This document is focused on the structural features of rivers, on geomorphological and hydrological processes, and on river continuity. It provides guidance on the features and processes to be taken into account when characterizing and assessing the hydromorphology of rivers. It is based on methods developed, tested, and compared in Europe. Its main aim is to improve the comparability of hydromorphological assessment methods, data processing and interpretation. Although it has particular importance for the WFD by providing guidance on assessing hydromorphological quality, it has considerably wider scope for other applications. In addition, while recognizing the important influence of hydromorphology on plant and animal ecology, no attempt is made to provide guidance in this area, but where the biota have an important influence on hydromorphology these influences are included.
NOTE   A case study illustrating the application of this standard is given in Gurnell and Grabowski[1].

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This technical report specifies a method for the field sampling of benthic diatoms which will be then analysed by subsequent metabarcoding techniques for ecological status and water quality assessments. Data produced by this method are suitable for production of taxonomical diatom lists.

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This document specifies a method for the sampling of mesozooplankton from marine and brackish waters using mesh.

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This European standard specifies a procedure for analysing mesozooplankton in marine and brackish waters. The procedures comprise how to identify and enumerate zooplankton to estimate quantitative information on diversity, abundance and biomass with regard to spatial distribution and long-term temporal trends for a given body of water.

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This document gives guidances on determining the degree of modification of the hydromorphological features of transitional and coastal waters

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This standard gives guidance on the estimation of abundance and identification of macro-invertebrates in samples taken from inland waters. The procedure deals with pre-treatment (cleaning), sub-sampling, sorting and final identification of organisms from preserved and live samples originating from natural habitats or artificial substrates.

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This document gives guidance on the quantitative estimation of abundance and identification of macroinvertebrates in samples taken from inland waters. The procedure deals with pre-treatment (cleaning), sub-sampling, sorting, and final identification of organisms from preserved and unpreserved samples originating from natural habitats or artificial substrates and their transport to the laboratory. Specific guidance is given for preservation for DNA-analysis.

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This European Standard provides guidance on characterizing the modifications of the hydromorphological features of TraC waters described in EN 16503, enabling consistent comparisons of hydromorphological modification between TraC waters within a country and between different countries in Europe. Its primary aim is to assess ‘departure from naturalness’ as a result of human pressures on TraC hydromorphology, and it suggests suitable sources of information that may contribute to describing the modification of hydromorphological features. The procedures set out in this standard will encourage the objective assessment and reporting of the variability in transitional and coastal waters, and contribute to the work needed to implement the WFD and the MSFD; however, it does not replace methods that have been developed for local assessment and reporting.

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This document provides guidance on the sampling of unconsolidated sediments for the determination
of their geological, physical and chemical properties, as well as the determination of biological,
microbiological and chemical properties at the water and sediment interface. Guidance on achieving
sediment cores is given specifically for the measurement of rates of deposition and detailed strata
delineation. The main emphasis of this document is to provide methods that achieve sediment samples.
The environments considered are
— limnic (rivers, streams and lakes, natural and man-made), and
— estuarine, including harbours.
Industrial and sewage works for sludges, paleolimnological sampling and sampling of open ocean
sediments are specifically excluded from this document (and are addressed in ISO 5667-15), although
some techniques may apply to these situations. Sampling of suspended solids is outside the scope of
this document and reference can be made to ISO 5667-17 for such guidance.

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This part of ISO 5667 gives guidelines for the design of sampling programmes, techniques and the
handling and preservation of samples of water, from natural and man-made lakes during open-water
and ice-covered conditions. This part of ISO 5667 is applicable to lakes with and without aquatic
vegetation.
Guidance on sampling for microbiological examination is not included.

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This part of ISO 5667 provides an audit protocol to monitor conformity with declared, or assumed,
practices in all areas of water quality sampling. Specifically, this part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on
the systematic assessment of sampling practices and procedures in the field, and assessing conformity
with those given in the organization’s sampling manual. It is applicable to the audit of sampling activities
from the development of a sampling manual through to the delivery of samples to the laboratory.
NOTE 1 The design of the sampling manual is the prerogative of the data user and this part of ISO 5667 is not
intended to deliver criticism of a manual’s structure.
This part of ISO 5667 is applicable to sampling practices associated with wastewaters, including
discharges to water bodies, environmental monitoring, potable water supplies from source to tap,
commercial and industrial uses of water, and power generation.
This part of ISO 5667 is applicable to the auditing of sampling practices relevant to the management
of water stored in containers, such as temporary supply tanks and bottled supplies. However, it is not
applicable for the auditing (or calibration and maintenance) of on-site test equipment or kits.
NOTE 2 BS 1427 covers water test kits used “in the field”.
The following sampling occasions are excluded from both the field- and desk-audit procedures set out
in this part of ISO 5667:
a) chemical and microbiological incidents, which are investigated by agencies such as the emergency
services, e.g. where an immediate risk to the health of the sampling practitioner/operative is evident;
b) radiochemical sampling of water quality, other than that specified as a routine requirement under
the UK Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations,[9][10][11][12] i.e. radiochemical incidents which
are investigated by agencies such as the emergency services.
Informative Annex A contains a series of forms to assist with auditing. These are for guidance only.
Informative Annex B gives procedures for monitoring temperature control, while Informative Annex C
provides guidance on measuring the uncertainty associated with sampling practices.

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This part of ISO 5667 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes, sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and chemical assessment. It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling.
NOTE 1 Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.
This part of ISO 5667 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters (see ISO 5667‑23).
NOTE 2 In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body. For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667‑4.

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This European Standard provides guidance on determining the degree of modification of lake hydromorphological features described in EN 16039. It enables consistent comparisons of hydromorphology between lakes within a country and between different countries in Europe, providing a method for broad based characterization across a wide spectrum of hydromorphological modification. Its primary aim is to assess ‘departure from naturalness’ for a given type of lake as a result of human pressures, and it suggests suitable sources of information that may contribute to characterizing the degree of modification of hydromorphological features. For wholly artificial lakes or reservoirs formed by damming rivers the aim is to assess the extent to which processes approximate to those in comparable natural water bodies. However, this standard does not replace methods that have been developed within particular countries for local assessment and reporting. Decisions on management for individual lakes require expert local knowledge and vary according to lake type.

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ISO 5667-16:2017 gives practical guidance on sampling, pre-treatment, performance and evaluation of environmental samples in the context of performing biological tests. Information is given on how to cope with the problems of biotesting arising from the sample and the suitability of the test design.
It is intended to convey practical experience concerning precautions to be taken by describing methods successfully proven to solve or to circumvent some of the experimental problems of biotesting of, for example, waters.
Primarily dealt with are substance-related problems concerning sampling and pre-treatment of environmental samples (e.g. waste water samples) for the performance of biotests.
This guidance is on ecotoxicological testing with organisms (single-species biotests; in vivo and in vitro). Some features addressed in this document also apply to biotests using single-cell systems (in vitro bioassays) and biodegradation studies as far as sampling and sample preparations are concerned. Testing of substances in the water solubility range is also addressed.
Reference has been made as far as possible to existing International Standards and guidelines. Information taken from published papers or oral communication has been utilized as well.
ISO 5667-16:2017 is applicable to biological tests for determining the effect of environmental samples like treated communal and industrial waste water, groundwater, fresh water, aqueous extracts (e.g. leachates, eluates), pore water of sediments and whole sediments. This document is also applicable to chemical substances.
ISO 5667-16:2017 is not applicable to bacteriological examination of water. Appropriate methods for bacteriological examination are described in other documents (see ISO 19458[17]).

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This document provides guidance on methods for sampling invertebrates in the hyporheic zone of wadable rivers. It describes each method, including details of the equipment involved and its use in the field. Guidance is given on developing a sampling strategy and selecting an appropriate survey technique for the purpose of investigation. Benthic macroinvertebrate sampling is covered elsewhere by other published standards (see bibliography). Selected literature with references in support of this document is given in the bibliography.

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ISO 5667-6:2014 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes, sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and chemical assessment.
It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling. (Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.)
ISO 5667-6:2014 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters (see ISO 5667‑23).
In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body. For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667‑4.

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ISO 5667-4:2016 gives guidelines for the design of sampling programmes, techniques and the handling and preservation of samples of water, from natural and man-made lakes during open-water and ice-covered conditions. It is applicable to lakes with and without aquatic vegetation. Guidance on sampling for microbiological examination is not included.

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ISO 5667-24:2016 provides an audit protocol to monitor conformity with declared, or assumed, practices in all areas of water quality sampling. Specifically, this part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the systematic assessment of sampling practices and procedures in the field, and assessing conformity with those given in the organization's sampling manual. It is applicable to the audit of sampling activities from the development of a sampling manual through to the delivery of samples to the laboratory. NOTE 1 The design of the sampling manual is the prerogative of the data user and this part of ISO 5667 is not intended to deliver criticism of a manual's structure. ISO 5667-24:2016 is applicable to sampling practices associated with wastewaters, including discharges to water bodies, environmental monitoring, potable water supplies from source to tap, commercial and industrial uses of water, and power generation. ISO 5667-24:2016 is applicable to the auditing of sampling practices relevant to the management of water stored in containers, such as temporary supply tanks and bottled supplies. However, it is not applicable for the auditing (or calibration and maintenance) of on-site test equipment or kits. NOTE 2 BS 1427 covers water test kits used "in the field". The following sampling occasions are excluded from both the field- and desk-audit procedures set out in this part of ISO 5667: a) chemical and microbiological incidents, which are investigated by agencies such as the emergency services, e.g. where an immediate risk to the health of the sampling practitioner/operative is evident; b) radiochemical sampling of water quality, other than that specified as a routine requirement under the UK Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations,[9][10][11][12] i.e. radiochemical incidents which are investigated by agencies such as the emergency services. Informative Annex A contains a series of forms to assist with auditing. These are for guidance only. Informative Annex B gives procedures for monitoring temperature control, while Informative Annex C provides guidance on measuring the uncertainty associated with sampling practices.

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Development of a method for quantitative and qualitative sampling of phytoplankton from inland waters. The method includes all common existing European sampling strategies.
The main aspects for phytoplankton sampling in lakes covered by this EN are the effects of sampling on phytoplankton biomass and composition
- if sampled in different seasons;
- if euphotic or epilimnetic zone;
- if number of sampling sites for large water bodies is one or three;
- if mixing samples from depth-step-wise sampling or from integrated samplers or by flexible tubes for integrated sampling;
- if replicate sampling is 1 or 5 at one site (aspects of reproducibility);
- if sampling is done in unusual sampling designs as sampling from the shore side or at the outflow compared to the deepest point of the lake.

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This part of ISO 5667 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes,
sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and
chemical assessment.
It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling.
NOTE 1 Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.[10]
This part of ISO 5667 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor
to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters
(see ISO 5667‑23).
NOTE 2 In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage
of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body.
For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667‑4.

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This part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the selection and use of various quality assurance and quality
control techniques relating to the manual sampling of surface, potable, waste, marine and ground waters.
NOTE The general principles outlined in this part of ISO 5667 might, in some circumstances, be applicable to
sludge and sediment sampling.

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EN 16503 gives guidelines for characterizing the hydromorphology of transitional or coastal (TraC) waters, but does not prescribe detailed methods of assessment. The main aim of this document is to improve the comparability of hydromorphological survey methods, data processing, and the interpretation and presentation of results. This European Standard: a) lists essential features and processes of TraC waters that should be characterized as part of a hydromorphological survey and used for determining hydromorphological condition; b) gives guidance on strategies for collecting and presenting hydromorphological data depending on the resources available and the anticipated use of the assessment; c) describes how to generate data sets appropriate for monitoring and reporting on the condition of Natura 2000 sites designated under the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive; d) provides guidance on data quality assurance. This European Standard does not deal with biological assessments in TraC waters such as the presence or absence of individual species or community composition, nor does it attempt to link specific hydromorphological features with their associated biological communities. However, it is relevant where plants or other organisms form significant structural elements of the habitat (e.g. saltmarshes, biogenic reefs).

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ISO 5667-6:2014 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes, sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and chemical assessment. It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling. (Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.) ISO 5667-6:2014 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters (see ISO 5667‑23). In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body. For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667‑4.

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EN 13946 specifies a method for the sampling and laboratory preparation of benthic diatoms for ecological status and water quality assessments. Data produced by this method are suitable for production of water quality indices based on the relative abundance of taxa.

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EN 14407 specifies methods for the identification and enumeration of relative proportions of diatom taxa on prepared slides and of data interpretation relevant to assessments of water quality in rivers and lakes. It is suitable for use with indices and assessment methods based on the relative abundance of taxa. The methods for identification and enumeration may also be applied to the study of benthic diatoms in other habitats provided that data interpretation methods appropriate to these habitats are used.

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EN 14184 specifies a method for surveying aquatic macrophytes in running waters for the purpose of assessing ecological status, using these organisms as elements of biological quality. The information provided by this method includes the composition and abundance of the aquatic macrophyte flora. This European Standard is applicable to all kinds of surface running water bodies, like natural brooks, streams and rivers and their heavily modified equivalents, as well as to artificial water bodies like canals or run-of-river reservoirs. The general principles of the approach described in this European Standard may also be applied when monitoring water bodies in the fluvial corridor of a river, such as side channels and oxbows. It is recognized that for a complete assessment of ecological status, other elements of biological quality should also be assessed.

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EN ISO 16665 provides guidelines on the quantitative collection and processing of subtidal soft-bottom macrofaunal samples in marine waters. This International Standard encompasses: a) development of the sampling programme; b) requirements for sampling equipment; c) sampling and sample treatment in the field; d) sorting and species identification; e) storage of collected and processed material.

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ISO 16665:2014 provides guidelines on the quantitative collection and processing of subtidal soft-bottom macrofaunal samples in marine waters. ISO 16665:2014 encompasses: a) development of the sampling programme; b) requirements for sampling equipment; c) sampling and sample treatment in the field; d) sorting and species identification; e) storage of collected and processed material. ISO 16665:2014 does not specifically address the following, although some elements may be applicable: bioassay sub-sampling; deep water (>750 m) or offshore sampling; in situ faunal studies, e.g. recolonization assays; non-benthic organisms caught in the sampling device; estuarine sampling; intertidal sampling; meiofaunal sampling and analysis; sampling by dredge and sledge; self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) sampling; statistical design. Accuracy of position fixing is determined by the geographical area, equipment used and survey objective.

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ISO 16665:2014 provides guidelines on the quantitative collection and processing of subtidal soft-bottom macrofaunal samples in marine waters.
ISO 16665:2014 encompasses: a) development of the sampling programme; b) requirements for sampling equipment; c) sampling and sample treatment in the field; d) sorting and species identification; e) storage of collected and processed material.
ISO 16665:2014 does not specifically address the following, although some elements may be applicable: bioassay sub-sampling; deep water (>750 m) or offshore sampling; in situ faunal studies, e.g. recolonization assays; non-benthic organisms caught in the sampling device; estuarine sampling; intertidal sampling; meiofaunal sampling and analysis; sampling by dredge and sledge; self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) sampling; statistical design.
Accuracy of position fixing is determined by the geographical area, equipment used and survey objective.

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This International Standard describes the selection of sampling devices and methods (operation and performance characteristics) used to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate populations in fresh waters (rivers, canals lakes and reservoirs). The devices and methods considered in this standard are suitable for sampling all major components of the benthic assemblage. They are not suitable for sampling mieofauna.

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This European Standard provides guidance in the use of in vivo absorption techniques to quantify chlorophyll-a concentration in marine and fresh waters. This European Standard is comprised of the following: - definition of the equipment requirement; - a priori data and mathematical tools; - recommendations for verification of measurement system performance and consideration of factors that can influence measurements; - listing of the procedures to be implemented.

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This European Standard describes methods, requirements and equipment for remote visual surveillance of organisms and the seabed using still photography and video recording to ensure precise and reproducible data. The main aims of the methods are to record or monitor seabed conditions and organisms on and just above the seabed in a reproducible way at a resolution that is appropriate to the aims of the survey. In caves and overhangs this standard may not be suitable due to technological limitations related to navigation and movement of the observation platform.

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This European Standard gives guidance on procedures for the pro-rata Multi-Habitat-Sampling (MHS) of
benthic macro-invertebrates in wadeable rivers and streams. The term "pro-rata" reflects the intention to
sample adequate proportions of riverine habitats with reference to their percentage occurrence (usually a
minimum occurrence of 5 % of the total habitat).
The Multi-Habitat-Sampling does not replace other techniques, but, among other applications, the pro-rata
Multi-Habitat-Sampling technique is a fundamental requisite of some multimetric assessment approaches to
evaluate the ecological status of running waters.
The MHS methodology is based on the Rapid Bioassessment Protocols [1], the procedures of the
Environment Agency for England and Wales [2], the Austrian Guidelines for the Assessment of the
Saprobiological Water Quality of Rivers and Streams [3], the AQEM sampling manual [4], the AQEM & STAR
site protocol [5] ISO 7828, and the Austrian Standards M 6232 and M 6119-2 [6], [7] German Standards
DIN 38410-1 [8].

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This document is applicable to standing waters with surface areas greater than 1 ha (0,01 km2) and maximum depths (at mean water level) greater than 1 m. All types of permanent standing waters, including natural and artificial (thus including reservoirs), fresh water and brackish, except for those systems regularly connect to the sea, are included in this European Standard, though canals are excluded. Based on these criteria it can be estimated that there are at least 500 000 natural lakes across Europe, most of which are located in the glaciarised landscapes in northern and western provinces and in Scandinavia. Lakeland districts also occur locally in areas such as the Danubian and Hungarian plains and around the Alps. Elsewhere naturally occurring lakes are relatively sparse and in such areas reservoirs are the most common type of standing water.  
a)   defines the key term of hydromorphology and related terms relating to the physical characteristics of lakes and their hydrological regimes;
b)   details essential features and processes of lakes that should be characterised as part of a hydromorphological survey and thus to determine the hydromorphological condition of a lake;
c)   identifies and defines the key pressures impacting on European lakes;
d)   provides guidance on strategies for collecting hydromorphological data depending on resources available and the anticipated use of the assessment. A hierarchy of approaches is recognised spanning from the ‘overview method’ utilising existing databases, maps and remote sensing data through to recognised field-based survey techniques such as Lake Habitat Survey (LHS);
e)   offers assistance in interpreting the data;
f)   establishes guidance on data quality assurance issues.
This European Standard is designed to
a)   support environmental and conservation agencies meet the monitoring requirements of the WFD (Article 8, Annex II and Annex V);

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This European Standard provides guidance for sampling, preservation, storage, quantification and qualitative analysis of phytoplankton from marine waters. Guidance for quantification is limited to use of light microscopy with phase contrast and epifluorescence.
The standard comprises:
- development of the sampling programme;
- requirements for sampling equipment;
- procedures for sampling and treatment of samples in the field;
- methods for quantification;
- qualitative analysis.
The standard provides minimum requirements for environmental monitoring.

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This European Standard is applicable to lakes, which are water bodies occupying one or more basins with surface areas greater than 1 ha (0,01 km2) and maximum depths (at mean water level) greater than 1 m. All types of permanent lakes, including natural, modified and artificial, fresh water and brackish, except for those systems which regularly connect to the sea, are included in this European Standard, though canals are excluded.
Based on these criteria, it can be estimated that there are at least 500 000 natural lakes across Europe, most of which are located in the glaciated landscapes in northern and western provinces and in Scandinavia. Lakeland districts also occur locally in areas such as the Danubian plain and around the Alps. Elsewhere, naturally occurring lakes are relatively sparse and in such areas reservoirs or pits are more common.
This European Standard is designed to:
a)   support environmental and conservation agencies in meeting the monitoring requirements of the WFD (Article 8, Annex II and Annex V);
b)   generate data sets appropriate for monitoring and reporting of Natura 2000 sites designated under the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive;
c)   provide information supporting other environmental reporting requirements (e.g. in relation to biodiversity or environmental impact assessment);
d)   support lake management and restoration initiatives.
This European Standard:
a)   defines the key term of ‘hydromorphology’ and other terms relating to the physical characteristics of lakes and their hydrological regimes;
b)   details essential features and processes of lakes that should be characterised as part of a hydromorphological survey and for determining the hydromorphological condition of a lake;
c)   identifies and defines the key pressures affecting European lakes;
d)   provides guidance on strategies for collecting hydromorphological data depending on resources available and the anticipated use of the assessment; a hierarchy of approaches is recognised from the ‘overview method’ utilising existing databases, maps and remote sensing data through to recognised field-based survey techniques such as Lake Habitat Survey (LHS);
e)   offers guidance on data presentation;
f)   establishes guidance on data quality assurance issues.
This European Standard does not deal with biological assessments in lakes such as the presence or absence of individual species or community composition, nor does it attempt to link specific hydromorphological features with their associated biological communities or to create a classification based on such links. However, it is relevant where plants or other organisms form significant structural elements of the habitat (e.g. a gradation from riparian to littoral vegetation).
With respect to the WFD, the hydromorphological condition of a lake only contributes to its status classification at high ecological status (HES). Hydromorphological conditions are not defined for good and moderate status but shall be sufficient to support the biological elements.

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This part of ISO 5667 gives guidelines for the design, construction and installation of groundwater quality monitoring points to help ensure that representative samples of groundwater can be obtained. Within the guidance consideration is given to:
a) the impact of installation materials on the environment;
b) the impact of the installation on sample integrity;
c) the impact of the environment on the installation and the materials used in its construction.
These guidelines allow the impacts to be considered and accounted for when designing a groundwater sampling programme. They also allow an informed assessment of data and results obtained from existing installations, the construction of which can potentially have an impact on sample integrity.
These guidelines are intended for installations and monitoring in different environments including those where background or baseline groundwater conditions are being established or monitored and those in which impacts of contamination are being investigated.

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This International Standard specifies five methods for determining the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in the marine environment by aerobic microorganisms in static aqueous test systems. Standard degradation methods developed for testing in fresh water are modified and adapted to marine conditions. These methods are the DOC die-away test (ISO 7827), the closed bottle test (ISO 10707), the two-phase closed bottle test (ISO 10708), the CO2 evolution test (ISO 9439) and the CO2 headspace test (ISO 14593). The methods apply to organic compounds which a) are water-soluble under the conditions of the test used; b) are poorly water-soluble under the conditions of the test used, in which case special measures may be necessary to achieve good dispersion of the compound (see for example, ISO 10634); c) are volatile, provided that an appropriate test with suitable conditions is used; d) are not inhibitory to the test microorganisms at the concentration chosen for the tests. The presence of inhibitory effects can be determined as specified in this International Standard. NOTE The conditions described in this International Standard do not always correspond to the optimal conditions for allowing the maximum degree of biodegradation to occur. For biodegradation methods in fresh water see ISO 14593 and ISO 15462, and for biodegradation at low concentrations see ISO 14592.

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This part of ISO 14592 specifies a method for evaluating the biodegradability of organic test compounds by aerobic microorganisms in natural waters by means of a continuous flow river model with attached biomass. This part of ISO 14592 is applicable to organic test compounds present in lower concentrations than those of natural carbon substrates also present in the system. Under these conditions, the test compounds serve as a secondary substrate and the kinetics for biodegradation would be expected to be first order (“non-growth” kinetics). This part of ISO 14592 is applicable to organic test compounds, which under the conditions of the test and at the chosen test concentration, are:
- water soluble;
- quantitatively detectable with appropriate analytical methods or available in radiolabelled form;
- non-volatile from aqueous solution (e.g. Henry's law constant < 1 Pa⋅m3/mole);
- not significantly adsorbed;
- not photolyzed;
- not inhibitory to the microorganisms of the test system.
The test is not recommended for use as proof of ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) which is better assessed using other standardized tests (see ISO/TR 15462).

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This part of ISO 14592 specifies a test method for evaluating the biodegradability of organic test compounds by aerobic microorganisms by means of a shake-flask batch test. It is applicable to natural surface water, free from coarse particles to simulate a pelagic environment (“pelagic test”) or to surface water with suspended sediments added to obtain a level of 0,1 g/l to 1 g/l dry mass to simulate a water body with suspended sediment (“suspended sediment test”). This part of ISO 14592 is applicable to organic test compounds present in lower concentrations (normally below 100 µg/l) than those of natural carbon substrates also present in the system. Under these conditions, the test compounds serve as a secondary substrate and the kinetics for biodegradation would be expected to be first order (“non-growth” kinetics). This test method is not recommended for use as proof of ultimate biodegradation which is better assessed using other standardized tests (see ISO/TR 15462). It is also not well suited to studies on metabolite formation and accumulation which require higher test concentrations.

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This part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the sampling of groundwaters. It informs the user of the necessary considerations when planning and undertaking groundwater sampling to survey the quality of groundwater supply, to detect and assess groundwater contamination and to assist in groundwater resource management, protection and remediation. The guidance includes sampling of groundwater from both the saturated (below water table) zone and the unsaturated (above the water table) zone.

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This European Standard provides guidelines for the survey/sampling, identification and basic quantification of phytobenthos (other than macrophytes) in running waters. It is applicable to rivers where benthic algae and bryophytes are the main phototrophs. This method encompasses all phytobenthic growth forms and enables biological responses to environmental events over one or more years to be monitored. In this respect it provides an alternative to methods based on benthic diatoms (EN 13946; EN 14407) and macrophytes (EN 14184). Data obtained for the phytobenthos growth forms are suitable for pilot surveys, water quality assessment and trend monitoring. This European Standard encompasses all aspects from the design of survey and sampling programmes to the identification and basic quantification of the phytobenthos.

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ISO 5667-11:2009 provides guidance on the sampling of groundwaters. It informs the user of the necessary considerations when planning and undertaking groundwater sampling to survey the quality of groundwater supply, to detect and assess groundwater contamination and to assist in groundwater resource management, protection and remediation. ISO 5667-11:2009 does not apply to sampling related to the day-to-day operational control of groundwater abstractions for potable purposes. The guidance includes sampling of groundwater from both the saturated (below water table) zone and the unsaturated (above the water table) zone.

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ISO 11348 describes three methods for determining the inhibition of the luminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (NRRL B‑11177). ISO 11348-3:2007 specifies a method using freeze‑dried bacteria.
This method is applicable to:
waste water;
aqueous extracts and leachates;
fresh water (surface and ground water);
sea and brackish water;
eluates of sediment (freshwater, brackish and sea water);
pore water;
single substances, diluted in water.

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ISO 11348 describes three methods for determining the inhibition of the luminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (NRRL B‑11177). ISO 11348-2:2007 specifies a method using liquid‑dried bacteria.
This method is applicable to:
waste water;
aqueous extracts and leachates;
fresh water (surface water and ground water);
sea water and brackish water;
eluates of sediment (fresh water, brackish water and sea water);
pore water;
single substances, diluted in water.

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ISO 11348 describes three methods for determining the inhibition of the luminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (NRRL B‑11177). ISO 11348-1:2007 specifies a method using freshly prepared bacteria.
This method is applicable to:
waste water;
aqueous extracts and leachates;
fresh water (surface and ground water);
sea and brackish water;
eluates of sediment (fresh water, brackish and sea water);
pore water;
single substances, diluted in water.

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This guidance standard defines a method for surveying aquatic macrophytes in lakes;primarily for the purpose of assessing ecological status, using these organisms as an element of biological quality. The information provided by this method includes the composition and abundance of the aquatic macrophyte flora. For a complete assessment of ecological status, other elements of biological quality should also be assessed. The general principle of the approach described in this European Standard may also form the basis for the monitoring and assessment of macrophytes in lakes, for example, for conservation purposes.

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The standard shall provide guidance for marine biological surveys of supra-littoral, littoral and sub-littoral hard bottom for environmental impact assessment and monitoring in coastal areas. The standard encompasses surveys down to 30 m depth, which is the practical depth limit for scuba diving. For the purposes of this standard, hard bottom is defined as bedrock, stable rocks and fixed marine constructions (e.g. pipelines, quays and wharf, keys and pipelines pole). The main focus is community registrations based on taxa that can be recorded in the field (i.e. are visible to the naked eye). The standard does not include biogenic substrate as coral rief.
The guidelines can also be used for surveys of substrates comprising loose pebbles/boulders, stone blocks, coarse gravel and other loose material as well as bedrock covered with loose sediment, but in general, such substrates require specially adapted techniques. Additional methods are required for surveys in depths greater than approx. 30 metres.
The methods are limited to surveys and semi-quantitative and quantitative recording techniques that cause little destruction of the fauna and flora. In practice, this refers to direct recording in the field and photography. Sampling by scraping off organisms, use of a suction sampler etc. are not covered in this standard, but such techniques can be used as a supplement, for information on small-bodied taxa or those that live hidden.
The standard covers:
-   development of the sampling programme;
-   survey methods;
-   taxon identification;
-   storage of data and collected material
The standard specifies the minimum requirements for environmental monitoring.

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ISO 19493:2007 provides guidance for marine biological surveys of supralittoral, eulittoral and sublittoral hard substrate for environmental impact assessment and monitoring in coastal areas. It comprises development of the sampling programme, survey methods, species identification and storage of data and collected material.
ISO 19493:2007 specifies the minimum requirements for environmental monitoring.
The methods are limited to surveys and semi-quantitative and quantitative recording techniques that cause little destruction of the fauna and flora. In practice, this refers to direct recording in the field and photography. Sampling by scraping off organisms, use of a suction sampler, etc. are not covered in ISO 19493:2007.

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