Manipulating industrial robots — Performance criteria and related test methods

Robots manipulateurs industriels — Critères de performance et méthodes d'essai correspondantes

General Information

Publication Date
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Completion Date
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ISO 9283:1998 - Manipulating industrial robots -- Performance criteria and related test methods
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Standards Content (Sample)

Second edition
Manipulating industrial robots -
Performance criteria and related test
- Critkes de perforrnance et mkthodes
Robots manipula teurs industriels
d’essai correspondantes
Reference number
ISO 9283: 1998(E)

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
1 Scope . . . . 1
2 Normative references 2
3 Definitions 2
4 Units 2
5 Abbreviations and Symbols . 3
51 Basic a bbreviations . 3
52 . Quantities . . 3
53 . I ndices . . 4
Other Symbols . . . 4
54 .
Performance testing conditions . 4
. Robot mounting . . . 4
62 . Conditions Prior to testing . . 4
63 . Operating and environmental conditions . 5
64 . Displacement measurement principles . 5
65 . I nstrumentation . . . . 6
66 . Load to the mechanical interface . 6
67 . Test velocities . . . 8
0 ISO 1998
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Printed in Switzerland

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
. Definitions of poses to be tested and paths to be followed . 9
69 . Number of cycles . 15
........................................................................... 15
6.10 Test procedure
................................. 16
6.11 Characteristics to be tested - Applications
7 Pose characteristics . . . 16
71 . General description
................................ .................................... 16
72 .
Pose accuracy and pose repeatability . 17
73 . Distance accuracy and repeatability
........................................... 24
74 . Position stabilization time .
75 . Position overshoot . 30
76 . Drift of pose characteristics . 31
77 . Exchangeability . 34
8 Path characteristics . . 35
81 . General . 35
82 . Path accuracy . . 36
83 . Path repeatability . 37
84 . Path accuracy on reorientation . 39
85 . Cornering deviations . 40
86 . Path velocity characteristics . 42
9 Minimum posing time .
10 Static compliance . 46
11 Application specific Performance criteria .
11.1 Weaving deviations . .
12 Test report .
A (normative) Parameters for comparison tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B (informative) Guide for selection of tests for typical applications . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. 56
C (informative) Example of a test report

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of
national Standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International
Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Esch member
body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has
the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations,
governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on
all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the
member bodies for approval before their acceptance as International Standards by the
ISO Council. In accordance with ISOAEC Directives they are approved if two-thirds of
the votes cast by the P-members of the technical committee or sub-committee are in
favour, and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative.
International Standard ISO 9283 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184,
Industrial automation Systems and integration, Subcommittee SC 2, Robots for
manufacturing environment.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 9283:1990 and
Amendment 1 :i 991), of which it constitutes a technical revision.
Annex A forms an integral part of this International Standard. Annexes B and C are for
information only.

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
ISO 9283 is part of a series of International Standards dealing with manipulating
industrial robots. Other International Standards cover such topics as safety, general
characteristics, coordinate Systems, terminology, and mechanical interfaces. lt is noted
that these International Standards are interrelated and also related to other
International Standards.
ISO 9283 is intended to facilitate understanding between users and manufacturers of
robots and robot Systems. lt defines the important Performance characteristics,
describes how they shall be specified and recommends how they should be tested. An
example of how the test results should be reported is included in Annex C of this
International Standard. The characteristics for which test methods are given in this
International Standard are those considered to affect robot Performance significantly.
lt is intended that the user of this International Standard selects which Performance
characteristics are to be tested, in accordance with his own specific requirements.
The tests described in this International Standard may be applied in whole or in Part,
depending upon the robot type and requirements.
The core patt of ISO 9283 deals with testing of individual characteristics. Specific
Parameters for comparison testing is dealt with in Annex A (normative) for
pose-to-pose characteristics and path characteristics.
Annex B (informative) of this International Standard provides guidance for selection of
tests for typical applications.
Annex C (informative) of this International Standard provides a recommended format
of the test report including the minimum required information and the summary of the
test results.

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
Manipulating industrial robots - Performance criteria and related test
1 Scope
This International Standard describes methods of specifying and testing the following Performance characteristics
of manipulating industrial robots:
pose accuracy and pose repeatability;
multi-directional pose accuracy Variation;
distance accuracy and distance repeatability;
Position stabilization time;
Position overshoot;
drift of pose characteristics;
path accuracy and path repeatability;
path accuracy on reorientation
cornering deviations;
path velocity characteristics;
minimum posing time;
static compliance;
weaving deviations.
This International Standard does not specify which of the above Performance characteristics are to be Chosen for
testing a patticular robot. The tests described in this International Standard are primarily intended for developing
and verifying individual robot specifications, but tan also be used for such purposes as prototype testing, type
testing or acceptance testing.
To compare Performance characteristics between different robots, as defined in this International Standard, the
following Parameters have to be the Same: test cube sizes, test loads, test velocities, test paths, test cycles,
environmental conditions.
Annex A provides Parameters specific for comparison testing of pose-to-pose characteristics and path
This International Standard applies to all manipulating industrial robots as defined in ISO 8373. However, for the
purpose of this International Standard the term “robot” means manipulating industrial robot.

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
2 Normative references
The following Standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this
International Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All International Standards are
subject to revision, and Parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate
the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the Standards indicated below. Members of IEC and ISO
maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 8373: 1994, Manipulating industrial robots - Vocabulary.
ISO 9787:1990, Manipulating industrial robots - Coordinate Systems and motions.
ISO 9946:1991, Manipulating industrial robots - Presentation of characteristics.
3 Definitions
For the purpose of this International Standard, the definitions given in ISO 8373 and the following definitions
3.1 cluster: Set of measured Points used to calculate the accuracy and the repeatability characteristics
(example shown diagrammatically in figure 8).
3.2 barycentre: For a cluster of n Points, defined by their coordinates (xi - yi - zi), the barycentre of that
- - -
cluster of Points is the Point whose coordinates are the mean values X, y , anu’ z calculated by formulae given in
3.3 measuring dwell: Delay at the measurement Point Prior Po recording data (e.g. time between control Signal
“in position” and the “Start measuring” of the measuring device).
3.4 measuring time: Time elapsed when measurements are recorded.
4 Units
Unless otherwise stated, all dimensions are as follows:
- length in millimetres .
- angle in radians or degrees .
(rad) or (“)
- time in seconds . S
( >
- mass in kilograms .
- forte in newtons .
velocity in metres per second.
- . (m/s),
degrees per second
............................... (‘1s ) or
radians per second . (radls)

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
5 Abbreviations and Symbols
For the purposes of this International Standard, the following abbreviations and Symbols apply.
5.1 Basic abbreviations
A Accu racy
V Variation
P Pose
D Distance
T Path (trajectory)
V Velocity
E Exchangeability
5.2 Quantities
Orientation (angular components) about the x, y, and z-axis
a, b, c
Linear coordinates along the x-, y-, z-axis
x y, z
n Number of measurement cycles
Number of measurement Points along the path
Standard deviation
Distance between two Points
I Distance between the attained pose and the barycentre of the attained poses
V Path velocity
AP Pose accuracy
Pose repeatability
Multi-directional pose accuracy Variation
Distance accuracy
Distance repeatability
t Position stabilization time
ov Position overshoot
dAP Drift of pose accuracy
dßP Drift of pose repeatability
Pat h accu racy
RT Path repeatability
CR Cornering round-off error
CO Cornering overshoot
AV Path velocity accuracy
Path velocity repeatability

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
FV Path velocity fluctuation
WS Weaving stroke error
Weaving frequency error
5.3 Indices
Indicates an orientation characteristic about the x-, y-, z-axis
a, b, c
Indicates a positioning characteristic along the x-, y-, z-axis
x, y, z
C Command
Indicates the i-th abscissa
Indicates the j-th cycle
k Indicates the k-th direction
h Indicates the h-th direction
Indicates the pose number 1,2 . . . .
e Corner Point (edge)
Point where the robot Performance falls within the specified path characteristics
5.4 Other Symbols
C, to C8 Corners of the test cube
E, to E4 Corners of the rectangular plane for the measurement of path characteristics
The batycentre of a cluster of attained poses
0 Origin of the measurement System coordinates
NOTE 1 - Further Symbols are explained in the respective subclauses.
6 Performance testing conditions
6.1 Robot mounting
The robot shall be mounted in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
6.2 Conditions Prior to testing
erational. All levelling operations, alignment
T ‘he robot shall be compietely assem bled and fully op necessary
rocedures and functional tests shall be satisfactorily completed.
The tests shall be preceded by an appropriate warm-up Operation if specified by the manufacturer, except for the
ft of pose characteristics which shall
Pest of dri statt from cold condition.

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
lf the robot has facilities for adjustment by the user that tan influence any of the tested characteristics, or if
characteristics tan be recorded only with specific functions (e.g. calibration facility where poses are given by off-
line programming), the condition used during the test shall be specified in the test report and (where relevant for
individual characteristics) shall be kept constant during each test.
6.3 Operating and environmental conditions
The Performance characteristics as specified by the manufacturer and determined by the related test methods in
this International Standard, are valid only under the environmental and normal operating conditions as stipulated
by the manufacturer.
6.3.1 Operating conditions
The normal operating conditions used in the tests shall be as stated by the manufacturer.
Normal operating conditions include, but are not limited to, requirements for electrical hyd rau lit and pne umatic
power, power fluctuations and disturbances, maximum safe operating limits (see ISO ‘9946) .
6.3.2 Environmental conditions General
The environmental conditions used in the tests shall be as stated by the manufacturer, subject to the
requirements of
Environmental conditions include temperature, relative humidity, electromagnetic and electrostatic fields, radio
frequency interference, atmospheric contaminants, and altitude Iimits. Testing temperature
The ambient temperature (8) of the testing environment should be 20” C. Other ambient temperatures shall be
stated and explained in the test repot-t. The testing temperature shall be maintained at
(0 I!I 2)” c
The robot and the measuring instruments should have been in the Pest environment long enough (preferably
overnight) so that they are in a thermally stable condition before testing. They shall be protected from draughts
and external thermal radiation (e.g. sunlight, heaters).
6.4 Displacement measurement principles
The measured Position and orientation data (3, yi, nate System
aj, bj, Cj) shall be expressed in a base
ISO 9787), or in a coordinate System defined
(see the measurement equipment.
If the robot command poses and paths are defined in another coordinate System (e-g. by off-line programming)
than the measuring System, the data must be transferred to one common coordinate System. The relationship
between the coordinate Systems shall be established by measurement. In this case the measurement poses
given in 7.2.1 shall not be used as reference positions for the transformation data. Reference and measurement
Points should be inside of the test cube and should be as far away from each other as possible (e.g. if PI to P5
are measurement Points, CB, C4, Cg, CG may be used).

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
For directionai components of the Performance criteria, the relationship between the base coordinate System and
the selected coordinate System shall be stated in the test results.
The measurement Point shall lie at a distance from the mechanical interface as specified by the manufacturer.
The Position of this Point in the mechanical interface coordinate System (see ISO 9787) shall be recorded (see
figure 7).
The sequence of rotation used when calculating the orientation deviation should be in a way so that the
orientation tan be continuous in value. This is independent if the rotation is about moving axes (navigation angles
or Euler angles), or rotation about stationary axes.
Unless othetwise specified, the measurements shall be taken after the attained pose is stabilized.
6.5 Instrumentation
For path characteristics, overshoot and pose stabilization measurements, the dynamic characteristics of the data
acquisition equipment (e.g. sampling rate) shall be high enough to ensure that an adequate representation of the
characteristics being measured is obtained.
The measuring instruments used for the tests shall be calibrated and the uncertainty of measurement shall be
estimated and stated in the test report. The following Parameters should be taken into account:
instrumentation errors;
systematic errors associated with the method used;
calculation errors.
The total uncertainty of measurement shall not exceed 25 % of the magnitude of the characteristic under test.
6.6 Load to the mechanical interface
All tests shall be executed with a test load equal to 100 % of rated load conditions, i.e. mass, Position of centre of
gravity, moments of inertia, according to the manufacturer’s specification. The rated load conditions shall be
specified in the test report.
To characterize robots with load dependent performances, additional optional tests tan be made with the mass
of rated load reduced to 10 % as indicated in table 1 or some other value as specified by the manufacturer.
When a patt of the measuring instrumentation is attached to the robot, its mass and Position shall be considered
as part of the test load.
Figure 1 Shows an example of test end effector with CG (centre of gravity) and TCP (tool centre Point) offsets.
The TCP is the measurement Point (MP) during the test. The measurement Point Position shall be specified in
the test report.

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
Table 1 - Test loads
It I rl
Load to be used
Char.acteristics to be tested
The mass of rated load
100 % of rated load
reduced to 10 %
(X = mandatoty) (0 = optional)
Pose accuracy and pose repeatability X 0
Multi-directional pose accuracy Variation X 0
Distance accuracy and distance repeatability X
ll II
X 0
Position stabilization time
ll ll
Position overshoot X 0
Drift of pose characteristics X
Exchangeability X 0
Path accuracy and path repeatability
Path accuracy on reorientation
Cornering deviations
X 0
Path velocity characteristics
Minimum posing time X 0
See clause 10
Static compliance
Weaving deviations X 0

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
Figure 1 - An example of test end effector
6.7 Test velocities
All pose characteristics shall be tested at the maximum velocity achievable between the specified poses, i.e. with
the velocity override set to 100 %, in each case. Additional tests could be carried out at 50 % and/or 10 % of this
For path characteristics, the tests shall be conducted at 100 %, 50 %, and 10 % of rated path velocity as
specified by the manufacturer for each of the characteristics tested (see table 3). Rated path velocity shall be
specified in the test report. The velocity specified for each test depends on the shape and size of path. The robot
shall be able to achieve this velocity over at least 50 % of the length of the test path. The related Performance
criteria shall be valid during this time.
lt shall be reported if the velocity has been specified in pose-to-pose mode or continuous path mode, if
A summary of the test velocities is given in tables 2 and 3.

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
Table 2 - Test velocities for pose characteristics
Characteristks to be tested
100 % of rated velocity 50 % or 10 % of rated
(X = mandatory)
(0 = optional)
Pose accuracy and pose repeatability
X 0
Multi-directional pose accuracy Variation X 0
‘ .
Distance accuracy and repeatability X 0
Position stabilization time X 0
1 I
Position overshoot X 0
Drift of pose characteristics X
Exchangeability X 0
Minimum posing time See clause 9 and table 20
Table 3 - Test velocities for Dath characteristics
Characteristics to be tested
100 % of rated path 50 % of rated path 10 % of rated path
velocity velocity velocity
(X = mandatory) (X = mandatory) (X = mandatory)
Path accuracy and path repeatability X X X
Path accuracy on reorientation X X X
Cornering deviations X X X
Path velocity characteristics X X
Weaving deviations X X X
6.8 Definitions of poses to be tested and paths to be followed
6.8.1 Objective
This subclause describes how five suitable positions are Pocated in a plane placed inside a cube within the
working space. lt also describes test paths to be followed. When robots have a range of motion along one axis,
small with respect to the other, replace the cube by a rectangular parallelepiped.

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ISO 9283: 1998(E)
6.8.2 Location of the cube in the working space
A Single cube, the corners of which are designated C, to C, (see figure 2), is located in the working space with
the following requirements fulfilled:
- the cube shall be located in that Portion of the working space with the greatest anticipated use;
the cube shall have the maximum volume allowable with the edges parallel to the base coordinate System;
A figure showing the location of the cube used in the working space shall be included in the test report.
Plane (b) C;1-C3 -Ca-Cs
Plane (a) C1-C2-C7-&3
i;:I i-::,
System System
Plane (c> C3-L+-C5-C6 Plane (d) C4-C7 -C&r
X x
Base Base
coordinate coordinate
System System
Figure 2 - Cube within the working space

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
6.8.3 Location of the planes to be used within the cube
One of the following planes shall be used for pose testing, for which the manufacturer has declared the values in
the data sheet to be valid:
c, - c* - c7 - CB
c* - c3 - cg - c5
c3 - c4 - c5 - Ce
CJ - c, - cfj - c7
The Pest report shall specify which of the four planes has been tested.
6.8.4 Poses to be tested
Five measurement Points are located on the diagonals of measuring plane and correspond to (PI to PS) in the
selected plane transformed by the axial (XMp ) and radial (ZMp ) measurement Point offset. The Points PI to P5 are
the positions for the wrist reference Point of the robot.
The measurement plane is parallel to the selected plane, see figures 3 and 7.
The test poses shall be specified in base coordinates (preferred) and/or joint coordinates, as specified by the
PI is the intersection of the diagonals and is the centre of the cube. The Points P2 to P5 are located at a distance
from the ends of the diagonals equal to (10 k 2) 5% of the Pength of the diagonal (see figure 4). If this is not
possible then the nearest Point Chosen on the diagonal shall be reported.
The poses to be used for pose characteristics are given in table 4.
Table 4 - Poses to be used for pose characteristics
Characteristics to be tested Poses
p2 p3 p4 5
Pose accuracy and pose repeatability X X X
Multi-directional pose accuracy Variation X X
Distance accuracy and distance X X
’ repeatability
~ Position stabilization time X X X X
1 Position overshoot X X X X
Drift of pose characteristics
Exchangeability X X X X

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
Selected plane
Maesure ment plane
- Measurement Point (MP)
I!- Centre of gravity (CG)
Machanical interface coordinate System MP = TCP
Figure 3 - Selected plane and measurement plane
L = length of diagonal
Example showing plane a) Cl -CP -Ct- C8 with
Figure 4 - Poses to be used

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
6.8.5 Movement requirements
All joints shall be exercised during movement between all poses.
During the test care should be taken not to exceed the manufacturing Operation specification.
6.8.6 Paths to be followed Location of the test path
The cube described in 6.8.2 shall be used.
The test path shall be located on one of the four planes shown in figure 5. For six axis robots, plane 1 shall be
used unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer. For robots with less than six axes the plane to be used
shall be as specified by the manufacturer.
During the measurement of the path characteristics the centre of the mechanical interface should lie in the plane
selected (see figure 3), and its orientation should be kept constant to that plane. Shapes and sizes of the test paths
Figure 6 gives an example of the Position of a linear path, a rectangular path and two circular paths in one of four
available test planes.
The shape of the test path should be linear or circular except for cornering deviations (see 8.5 and figure 22). If
paths of other shapes are used they shall be as specified by the manufacturer and added to the test report.
For a linear path in the diagonal of the cube, the length of the path shall be 80 % of the distance between
opposite corners of the selected plane. An example is the distance P2 to P4 in figure 6.
Another linear path P6 to P9 tan be used for a reorientation test, described in 8.4.
For the circular path test, two different circles should be tested. See figure 6.
The diameter of the large circle shall be 80 % of the length of the side of the cube. The centre of the circle shall
be PI .
The small circle should have a diameter of IO % of the large circle in the plane. The centre of the circle shall be
PI . See figure 6.
A minimum number of command poses shall be used. The number and location of the command poses and the
method of programming (teach programming or numerical data entry through manual data input or off-line
programming) shall be specified in the test report.
For a rectangular path, the corners are denoted EI, E2, E3 and Ed, each of which is at a distance from its
respective corner of the plane equal to (10 + - 2) % of a diagonal of the plane. An example is shown in figure 6 in
which P2, Pa, P4 and P5 coincide with EI, E2, E3 and E4 respectively.

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ISO 9283:1998(E) @ ISO
Plane 1”
Plane 2
. .
. .
1) Use with 6 axis robots.
Plane 3
Plane 4
Figure 5 - Definitions of planes for location of test path
E2 (P3)
E3 (P4)
S = side length of cube.
Figure 6 - Examples of test paths

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ISO 9283:1998(E)
6.9 Number of cycles
The numbe

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