. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- adds guidance on which correction procedure shall be used depending on application;
- introduces translation procedure 4 applicable to c-Si technologies with unknown temperature coefficients;
- introduces various clarifications in existing procedures to improve measurement accuracy and reduce measurement uncertainty;
- adds an informative annex for supplementary methods that can be used for series resistance determination.

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This document is applicable to low voltage Photovoltaic Earth-Fault Protection Equipment (PVEFPE)
whose function is to detect, interrupt, and warn system operators of earth faults in solar
photovoltaic arrays.
NOTE 1 In the context of this document, the PV array may include connected wiring and equipment. The required
coverage of the monitoring and protection is defined in PV installation codes and standards, including aspects such
as whether or not the coverage is required to include battery circuits, the DC outputs of DC-DC converters, etc.
NOTE 2 The IEC definition of low voltage is 1 000 V or less for AC systems and 1 500 V or less for DC systems.
PV-EFPE may be stand-alone or integrated into other equipment such as PV power conversion equipment, a PV
combiner, etc.
This document specifies:
– the types and levels of the monitoring and protection functions that may be provided;
– the nature and timing of responses to earth faults;
– test methods for validating the monitoring and protection functions provided;
– requirements for functional safety and fault tolerance;
– requirements for product safety including construction, environmental suitability, markings,
documentation, and testing.

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This International Standard outlines terminology, equipment, and methods for performance monitoring and analysis of photovoltaic (PV) systems. It also serves as a basis for other standards which rely upon the data collected.

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This European Standard describes data sheet and name plate information for photovoltaic inverters in grid parallel operation. The intent of this document is to provide minimum information required to configure a safe and optimal system with photovoltaic inverters. In this context, data sheet information is a technical description separate from the photovoltaic inverter.

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IEC TS 63163:2021 is intended to apply to terrestrial modules for consumer applications for outdoor operation shorter than those qualified to IEC 61215. The useful service life of modules so qualified depends on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. This document classes those PV modules into Category 1, Category 2, and Category 3 with respectively low, medium and high expected outdoor exposure. This specification is intended to qualify the PV portion of these devices. It may, however, be used as a basis for testing such PV modules, but does not qualify the electronic portion. The purpose of the test sequence is to determine the electrical, thermal, and mechanical durability characteristics of the module, and to show that the module is capable of withstanding outdoor exposure for different outdoor durations designated as “low”, “medium”, and “high”. Mobile and attached applications are considered to require lower mechanical durability than portable applications, which are more prone to mechanical damage.

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IEC TS 63102:2021(E) highlights recommended technical methods of grid code compliance assessment for grid connection of wind and PV power plants as the basic components of grid connection evaluation. The electrical behaviour of wind and PV power plants in this technical specification includes frequency and voltage range, reactive power capability, control performance including active power based control and reactive power based control, fault ride through capability and power quality.
Compliance assessment is the process of determining whether the electrical behaviour of wind and PV power plants meets specific technical requirements in grid codes or technical regulations. The assessment methods include compliance testing, compliance simulation and compliance monitoring. The input for compliance assessment includes relevant supporting documents, testing results and validated simulation models, and continuous monitoring data. The scope of this technical specification only covers assessment methods from a technical aspect; processes related to certification are not included.
This technical specification is applicable to wind and PV power plants connected to the electrical power grid.

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IEC TR 62933-2-200:2021(E) presents a case study of electrical energy storage (EES) systems located in electric vehicle (EV) charging stations with photovoltaic (PV) power generation (PV-EES-EV charging stations) with a voltage level of 20 kV and below. EES systems are highlighted in this document because they are a desired option to make the charging stations (especially the high-power fast charging stations) grid-friendly, improve the self-consumption of clean energy generation, and increase the revenue of stations. In this application, EES systems show excellent performance by running in a variety of available operating modes, such as peak shaving, power smoothing, load tracing, time-of-use (TOU) price arbitrage, and ancillary services. The general duty cycle is recommended based on the summary of the operation characteristics of the EES systems.

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2021-06-11 - IEC Corrected version

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This document gives recommended practice for the use of pyranometers in solar energy applications (e.g. testing of solar photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors or other devices, and performance monitoring of solar energy systems). It is applicable for both outdoor and indoor use of pyranometers, when measuring plane of array, global horizontal and reflected irradiance, or radiation from a solar simulator. The measurement may be carried out on either a horizontal or an inclined surface, and the pyranometer may be part of a diffusometer, i.e. combined with a sun-shading device to measure diffuse radiation.

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  • Draft
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IEC 61724-1:2021 is available as IEC 61724-1:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 61724-1:2021 outlines terminology, equipment, and methods for performance monitoring and analysis of photovoltaic (PV) systems. It also serves as a basis for other standards which rely upon the data collected. This document defines classes of photovoltaic (PV) performance monitoring systems and serves as guidance for monitoring system choices. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 2017. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- Monitoring of bifacial systems is introduced.
- Irradiance sensor requirements are updated.
- Soiling measurement is updated based on new technology.
- Class C monitoring systems are eliminated.
- Various requirements, recommendations and explanatory notes are updated.

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IEC 63112:2021 is applicable to low voltage Photovoltaic Earth-Fault Protection Equipment (PV-EFPE) whose function is to detect, interrupt, and warn system operators of earth faults in solar photovoltaic arrays. This document specifies:
- the types and levels of the monitoring and protection functions that may be provided;
- the nature and timing of responses to earth faults;
- test methods for validating the monitoring and protection functions provided;
- requirements for functional safety and fault tolerance;
- requirements for product safety including construction, environmental suitability, markings, documentation, and testing.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic
modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of
modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under
which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module
lifetime. In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are
recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in
IEC TS 63126.
Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are recommended
to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in IEC 63163
(under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics tested in
IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize IEC 62941
regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing.
This document is intended to apply to all crystalline silicon terrestrial flat plate modules.
This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be
utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests
are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design
concentration.
The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module
and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the
module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions
are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and
are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design
and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on
accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.
Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component
testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions
that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a
sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into
the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1:2021. In contrast, the tests
procedures described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.
This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and
requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic
modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules
so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they
are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.
In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are
recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in
IEC TS 631261. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are
recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in
IEC TS 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics
tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize
IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing.
This document is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as
crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules.
This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be
utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are
performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design
concentration.
The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module
and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module
is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions are
empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are
applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design and
thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on accelerated
test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.
Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component
testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions that
are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a sufficient
level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into the IEC 61215
series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1:2021. In contrast, the tests procedures described
in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.
In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize IEC TS 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing.
This document is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. It does not apply to systems that are not long-term applications, such as flexible modules installed in awnings or tenting.
This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration.
This document does not address the particularities of PV modules with integrated electronics. It may however be used as a basis for testing such PV modules.
The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design, and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.
Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1. In contrast, the tests procedures described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic
modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of
modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under
which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module
lifetime.
In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are
recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in
IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations
are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described
in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics
tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize
IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing.
This document is intended to apply to all thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si; a-Si/μc-Si) based
terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this
technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing.
This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be
utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests
are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design
concentration.
The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module
and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the
module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions
are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and
are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design
and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on
accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.
Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component
testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions
that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a
sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into
the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1. In contrast, the tests procedures
described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.
This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and
requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic
modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of
modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under
which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module
lifetime.
In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are
recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in
IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations
are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described
in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics
tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize
IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing.
This document is intended to apply to all thin-film Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 based terrestrial flat plate
modules. As such it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology
supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing.
This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be
utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests
are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design
concentration.
The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module
and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the
module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions
are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and
are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design
and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on
accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.
Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component
testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions
that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a
sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into
the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1. In contrast, the tests procedures
described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.
This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and
requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic
modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of
modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under
which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module
lifetime.
In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are
recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in
IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations
are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described
in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics
tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize
IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing.
This document is intended to apply to all thin-film CdTe based terrestrial flat plate modules.
As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing
IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing.
This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be
utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests
are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design
concentration.
The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module
and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the
module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions
are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and
are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design
and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on
accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.
Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component
testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions
that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a
sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into
the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1. In contrast, the tests procedures
described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.
This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and
requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements for the qualification of concentrator
photovoltaic (CPV) cells and Cell on Carrier (CoC) assemblies for incorporation into CPV
receivers, modules and systems.
The object of this qualification standard is to determine the optoelectronic, mechanical, thermal,
and processing characteristics of CPV cells and CoCs to show that they are capable of
withstanding assembly processes and CPV application environments. The qualification tests of
this document are designed to demonstrate that cells or CoCs are suitable for typical assembly
processes, and when properly assembled, are capable of passing IEC 62108.
This document defines qualification testing for two levels of concentrator photovoltaic device
assembly:
a) cell, or bare cell; and
b) cell on carrier (CoC).
NOTE Note that a variety of alternate names are used within the industry, such as solar cell assembly, receiver,
etc.

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IEC TS 63140:2021 provides test methods for quantifying the permanent change in a monolithically integrated PV module’s power output that may result from some potential partial shade conditions. Three tests are available, representing conditions of use, misuse, and most severe misuse. This document is applicable to monolithically integrated PV modules with one series-connected cell group or with multiple series-connected cell groups that are in turn connected in parallel. This document is not applicable to PV modules formed by the interconnection of separate cells.

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IEC TS 63209-1:2021 is intended to provide information to supplement the baseline testing defined in IEC 61215, which is a qualification test with pass-fail criteria. This document provides a standardized method for evaluating longer term reliability of photovoltaic (PV) modules and for different bills of materials (BOMs) that may be used when manufacturing those modules. The included test sequences in this specification are intended to provide information for comparative qualitative analysis using stresses relevant to application exposures to target known failure modes.

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IEC 61215-2:2021 is available as IEC 61215-2:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61215-2:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. This document is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. This second edition of IEC 61215-2 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-2 issued in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. Addition of cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load testing (MQT 20).
b. Addition of a test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21).
c. Addition of test methods required for bifacial PV modules.
d. Addition of test methods required for flexible modules. This includes the addition of the bending test (MQT 22).
e. Revision of simulator requirements to ensure uncertainty is both well-defined and minimized.
f. Correction to the hot spot endurance test, where the procedure for monolithically integrated (MLI) thin film technologies (MQT 09.2) previously included two sections describing a procedure only appropriate for silicon modules.
g. Selection of three diodes, rather than all, for testing in the bypass diode thermal test (MQT 18).
h. Removal of the nominal module operating test (NMOT), and associated test of performance at NMOT, from the IEC 61215 series.

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IEC 61215-1:2021 is available as IEC 61215-1:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61215-1:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. This document is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. It does not apply to systems that are not long-term applications, such as flexible modules installed in awnings or tenting. This second edition of IEC 61215-1 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-1, published in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. Addition of a test taken from IEC TS 62782.
b. Addition of a test taken from IEC TS 62804-1.
c. Addition of test methods required for flexible modules. This includes the addition of the bending test (MQT 22).
d. Addition of definitions, references and instructions on how to perform the IEC 61215 design qualification and type approval on bifacial PV modules.
e. Clarification of the requirements related to power output measurements.
f. Addition of weights to junction box during 200 thermal cycles.
g. Requirement that retesting be performed according to IEC TS 62915.
h. Removal of the nominal module operating test (NMOT), and associated test of performance at NMOT, from the IEC 61215 series.
The contents of the corrigendum of May 2021 have been included in this copy.

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IEC 61215-1-3:2021 is available as IEC 61215-1-3:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61215-1-3:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si; a-Si/µc-Si) based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-1-3, issued in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. A cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20) added.
b. A test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21) added.
c. A bending test (MQT 22) for flexible modules.

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IEC 61215-1-1:2021 is available as IEC 61215-1-1:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61215-1-1:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126. This document is intended to apply to all crystalline silicon terrestrial flat plate modules. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-1-1, issued in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. A cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20) added.
b. A test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21) added.
c. A bending test (MQT 22) for flexible modules added.
d. A procedure for stress specific stabilization – BO LID (MQT 19.3) added.
e. A final stabilization procedure for modules undergoing PID testing added

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  • Standard
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IEC 61215-1-4:2021 is available as IEC 61215-1-4:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61215-1-4:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-1-4, issued in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. A cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20) added.
b. A test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21) added.
c. A bending test (MQT 22) for flexible modules added.
This standard is to be read in conjunction with IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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IEC TR 63226:2021 is intended for use as guidance for reducing fire risks in general and for site-specific needs for buildings with PV systems. In addition to the general recommendations, technical, installation, and maintenance measures can be selected to reach the intended safety level of the PV system and building, depending on the results of a risk assessment. This document contains general information about building related risks and includes measures for reducing those risks. These measures are not general requirements or recommendations. They are explained as a guide for selecting suitable measures depending on the on-site needs.

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IEC 61215-1-2:2021 is available as IEC 61215-1-2:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61215-1-2:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film CdTe based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing. This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-1-2, issued in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. A cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load test (MQT 20) added.
b. A test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21) added.
c. A bending test (MQT 22) for flexible modules added.

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IEC TS 63156:2021 describes the procedure for evaluating the energy conversion performance of stand-alone or grid-connected power conversion equipment (PCE) used in PV systems. This procedure includes the calculation of inverter performance to anticipate the energy yield of PV systems. This evaluation method is based on standard power efficiency calculation procedures for PCE found in IEC 61683 and IEC 62891, but provides additional methods for evaluating the expected overall energy efficiency for a particular location given solar load profiles. This document can be used as the energy evaluation method for PCE in IEC TS 61724-3, which defines a procedure for evaluating a PV system’s actual energy production relative to its modeled or expected performance.

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IEC TS 62862-2-1:2021 defines the requirements and the test methods for the characterization of thermal energy storage (TES) systems. This document contains the information necessary for determining the performance and functional characteristics of active direct and indirect thermal energy storage systems based on sensible heat in solar thermal power plants using parabolic-trough collector, Fresnel collector or tower central receiver technology with liquid storage media.
This document includes characterization procedures for testing energy storage system charge and discharge, as well as reporting the results. Test performance requirements are given and the instrumentation necessary for them, as well as data acquisition and processing methods and methods for calculating the results and their uncertainties.

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IEC 62787:2021 specifies the minimum requirements for the qualification of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and Cell on Carrier (CoC) assemblies for incorporation into CPV receivers, modules and systems. The object of this qualification standard is to determine the optoelectronic, mechanical, thermal, and processing characteristics of CPV cells and CoCs to show that they are capable of withstanding assembly processes and CPV application environments. The qualification tests of this document are designed to demonstrate that cells or CoCs are suitable for typical assembly processes, and when properly assembled, are capable of passing IEC 62108.
This document defines qualification testing for two levels of concentrator photovoltaic device assembly:
a) cell, or bare cell; and
b) cell on carrier (CoC).

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IEC/TS 62727:2012(E) provides guidelines for the parameters to be specified for solar trackers for photovoltaic systems and provides recommendations for measurement techniques. The purpose of this test specification is to define the performance characteristics of trackers and describe the methods to calculate and/or measure critical parameters. This specification provides industry-wide definitions and parameters for solar trackers. Keywords: solar photovoltaic energy, solar trackers

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This part of IEC 60904 describes procedures for the measurement of current-voltage
characteristics (I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices in natural or simulated sunlight. These
procedures are applicable to a single PV solar cell, a sub-assembly of PV solar cells, or a PV
module. They are applicable to single-junction mono-facial PV devices. For other device types,
reference is made to the respective documents, in particular for multi-junction devices to
IEC 60904-1-1 and for bifacial devices to IEC TS 60904-1-2. Additionally informative annexes
are provided concerning area measurement of PV devices (Annex A), PV devices with
capacitance (Annex B), measurement of dark current-voltage characteristics (dark I-V curves)
(Annex C) and effects of spatial non-uniformity of irradiance (Annex D).
NOTE The methods provided in this document can also be used as guidance for taking I-V curves of PV arrays. For
on-site measurement refer to IEC 61829.
This document is applicable to non-concentrating PV devices for use in terrestrial environments,
with reference to (usually but not exclusively) the global reference spectral irradiance AM1.5
defined in IEC 60904-3. It may also be applicable to PV devices for use under concentrated
irradiation if the application uses direct sunlight and reference is instead made to the direct
reference spectral irradiance AM1.5d in IEC 60904-3.
The purposes of this document are to lay down basic requirements for the measurement of I-V
curves of PV devices, to define procedures for different measuring techniques in use and to
show practices for minimising measurement uncertainty. It is applicable to the measurement of
I-V curves in general. I-V measurements can have various purposes, such as calibration (i.e.
traceable measurement with stated uncertainty, usually performed at standard test conditions)
of a PV device under test against a reference device, performance measurement under various
conditions (e.g. for device temperature and irradiance) such as those required by IEC 60891
(for determination of temperature coefficients or internal series resistance), by IEC 61853-1
(power rating of PV devices) or by IEC 60904-10 (for determination of output’s linear
dependence and linearity with respect to a particular test parameter). I-V measurements are
also important in industrial environments such as PV module production facilities, and for testing
in the field. Further guidance on I-V measurements in production facilities is provided in
IEC TR 60904-14.
The actual requirements (e.g. for the class of solar simulator) depend on the end-use. Other
standards referring to IEC 60904-1 can stipulate specific requirements. Where those
requirements are in conflict with this document, the specific requirements take precedence.

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This part of IEC 60904 describes the procedures used to measure the dependence of any
electrical parameter (Y) of a photovoltaic (PV) device with respect to a test parameter (X) and
to determine the degree at which this dependence is close to an ideal linear (straight-line)
function. It also gives guidance on how to consider deviations from the ideal linear
dependence and in general on how to deal with non-linearities of PV device electrical
parameters. Typical device parameters are the short-circuit current ISC, the open-circuit
voltage VOC and the maximum power Pmax. Typical test parameters are the temperature T and
the irradiance G. However, the same principles described in this document can be applied to
any other test parameter with proper adjustment of the procedure used to vary the parameter
itself.
Performance evaluations of PV modules and systems, as well as performance translations
from one set of temperature and irradiance to another, frequently rely on the use of linear
equations (see for example IEC 60891, IEC 61853-1, IEC 61829 and IEC 61724-1). This
document lays down the requirements for linear dependence test methods, data analysis and
acceptance limits of results to ensure that these linear equations will give satisfactory results.
Such requirements prescribe also the range of the temperature and irradiance over which the
linear equations may be used. This document gives also a procedure on how to correct for
deviations of the short-circuit current ISC from the ideal linear dependence on irradiance
(linearity) for PV devices, regardless of whether they are classified linear or non-linear
according to the limits set in 9.7. The impact of spectral irradiance distribution and spectral
mismatch is considered for measurements using solar simulators as well as under natural
sunlight.
The measurement methods described herein apply to all PV devices, with some caution to be
used for multi-junction PV devices, and are intended to be carried out on a device, or in some
cases on an equivalent device of identical technology, that is stable according to the criteria
set in the relevant part of IEC 61215. These measurements are meant to be performed prior
to all measurements and correction procedures that require a linear device or that prescribe
restrictions for non-linear devices.
The main methodology used in this document is based on a fitting procedure in which a linear
(straight-line) function is fitted to a set of measured data points {Xi,Yi}. The linear function
uses a least-squares fit calculation routine, which in the most advanced analysis also
accounts for the expanded combined uncertainty (k=2) of the measurements. The linear
function crosses the origin in the case of short-circuit current data versus irradiance. The
deviation of the measured data from the ideal linear function is also calculated and limits are
prescribed for the permissible percentage deviation.
Procedures to determine the deviation of the Y(X) dependence from the linear (straight-line)
function are described in Clause 6 (measurements under natural sunlight and with solar
simulator), Clause 7 (differential spectral responsivity measurements) and Clause 8
(measurements via two-lamp and N-lamp method). Data analyses to determine the deviations
from the linear function are given in Clause 9.
A device is considered linear for the specific measured dependence Y(X), when it meets the
requirements of 9.7.

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IEC standards for photovoltaic devices require the use of specific classes of solar simulators
deemed appropriate for specific tests. Solar simulators can be either used for performance
measurements of PV devices or endurance irradiation tests. This part of IEC 60904 provides
the definitions of and means for determining simulator classifications at the required
irradiance levels used for electrical stabilization and characterisation of PV devices.
This document is applicable for solar simulators used in PV test and calibration laboratories
and in manufacturing lines of solar cells and PV modules. The A+ category is primarily
intended for calibration laboratories and is not considered necessary for power measurements
in PV manufacturing and in qualification testing. Class A+ has been introduced because it
allows for reduction in the uncertainty of secondary reference device calibration, which is
usually performed in a calibration laboratory. Measurement uncertainty in PV production lines
will directly benefit from a lower uncertainty of calibration, because production line
measurements are performed using secondary reference devices.
In the case of PV performance measurements, using a solar simulator of a particular class
does not eliminate the need to quantify the influence of the simulator on the measurement by
making spectral mismatch corrections and analysing the influences of spatial non-uniformity
of irradiance in the test plane and temporal stability of irradiance on that measurement. Test
reports for PV devices tested with the simulator report the class of simulator used for the
measurement and the method used to quantify the simulator’s effect on the results.
The purpose of this document is to define classifications of solar simulators for use in indoor
measurements of terrestrial photovoltaic devices. Solar simulators are classified as A+, A, B
or C based on criteria of spectral distribution match, irradiance non-uniformity in the test
plane and temporal instability of irradiance. This document provides the required
methodologies for determining the classification of solar simulators in each of the categories.
A solar simulator which does not meet the minimum requirements of class C cannot be
classified according to this document.
For spectral match classification a new procedure has been added. This procedure addresses
the actual need for an extended wavelength range, which is arising from advances in solar
cell technology (such as increased spectral responsivity below 400 nm) as well as solar
simulator technology (use of component LEDs). The procedure of the second edition of this
standard is still valid, but is only applied if backward compatibility of classification for solar
simulators already in use and for solar simulators in production/sale is required. This
document is referred to by other IEC standards, in which class requirements are laid down for
the use of solar simulators. The solar simulator characteristics described in this document
are not used in isolation to imply any level of measurement confidence or measurement
uncertainty for a solar simulator application (for example, PV module power measurement).
Measurement uncertainties in each application depend on many factors, several of which are
outside the scope of this document:
• Characteristics of the solar simulator, possibly including characteristics not covered by this
document;
• Methods used to calibrate and operate the solar simulator;
• Characteristics of the device(s) under test (for example, size and spectral responsivity);
• Quantities measured from the device(s) under test, including equipment and methods
used for measurement;
• Possible corrections applied to measured quantities.
When applications require a certain solar simulator characteristic, it is preferable to specify a
numerical value rather than a letter classification (for example, “≤ 5 % non-uniformity of
irradiance” rather than “C

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