Water quality -- Sampling

ISO 5667-6:2014 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes, sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and chemical assessment. It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling. (Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.) ISO 5667-6:2014 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters (see ISO 5667‑23). In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body. For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667‑4.

Qualité de l'eau -- Échantillonnage

L'ISO 5667-6:2014 décrit les principes qui doivent ętre appliqués lors de l'élaboration des programmes d'échantillonnage, des techniques d'échantillonnage et lors de la manipulation d'échantillons d'eau provenant de rivičres et de cours d'eau pour l'évaluation physique et chimique. Elle ne s'applique ni ŕ l'échantillonnage des eaux estuariennes ou côtičres ni ŕ l'échantillonnage microbiologique. NOTE 1 Les modes opératoires applicables ŕ l'échantillonnage microbiologique sont indiqués dans l'ISO 19458.[10] L'ISO 5667-6:2014 ne s'applique ni ŕ l'étude des sédiments, des matičres solides en suspension ou du biote, ni aux sections artificielles des rivičres ou des cours d'eau. Elle ne s'applique pas non plus ŕ l'échantillonnage passif des eaux de surface (voir l'ISO 5667‑23). NOTE 2 Si des retenues naturelles ou artificielles retiennent l'eau pendant plusieurs jours, il convient que la section de la rivičre ou du cours d'eau soit considérée comme une étendue d'eau stagnante. Pour connaître les objectifs d'échantillonnage, voir l'ISO 5667‑4.

Kakovost vode - Vzorčenje - 6. del: Navodilo za vzorčenje rek in potokov

Ta del standarda ISO 5667 določa načela za uporabo pri načrtovanju programov vzorčenja, tehnik vzorčenja in upravljanja z vodnimi vzorci rek ter potokov za fizikalno in kemično analizo.
Ne uporablja se za vzorčenje rečnih ali obalnih voda ali za mikrobiološko vzorčenje.
OPOMBA 1 Postopki za mikrobiološko vzorčenje so podani v standardu ISO 19458.[10]
Ta del standarda ISO 5667 se ne uporablja za preučevanje usedlin, neraztopljenih trdnih snovi ali živih organizmov niti za zajezene dele rek ali potokov. Poleg tega se ne uporablja za pasivno vzorčenje površinskih voda (glej ISO 5667-23).
OPOMBA 2 V primerih, ko naravni ali umetno zgrajeni jezovi zadržujejo vodo več dni ali še dlje, je treba ta del reke ali potoka upoštevati kot stoječo vodo. Za namene vzorčenja glejte ISO 5667-4.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Jul-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
28-May-2014
Completion Date
04-Jul-2014

RELATIONS

Effective Date
24-Oct-2009

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5667-6
Third edition
2014-07-15
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 6:
Guidance on sampling of rivers and
streams
Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 6: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des rivières et des
cours d’eau
Reference number
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Design of sampling programme ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Sampling location ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 Sampling point selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2 Frequency and time of sampling ............................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Preparation for sampling ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7 Sampling at specific locations................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Sampling from bridges ..................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 In-stream sampling ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Sampling from the bank side ...................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Sampling from craft .........................................................................................................................................................................12

7.6 Sampling under ice ...........................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Sampling methods ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Single, discrete samples ...............................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Sampling from specific depths ...............................................................................................................................................12

9 Sampling equipment .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Single, discrete samples ...............................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Sampling of surface layers for LNAPL (e.g. oils) or surface films .............................................................14

9.3 Devices for sampling from specific depths ..................................................................................................................14

9.4 Automatic sampling devices .....................................................................................................................................................14

9.5 Other sampling equipment ........................................................................................................................................................15

10 Taking the sample ............................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.1 Risk factors ..............................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.2 Arrival on site ........................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.3 Rinsing the equipment ..................................................................................................................................................................16

10.4 Direct sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.5 Indirect sampling using a sampling vessel ..................................................................................................................16

10.6 Sampling through ice ......................................................................................................................................................................17

10.7 Sampling of surface layers or films.....................................................................................................................................17

10.8 Sampling by increments...............................................................................................................................................................17

10.9 Adding preservatives in the field..........................................................................................................................................17

10.10 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

11 Stabilization, transport, and storage of samples .............................................................................................................17

11.1 Stabilization ............................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.2 Transportation .....................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.3 Security and traceability of samples during storage and delivery ..........................................................18

12 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................18

12.1 Avoidance of contamination .....................................................................................................................................................18

12.2 Sample identification and records ......................................................................................................................................19

12.3 Assurance and quality control ................................................................................................................................................19

13 Reports.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

13.1 Analytical reports ..............................................................................................................................................................................19

13.2 Sampling protocols ...........................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 5667-6:2014(E)

14 Certification, registration, or accreditation ..........................................................................................................................20

15 Safety precautions ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Calculation of complete mixing distance .........................................................................................22

Annex B (informative) Example of a report - Sampling from rivers and streams ..............................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water Quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Sampling.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 5667-6:2005), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling:

— Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques
— Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples
— Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made

— Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems

— Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
— Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants
— Part 8: Guidance on the sampling of wet deposition
— Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters
— Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters
— Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
— Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments
— Part 13: Guidance on sampling of sludges

— Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of environmental water sampling and

handling

— Part 15: Guidance on the preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
— Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples
— Part 17: Guidance on sampling of bulk suspended solids
— Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

— Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making — Compliance with thresholds and

classification systems

— Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than distribution

pipes

— Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points

— Part 23: Guidance on passive sampling in surface water
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Introduction

An understanding of the purpose of sampling is an essential prerequisite to identifying the principles

to be applied to a particular sampling problem. Examples of the purposes of sampling programmes

commonly devised for rivers and streams are as follows:

a) to determine the suitability of the water quality of a river or stream within a river basin for a

particular use, such as
1) a source of drinking water,
2) for agricultural use (e.g. all types of irrigation, live-stock watering),
3) for the maintenance or development of fisheries,
4) for amenity use (e.g. aquatic sports and swimming), and
5) for conservation and protection of aquatic life;
b) to assess the impact of human activities on the quality of water, such as

1) study of the effects of waste discharge or accidental spillages on a receiving water,

2) assessment of the impact of land use on river or stream quality,

3) assessment of the effect of the accumulation and release of substances including contaminants

from bottom deposits on aquatic biota within the water mass, or on bottom deposits,

4) study of the effects of abstraction, river regulation, and river-to-river water transfers on the

chemical quality of rivers and their aquatic biota, and

5) study of the effects of river engineering works on the water quality (e.g. addition or removal of

weirs, changes to channel or bed structure).
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 6:
Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams

WARNING — The focus of this part of ISO 5667 is the collection and integrity of water samples. The

collection of these samples can be hazardous and attention is therefore drawn to the existence

in some countries of legislative requirements for the safety of personnel. It is essential that all

sampling personnel have had thorough health and safety training for the conditions they are

likely to encounter.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5667 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes,

sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and

chemical assessment.

It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling.

[10]
NOTE 1 Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.

This part of ISO 5667 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor

to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters

(see ISO 5667-23).

NOTE 2 In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage

of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body.

For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667-4.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

ISO 5667-11, Water quality — Sampling — Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters

ISO 5667-14, Water quality — Sampling — Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of

environmental water sampling and handling
ISO 6107-2:2006, Water quality — Vocabulary — Part 2
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5667-11, ISO 6107-2, and the

following apply.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
3.1
automatic sampling

process whereby samples are taken either discretely or continuously, independently of human

intervention, and according to a predetermined programme
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 9]
3.2
composite sample

two or more samples or sub-samples, mixed together in appropriate known proportions (either

discretely or continuously), from which the average value of a desired characteristic can be obtained

Note 1 to entry: The proportions are usually based on time or flow measurements.
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 29]
3.3
continuous sampling
process whereby a sample is taken continuously from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32]
3.4
discrete sampling
process whereby single samples are taken from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 40]
3.5
incremental sampling

technique in which small samples are taken because of a low flow rate (with the possibility of

contamination by bottom deposits) or because of restricted access (e.g. where a sample is obtained

through a small aperture), these small samples then being aggregated to form a composite sample

Note 1 to entry: All the liquid contained in the small samples is used, unlike blending of aliquots used to make a

flow-proportional sample (see 9.4).
3.6
isokinetic sampling

technique in which the sample from a water stream passes into the orifice of a sampling probe with a

velocity equal to that of the stream in the immediate vicinity of the probe
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 56]
3.7
light non-aqueous-phase liquid
LNAPL

organic compound that has low water solubility and a density less than that of water

EXAMPLE Petroleum products.

[SOURCE: ISO 5667-11:2009, 3.15, modified — Singular forms replace plural forms.]

3.8
random sampling

form of sampling whereby the chances of obtaining different concentration values of a determinand are

precisely those defined by the probability distribution of the determinand in question

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
3.9
river

natural body of water flowing continuously or intermittently along a well-defined course into an ocean,

sea, lake, inland depression, marsh, or other watercourse
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 109]
3.10
sampling site
general area or location from which samples are taken
3.11
sampling point
precise position within a sampling location from which samples are taken
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.12
stream

water flowing continuously or intermittently along a well-defined course, as for a river, but generally on

a smaller scale
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 137]
3.13
sub-sample
portion removed from a sample and intended to be representative of that sample
3.14
systematic sampling

sampling whereby the samples are taken at predetermined intervals, often equally spaced in time

4 Design of sampling programme

Sampling is usually the first step in carrying out an investigation and largely determines the quality

of the whole investigation. It is therefore recommended that a detailed sampling strategy be drawn

up, often based upon a preliminary investigation in which an assessment has identified the important

aspects. Both the purpose and the ambient situation determine the way in which the sampling is carried

out. Consideration of time-of-travel data can influence choice of sampling locations depending on the

objective of the survey. General aspects for sampling programme design can be found in ISO 5667-1.

The sampling plan should give consideration to at least the following aspects.
General aspects:
a) purpose of the investigation;
b) parameters to be analysed for each sampling point;

c) the measurements to be carried out at the sampling point (with specification of the methods to be

used) such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, degree of acidity, or discharge;
d) frequency and times of sampling and the type of sample;
e) sampling site and the number and locations of sampling points (also see 5.1);
f) sampling equipment;
g) quality assurance procedures to be followed;
h) transport, preservation, and storage of samples.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Aspects relating to the ambient situation of the sampling point:
a) safety aspects;
b) hydrodynamic and morphological characteristics of the water to be sampled;

c) local circumstances such as water depth, floating layers, vegetation, and accessibility of the location;

d) the sampling depth(s);

e) anticipated composition and quantity of the water to be sampled, among other things whether there

are any floating and/or sludge layers present.

In addition, many characteristics can influence the behaviour of contaminants in river systems. An

understanding of the nature of these characteristics is important when planning and carrying out river

sampling programmes. Important factors include temperature, turbidity, depth, velocity, turbulence,

slope, changes in direction and in cross-sections, and the nature of the river bed.

These factors are so interrelated that it is difficult to assign more or less importance to each one. For

example, slope and roughness of the stream channel affect both depth and velocity of flow, which together

control turbulence. Turbulence in turn affects rates of mixing of effluents and tributary streams, re-

aeration, sedimentation or scour of solids, growths of attached biological forms and rates of natural

purification. In addition, chemical and biological processes can occur, e.g. photosynthesis, respiration,

and metabolic effects.

Practical sampling issues, such as accessibility, can make the ideal sampling point impractical. It is

essential that any change to the designated sampling point on any grounds be discussed and agreed

with the sampling programme originator. The outcome of the deliberations should be recorded in a

sampling point file which contains directions to the sampling site, the detailed location of the sampling

point, the method of sampling, and specific details (e.g. keys required, health, and safety issues). It can

differentiate between equivalent sampling points that can be used if, for instance, river conditions

change. It can also specify the type of sampling to be carried out, e.g. the depth to sample.

5 Sampling location
5.1 Sampling point selection
5.1.1 Choice of sampling site

In choosing the exact point from which samples are required, two aspects are generally involved:

a) the selection of the sampling site (i.e. the location of the sampling cross-section within the river

basin, river, or stream);
b) the identification of the precise point at the sampling site.

The purpose of sampling often defines sampling sites (as in the case of the determination of the quality

of an effluent discharge), but sometimes the purpose only leads to a general idea of the sampling site,

as in the characterization of quality in a river basin. Where possible, sampling site locations should be

[9]

defined by a grid reference in accordance with the international grid system in ISO 19112.

The choice of sampling sites for single sampling stations is usually relatively straightforward. For

example, a monitoring station for a baseline record of water quality can be chosen to permit the use of

a convenient bridge, or to allow an upstream effluent discharge or tributary to be well mixed laterally

before the station. Stations for monitoring water supply abstraction points might need to be fixed within

narrow limits (i.e. in proximity to the abstractions).

In regions that receive seasonal rainfall only, and that have long periods without rain, river volumes and

flows can vary tremendously, and sampling sites for regular use should be chosen so as to ensure that

4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)

they remain appropriate and practical for sampling during periods of both maximum and minimum

flow.

Where it is necessary to carry out sampling through ice in winter, the chosen sampling site should be as

close as possible to the sampling site used during other seasons of the year. If sampling is to be carried

out near a bridge, the site should be located far enough upstream to avoid contamination from road

salt and sand. Any deviations from the routine sampling point or given sampling coordinates should be

discussed where possible with the sampling originator, and should be detailed as part of the data set and

recorded with the analytical results, together with the new coordinates where applicable.

5.1.2 Importance of mixing

When the effects of a tributary or an effluent on the quality in a particular identified stretch of river

or the main stream are of interest, at least two sampling sites should be chosen; one should be just

upstream of the confluence and the other should be sufficiently far downstream to ensure that mixing

is complete.

It is also important that the sample be collected at a well-mixed and flowing sampling point, i.e. not in an

eddy or a backwater where the flow is not typical of the main water body.

The physical characteristics of the channels of watercourses largely control distances required for the

complete mixing of effluents with stream flow.
Effluents mix in three dimensions in a stream, namely
a) vertically (from top to bottom),
b) laterally (from one side to the other), and

c) longitudinally (levelling out of peaks and troughs in the concentration of effluent constituents as

water passes downstream).

The distances over which effluents mix in these three dimensions should be considered in the selection

of sampling sites and points, and are affected by, amongst other factors, the water velocity. Tracer

techniques using dyes can be useful in studying mixing processes and conductivity measurements can

also be helpful.

NOTE The use of tracer techniques might be subject to licensing by the authority responsible for the

watercourse, as there might be concerns over the release of chemicals into the environment. Where this is the

case, it might be better to use determinants already present, such as pH, temperature, or conductivity, to study

mixing processes.

Where mixing is relevant to the sampling regime, the sampling location and other associated parameters

should preferably be defined clearly before the beginning of sampling.

The sampler should acknowledge that in watercourses near the coast there might be a tidal influence

on the flow, quality, and mixing capability of the water body. Account of this sh

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 5667-6:2015
01-marec-2015
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 5667-6:2007
.DNRYRVWYRGH9]RUþHQMHGHO1DYRGLOR]DY]RUþHQMHUHNLQSRWRNRY
Water quality - Sampling - Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 6: Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage

des rivières et des cours d'eau
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 5667-6:2014
ICS:
13.060.10 Voda iz naravnih virov Water of natural resources
13.060.45 Preiskava vode na splošno Examination of water in
general
SIST ISO 5667-6:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-6:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-6:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5667-6
Third edition
2014-07-15
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 6:
Guidance on sampling of rivers and
streams
Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 6: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des rivières et des
cours d’eau
Reference number
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-6:2015
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-6:2015
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Design of sampling programme ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Sampling location ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 Sampling point selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2 Frequency and time of sampling ............................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Preparation for sampling ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7 Sampling at specific locations................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Sampling from bridges ..................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 In-stream sampling ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Sampling from the bank side ...................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Sampling from craft .........................................................................................................................................................................12

7.6 Sampling under ice ...........................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Sampling methods ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Single, discrete samples ...............................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Sampling from specific depths ...............................................................................................................................................12

9 Sampling equipment .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Single, discrete samples ...............................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Sampling of surface layers for LNAPL (e.g. oils) or surface films .............................................................14

9.3 Devices for sampling from specific depths ..................................................................................................................14

9.4 Automatic sampling devices .....................................................................................................................................................14

9.5 Other sampling equipment ........................................................................................................................................................15

10 Taking the sample ............................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.1 Risk factors ..............................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.2 Arrival on site ........................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.3 Rinsing the equipment ..................................................................................................................................................................16

10.4 Direct sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.5 Indirect sampling using a sampling vessel ..................................................................................................................16

10.6 Sampling through ice ......................................................................................................................................................................17

10.7 Sampling of surface layers or films.....................................................................................................................................17

10.8 Sampling by increments...............................................................................................................................................................17

10.9 Adding preservatives in the field..........................................................................................................................................17

10.10 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

11 Stabilization, transport, and storage of samples .............................................................................................................17

11.1 Stabilization ............................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.2 Transportation .....................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.3 Security and traceability of samples during storage and delivery ..........................................................18

12 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................18

12.1 Avoidance of contamination .....................................................................................................................................................18

12.2 Sample identification and records ......................................................................................................................................19

12.3 Assurance and quality control ................................................................................................................................................19

13 Reports.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

13.1 Analytical reports ..............................................................................................................................................................................19

13.2 Sampling protocols ...........................................................................................................................................................................20

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14 Certification, registration, or accreditation ..........................................................................................................................20

15 Safety precautions ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Calculation of complete mixing distance .........................................................................................22

Annex B (informative) Example of a report - Sampling from rivers and streams ..............................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water Quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Sampling.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 5667-6:2005), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling:

— Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques
— Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples
— Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made

— Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems

— Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
— Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants
— Part 8: Guidance on the sampling of wet deposition
— Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters
— Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters
— Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
— Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments
— Part 13: Guidance on sampling of sludges

— Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of environmental water sampling and

handling

— Part 15: Guidance on the preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples

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— Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples
— Part 17: Guidance on sampling of bulk suspended solids
— Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

— Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making — Compliance with thresholds and

classification systems

— Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than distribution

pipes

— Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points

— Part 23: Guidance on passive sampling in surface water
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Introduction

An understanding of the purpose of sampling is an essential prerequisite to identifying the principles

to be applied to a particular sampling problem. Examples of the purposes of sampling programmes

commonly devised for rivers and streams are as follows:

a) to determine the suitability of the water quality of a river or stream within a river basin for a

particular use, such as
1) a source of drinking water,
2) for agricultural use (e.g. all types of irrigation, live-stock watering),
3) for the maintenance or development of fisheries,
4) for amenity use (e.g. aquatic sports and swimming), and
5) for conservation and protection of aquatic life;
b) to assess the impact of human activities on the quality of water, such as

1) study of the effects of waste discharge or accidental spillages on a receiving water,

2) assessment of the impact of land use on river or stream quality,

3) assessment of the effect of the accumulation and release of substances including contaminants

from bottom deposits on aquatic biota within the water mass, or on bottom deposits,

4) study of the effects of abstraction, river regulation, and river-to-river water transfers on the

chemical quality of rivers and their aquatic biota, and

5) study of the effects of river engineering works on the water quality (e.g. addition or removal of

weirs, changes to channel or bed structure).
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 6:
Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams

WARNING — The focus of this part of ISO 5667 is the collection and integrity of water samples. The

collection of these samples can be hazardous and attention is therefore drawn to the existence

in some countries of legislative requirements for the safety of personnel. It is essential that all

sampling personnel have had thorough health and safety training for the conditions they are

likely to encounter.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5667 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes,

sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and

chemical assessment.

It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling.

[10]
NOTE 1 Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.

This part of ISO 5667 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor

to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters

(see ISO 5667-23).

NOTE 2 In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage

of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body.

For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667-4.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

ISO 5667-11, Water quality — Sampling — Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters

ISO 5667-14, Water quality — Sampling — Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of

environmental water sampling and handling
ISO 6107-2:2006, Water quality — Vocabulary — Part 2
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5667-11, ISO 6107-2, and the

following apply.
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3.1
automatic sampling

process whereby samples are taken either discretely or continuously, independently of human

intervention, and according to a predetermined programme
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 9]
3.2
composite sample

two or more samples or sub-samples, mixed together in appropriate known proportions (either

discretely or continuously), from which the average value of a desired characteristic can be obtained

Note 1 to entry: The proportions are usually based on time or flow measurements.
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 29]
3.3
continuous sampling
process whereby a sample is taken continuously from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32]
3.4
discrete sampling
process whereby single samples are taken from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 40]
3.5
incremental sampling

technique in which small samples are taken because of a low flow rate (with the possibility of

contamination by bottom deposits) or because of restricted access (e.g. where a sample is obtained

through a small aperture), these small samples then being aggregated to form a composite sample

Note 1 to entry: All the liquid contained in the small samples is used, unlike blending of aliquots used to make a

flow-proportional sample (see 9.4).
3.6
isokinetic sampling

technique in which the sample from a water stream passes into the orifice of a sampling probe with a

velocity equal to that of the stream in the immediate vicinity of the probe
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 56]
3.7
light non-aqueous-phase liquid
LNAPL

organic compound that has low water solubility and a density less than that of water

EXAMPLE Petroleum products.

[SOURCE: ISO 5667-11:2009, 3.15, modified — Singular forms replace plural forms.]

3.8
random sampling

form of sampling whereby the chances of obtaining different concentration values of a determinand are

precisely those defined by the probability distribution of the determinand in question

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3.9
river

natural body of water flowing continuously or intermittently along a well-defined course into an ocean,

sea, lake, inland depression, marsh, or other watercourse
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 109]
3.10
sampling site
general area or location from which samples are taken
3.11
sampling point
precise position within a sampling location from which samples are taken
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.12
stream

water flowing continuously or intermittently along a well-defined course, as for a river, but generally on

a smaller scale
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 137]
3.13
sub-sample
portion removed from a sample and intended to be representative of that sample
3.14
systematic sampling

sampling whereby the samples are taken at predetermined intervals, often equally spaced in time

4 Design of sampling programme

Sampling is usually the first step in carrying out an investigation and largely determines the quality

of the whole investigation. It is therefore recommended that a detailed sampling strategy be drawn

up, often based upon a preliminary investigation in which an assessment has identified the important

aspects. Both the purpose and the ambient situation determine the way in which the sampling is carried

out. Consideration of time-of-travel data can influence choice of sampling locations depending on the

objective of the survey. General aspects for sampling programme design can be found in ISO 5667-1.

The sampling plan should give consideration to at least the following aspects.
General aspects:
a) purpose of the investigation;
b) parameters to be analysed for each sampling point;

c) the measurements to be carried out at the sampling point (with specification of the methods to be

used) such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, degree of acidity, or discharge;
d) frequency and times of sampling and the type of sample;
e) sampling site and the number and locations of sampling points (also see 5.1);
f) sampling equipment;
g) quality assurance procedures to be followed;
h) transport, preservation, and storage of samples.
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Aspects relating to the ambient situation of the sampling point:
a) safety aspects;
b) hydrodynamic and morphological characteristics of the water to be sampled;

c) local circumstances such as water depth, floating layers, vegetation, and accessibility of the location;

d) the sampling depth(s);

e) anticipated composition and quantity of the water to be sampled, among other things whether there

are any floating and/or sludge layers present.

In addition, many characteristics can influence the behaviour of contaminants in river systems. An

understanding of the nature of these characteristics is important when planning and carrying out river

sampling programmes. Important factors include temperature, turbidity, depth, velocity, turbulence,

slope, changes in direction and in cross-sections, and the nature of the river bed.

These factors are so interrelated that it is difficult to assign more or less importance to each one. For

example, slope and roughness of the stream channel affect both depth and velocity of flow, which together

control turbulence. Turbulence in turn affects rates of mixing of effluents and tributary streams, re-

aeration, sedimentation or scour of solids, growths of attached biological forms and rates of natural

purification. In addition, chemical and biological processes can occur, e.g. photosynthesis, respiration,

and metabolic effects.

Practical sampling issues, such as accessibility, can make the ideal sampling point impractical. It is

essential that any change to the designated sampling point on any grounds be discussed and agreed

with the sampling programme originator. The outcome of the deliberations should be recorded in a

sampling point file which contains directions to the sampling site, the detailed location of the sampling

point, the method of sampling, and specific details (e.g. keys required, health, and safety issues). It can

differentiate between equivalent sampling points that can be used if, for instance, river conditions

change. It can also specify the type of sampling to be carried out, e.g. the depth to sample.

5 Sampling location
5.1 Sampling point selection
5.1.1 Choice of sampling site

In choosing the exact point from which samples are required, two aspects are generally involved:

a) the selection of the sampling site (i.e. the location of the sampling cross-section within the river

basin, river, or stream);
b) the identification of the precise point at the sampling site.

The purpose of sampling often defines sampling sites (as in the case of the determination of the quality

of an effluent discharge), but sometimes the purpose only leads to a general idea of the sampling site,

as in the characterization of quality in a river basin. Where possible, sampling site locations should be

[9]

defined by a grid reference in accordance with the international grid system in ISO 19112.

The choice of sampling sites for single sampling stations is usually relatively straightforward. For

example, a monitoring station for a baseline record of water quality can be chosen to permit the use of

a convenient bridge, or to allow an upstream effluent discharge or tributary to be well mixed laterally

before the station. Stations for monitoring water supply abstraction points might need to be fixed within

narrow limits (i.e. in proximity to the abstractions).

In regions that receive seasonal rainfall only, and that have long periods without rain, river volumes and

flows can vary tremendously, and sampling sites for regular use should be chosen so as to ensure that

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they remain appropriate and practical for sampling during periods of both maximum and minimum

flow.

Where it is necessary to carry out sampling through ice in winter, the chosen sampling site should be as

close as possible to the sampling site used during other seasons of the year. If sampling is to be carried

out near a bridge, the site should be located far enough upstream to avoid contamination from road

salt and sand. Any deviations from the routine sampling point or given sampling coordinates should be

discussed where possible with the sampling originator, and should be detailed as part of the data set and

recorded with the analytical results, together with the new coordinates where applicable.

5.1.2 Importance of mixing

When the effects of a tributary or an effluent on the quality in a particular identified stretch of river

or the main stream are of interest, at least two sampling sites should be chosen; one should be just

upstream of the confluence and the other should be sufficiently far downstream to ensure that mixing

is complete.

It is also important that the sample be collected at a well-mixed and flowing sampling point, i.e. not in an

eddy or a backwater where the flow is not typical of the main water body.

The physical characteristics of the channels of watercourses largely control distances required for the

complete mixing of effluents with stream flow.
Effluents mix in three dimensions in a stream, namely
a) vertically (from top to bottom),
b) laterally (from one s
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 5667-6
Troisième édition
2014-07-15
Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 6:
Lignes directrices pour
l’échantillonnage des rivières et des
cours d’eau
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
Numéro de référence
ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
ISO 2014
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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2014, Publié en Suisse

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ii © ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Conception du programme d’échantillonnage ...................................................................................................................... 3

5 Emplacement de l’échantillonnage ................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Sélection du point d’échantillonnage .................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.1 Choix du site d’échantillonnage .......................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Importance du mélange ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.3 Prise en compte des données relatives au temps de parcours ................................................ 6

5.1.4 Sites non homogènes ................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Fréquence et durée d’échantillonnage ............................................................................................................................... 8

6 Préparation en vue de l’échantillonnage .................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Échantillonnage sur des emplacements spécifiques ...................................................................................................10

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Échantillonnage depuis un pont ...........................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Échantillonnage en eau vive .....................................................................................................................................................12

7.4 Échantillonnage depuis la berge ...........................................................................................................................................12

7.5 Échantillonnage depuis une embarcation ....................................................................................................................13

7.6 Échantillonnage sous la glace ..................................................................................................................................................13

8 Méthodes d’échantillonnage .................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Échantillonnage intermittent simple ................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Échantillonnage à des profondeurs spécifiques ......................................................................................................14

9 Matériel d’échantillonnage .....................................................................................................................................................................14

9.1 Échantillonnage intermittent simple ................................................................................................................................14

9.2 Échantillonnage des couches de surface pour les LNAPL (par exemple, huiles) ou

de pellicules de surface .................................................................................................................................................................15

9.3 Dispositifs d’échantillonnage à des profondeurs spécifiques .....................................................................15

9.4 Dispositifs d’échantillonnage automatique .................................................................................................................15

9.5 Autre matériel d’échantillonnage ........................................................................................................................................16

10 Échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.1 Facteurs de risque .............................................................................................................................................................................16

10.2 Arrivée sur le site ...............................................................................................................................................................................17

10.3 Rinçage du matériel .........................................................................................................................................................................17

10.4 Échantillonnage direct ..................................................................................................................................................................17

10.5 Échantillonnage indirect à l’aide d’un récipient d’échantillonnage .......................................................18

10.6 Échantillonnage à travers la glace .......................................................................................................................................18

10.7 Échantillonnage de couches ou de pellicules de surface .................................................................................18

10.8 Échantillonnage par prélèvements élémentaires ..................................................................................................19

10.9 Ajout d’agents de conservation sur le terrain ...........................................................................................................19

10.10 Étiquetage ................................................................................................................................................................................................19

11 Stabilisation, transport et stockage des échantillons .................................................................................................19

11.1 Stabilisation ............................................................................................................................................................................................19

11.2 Transport ..................................................................................................................................................................................................19

11.3 Sécurité et traçabilité des échantillons pendant le stockage et le transport ..................................20

11.3.1 Échantillons de routine ...........................................................................................................................................20

11.3.2 Échantillons susceptibles d’être utilisés à des fins juridiques ..............................................20

12 Assurance qualité .............................................................................................................................................................................................20

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12.1 Prévention de la contamination ............................................................................................................................................20

12.2 Identification et enregistrements de l’échantillon ................................................................................................21

12.3 Assurance et contrôle qualité ..................................................................................................................................................21

13 Rapports .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

13.1 Rapports analytiques ......................................................................................................................................................................21

13.2 Protocoles d’échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................22

14 Certification, enregistrement ou accréditation .................................................................................................................22

15 Précautions de sécurité ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

Annexe A (informative) Calcul de la distance relative à un mélange homogène .................................................24

Annexe B (informative) Exemple de rapport d’échantillonnage dans les rivières et les

cours d’eau ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................25

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer

un engagement.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l’ISO liés à

l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes

de l’OMC concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: Avant-propos —

Informations supplémentaires.

Le comité chargé de l’élaboration du présent document est l’ISO/TC 147, Qualité de l’eau, sous-comité

SC 6, Échantillonnage.

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition (ISO 5667-6:2005), qui a fait l’objet

d’une révision technique.

L’ISO 5667 comprend les parties suivantes, présentées sous le titre général Qualité de l’eau —

Échantillonnage:

— Partie 1: Lignes directrices pour la conception des programmes et des techniques d’échantillonnage

— Partie 3: Lignes directrices pour la conservation et la manipulation des échantillons d’eau

— Partie 4: Guide pour l’échantillonnage des eaux des lacs naturels et des lacs artificiels

— Partie 5: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage de l’eau potable des usines de traitement et du réseau

de distribution

— Partie 6: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des rivières et des cours d’eau

— Partie 7: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des eaux et des vapeurs dans les chaudières

— Partie 8: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des dépôts humides
— Partie 9: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des eaux marines
— Partie 10: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des eaux résiduaires
— Partie 11: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des eaux souterraines
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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
— Partie 12: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des sédiments
— Partie 13: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des boues

— Partie 14: Lignes directrices pour le contrôle de la qualité dans l’échantillonnage et la manutention des

eaux environnementales

— Partie 15: Lignes directrices pour la préservation et le traitement des échantillons de boues et de sédiments

— Partie 16: Lignes directrices pour les essais biologiques des échantillons

— Partie 17: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des matières solides en suspension

— Partie 19: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des sédiments en milieu marin

— Partie 20: Lignes directrices relatives à l’utilisation des données d’échantillonnage pour la prise de

décision — Conformité avec les limites et systèmes de classification

— Partie 21: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage de l’eau potable distribuée par camions-citernes ou

d’autres moyens que les tuyaux de distribution

— Partie 22: Lignes directrices pour la conception et l’installation de points d’échantillonnage des

eaux souterraines

— Partie 23: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage passif dans les eaux de surface

vi © ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
Introduction

Il est essentiel de comprendre l’objectif de l’échantillonnage pour identifier les principes qui doivent

être appliqués à un problème d’échantillonnage particulier. Des exemples d’objectifs des programmes

d’échantillonnage couramment élaborés pour les rivières et les cours d’eau sont fournis ci-dessous:

a) déterminer si la qualité de l’eau d’une rivière ou d’un cours d’eau dans un bassin fluvial convient

pour un usage particulier, notamment:
1) une source d’eau potable,

2) un usage agricole (par exemple, tous les types d’irrigation, abreuvement des animaux d’élevage),

3) le maintien ou le développement de la pêche,
4) un usage de loisirs (par exemple, sports nautiques et natation), et
5) la préservation et la protection de la vie aquatique;
b) évaluer l’impact des activités humaines sur la qualité de l’eau, notamment:

1) étude des effets liés au rejet des déchets ou aux écoulements accidentels sur une eau réceptrice,

2) évaluation de l’impact de l’utilisation du sol sur la qualité de la rivière ou du cours d’eau,

3) évaluation de l’effet de l’accumulation et du rejet de substances, y compris les contaminants des

sédiments, sur le biote aquatique dans la masse d’eau, ou sur les sédiments,

4) étude des effets du captage, de la régularisation des rivières et des transferts d’eau d’une

rivière à une autre sur la qualité chimique des rivières et leur biote aquatique, et

5) étude des effets des travaux d’aménagement des rivières sur la qualité de l’eau (par exemple,

ajout ou suppression de barrages, changements apportés à la structure du chenal ou du lit).

© ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés vii
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 6:
Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des rivières et
des cours d’eau

AVERTISSEMENT — La présente partie de l’ISO 5667 porte sur le prélèvement et l’intégrité des

échantillons d’eau. Le prélèvement de ces échantillons peut être dangereux et l’attention est

donc attirée sur l’existence d’exigences législatives applicables à la sécurité du personnel dans

certains pays. Il est essentiel que l’ensemble du personnel chargé de l’échantillonnage ait reçu

une formation intensive en hygiène et sécurité adaptée aux conditions qu’il risque de rencontrer.

1 Domaine d’application

La présente partie de l’ISO 5667 décrit les principes qui doivent être appliqués lors de l’élaboration

des programmes d’échantillonnage, des techniques d’échantillonnage et lors de la manipulation

d’échantillons d’eau provenant de rivières et de cours d’eau pour l’évaluation physique et chimique.

Elle ne s’applique ni à l’échantillonnage des eaux estuariennes ou côtières ni à l’échantillonnage

microbiologique.

NOTE 1 Les modes opératoires applicables à l’échantillonnage microbiologique sont indiqués dans

[10]
l’ISO 19458.

La présente partie de l’ISO 5667 ne s’applique ni à l’étude des sédiments, des matières solides en

suspension ou du biote, ni aux sections artificielles des rivières ou des cours d’eau. Elle ne s’applique

pas non plus à l’échantillonnage passif des eaux de surface (voir l’ISO 5667-23).

NOTE 2 Si des retenues naturelles ou artificielles retiennent l’eau pendant plusieurs jours, il convient que la

section de la rivière ou du cours d’eau soit considérée comme une étendue d’eau stagnante. Pour connaître les

objectifs d’échantillonnage, voir l’ISO 5667-4.
2 Références normatives

Les documents ci-après, dans leur intégralité ou non, sont des références normatives indispensables à

l’application du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).

ISO 5667-1, Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 1: Lignes directrices pour la conception des

programmes et des techniques d’échantillonnage

ISO 5667-3, Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 3: Conservation et manipulation des

échantillons d’eau

ISO 5667-11, Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 11: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des

eaux souterraines

ISO 5667-14, Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 14: Lignes directrices pour le contrôle de la

qualité dans l’échantillonnage et la manutention des eaux environnementales
ISO 6107-2:2006, Qualité de l’eau — Vocabulaire — Partie 2
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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 5667-11 et l’ISO 6107-2

ainsi que les suivants s’appliquent.
3.1
échantillonnage automatique

procédé selon lequel les échantillons sont prélevés de façon intermittente ou continue, indépendamment

de l’intervention humaine et dans le cadre d’un programme préétabli
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 9]
3.2
échantillon composite

mélange (de façon intermittente ou continue) en proportions adéquates d’au moins deux échantillons

ou parties d’échantillons et duquel peut être obtenue la valeur moyenne de la caractéristique désirée

Note 1 à l’article: Les proportions d’échantillons sont généralement calculées à partir des mesurages du

temps ou du débit.
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 29]
3.3
échantillonnage en continu

procédé selon lequel un échantillon est prélevé de façon continue dans une masse d’eau

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32]
3.4
échantillonnage intermittent

procédé selon lequel des échantillons particuliers sont prélevés dans une masse d’eau

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 40]
3.5
échantillonnage cumulatif

technique selon laquelle de petits échantillons sont prélevés en raison d’un faible débit (avec le risque de

contamination par les sédiments) ou en raison d’un accès restreint (par exemple lorsqu’un échantillon

est obtenu par le biais d’une petite ouverture), ces petits échantillons étant ensuite agrégés pour former

un échantillon composite

Note 1 à l’article: Tout le liquide contenu dans les petits échantillons est utilisé, contrairement au mélange des

parties aliquotes utilisées pour produire un échantillon proportionnel au débit (voir en 9.4).

3.6
échantillonnage isocinétique

technique consistant à faire passer l’échantillon d’un cours d’eau dans l’orifice d’une sonde

d’échantillonnage avec une vitesse égale à celle du flux d’eau
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 56]
3.7
liquide immiscible léger
LNAPL

composé organique ayant une faible solubilité dans l’eau et une densité inférieure à celle de l’eau

EXEMPLE Produits pétroliers.

[SOURCE: ISO 5667-11:2009, 3.15, modifiée — Les formes au singulier remplacent les formes au pluriel.]

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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
3.8
échantillonnage aléatoire

forme d’échantillonnage selon laquelle les probabilités d’obtenir différentes concentrations d’un

constituant sont précisément celles définis par la distribution de probabilité du constituant en question

3.9
rivière

masse d’eau naturelle s’écoulant de façon continue ou intermittente selon un tracé bien défini vers un

océan, une mer, un lac, une dépression, un marais ou un autre cours d’eau
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 109]
3.10
site d’échantillonnage
zone générale ou localisation où sont prélevés les échantillons
3.11
point d’échantillonnage

position précise dans une zone d’échantillonnage où sont prélevés les échantillons

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.12
cours d’eau

eau qui s’écoule de façon continue ou intermittente selon un tracé bien défini comme celui d’une rivière,

mais généralement sur une plus petite échelle
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 137]
3.13
sous-échantillon
partie extraite d’un échantillon et destinée à représenter cet échantillon
3.14
échantillonnage systématique

échantillonnage selon lequel les échantillons sont prélevés à des intervalles prédéterminés, souvent à

intervalles de temps réguliers
4 Conception du programme d’échantillonnage

L’échantillonnage est généralement la première étape d’une étude et détermine en grande partie la qualité

de l’ensemble de l’étude. Il est donc recommandé de mettre au point une stratégie d’échantillonnage

détaillée, souvent basée sur une étude préliminaire au cours de laquelle une évaluation a permis

d’identifier les aspects importants. L’objectif et la situation actuelle déterminent tous deux la façon dont

l’échantillonnage est effectué. La prise en compte des données relatives au temps de transport peut

influencer le choix des emplacements d’échantillonnage en fonction de l’objectif de l’étude. Les aspects

généraux relatifs à la conception du programme d’échantillonnage sont indiqués dans l’ISO 5667-1.

Il convient que le plan d’échantillonnage tienne compte au moins des aspects suivants.

Aspects généraux:
a) objectif de l’étude;
b) paramètres à analyser pour chaque point d’échantillonnage;

c) mesurages à effectuer au point d’échantillonnage (avec spécification des méthodes à utiliser), tels

que la température, l’oxygène dissous, le pH ou le débit;
d) fréquence et durées d’échantillonnage, ainsi que type d’échantillon;
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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)

e) site d’échantillonnage ainsi que nombre et emplacements des points d’échantillonnage (voir

également en 5.1);
f) matériel d’échantillonnage;
g) procédures d’assurance qualité à appliquer;
h) transport, conservation et stockage des échantillons.
Aspects liés à la situation actuelle du point d’échantillonnage:
a) aspects liés à la sécurité;
b) caractéristiques hydrodynamiques et morphologiques de l’eau à prélever;

c) circonstances locales telles que profondeur d’eau, flottants, végétation et accessibilité de

l’emplacement;
d) profondeur(s) d’échantillonnage;

e) composition et quantité prévues de l’eau à prélever, notamment si des flottants et/ou des couches

de boues sont présents ou non.

De plus, de nombreuses caractéristiques peuvent influencer le comportement des contaminants

dans les systèmes fluviaux. Il est important de bien comprendre la nature de ces caractéristiques

lors de la planification et de l’exécution des programmes d’échantillonnage des rivières. Les facteurs

importants comprennent la température, la turbidité, la profondeur, la vitesse, la turbulence, la pente,

les changements de direction et les profils bathymétriques, ainsi que la nature du lit de la rivière.

Ces facteurs sont si étroitement liés qu’il est difficile d’attribuer plus ou moins d’importance à chacun

d’eux. Par exemple, la pente et la rugosité du chenal du cours d’eau affectent toutes deux la profondeur et

la vitesse du courant, qui ensemble régissent la turbulence. La turbulence affecte à son tour les vitesses

de mélange des effluents et des affluents, l’oxygénation, la sédimentation ou l’érosion des solides, les

croissances des formes biologiques fixées et les taux d’épuration naturelle. De plus, des processus

chimiques et biologiques peuvent apparaître, par exemple la photosynthèse, la respiration et les effets

métaboliques.

Les questions d’échantillonnage d’ordre pratique, notamment l’accessibilité, peuvent conduire à

l’impossibilité d’échantillonner au point d’échantillonnage idéal. Il est essentiel de discuter et de

trouver un accord avec le concepteur du programme d’échantillonnage en cas de changement du point

d’échantillonnage désigné pour quelque motif que ce soit. Il convient de consigner le résultat des

discussions dans un fichier relatif au point d’échantillonnage contenant les itinéraires pour accéder au

site d’échantillonnage, l’emplacement détaillé du point d’échantillonnage, la méthode d’échantillonnage

et les détails spécifiques (par exemples, clés requises, problèmes d’hygiène et de sécurité). Il peut

distinguer les points d’échantillonnage équivalents qui peuvent être utilisés si, par exemple, les

conditions de la rivière changent. Il peut également spécifier le type d’échantillonnage à réaliser, par

exemple la profondeur de l’échantillonnage.
5 Emplacement de l’échantillonnage
5.1 Sélection du point d’échantillonnage
5.1.1 Choix du site d’échantillonnage

Lors de la sélection du point d’échantillonnage exact des échantillons, deux aspects sont

généralement impliqués:

a) la sélection du site d’échantillonnage (c’est-à-dire l’emplacement de la section d’échantillonnage

dans le bassin fluvial, la rivière ou le cours d’eau);
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ISO 5667-6:2014(F)
b) l’identification du point précis sur le site d’échantillonnage.

L’objectif de l’échantillonnage définit souvent les sites d’échantillonnage (comme dans le cas de la

détermination de la qualité d’un rejet d’effluents), mais parfois, l’objectif n
...

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