Imaging materials -- Colour images -- Determination of water resistance of printed colour images

ISO 18935:2016 specifies tests to determine the relative water resistance of printed colour images. This document is applicable to both digital and analogue prints.

Matériaux pour l'image -- Images en couleurs sur impressions en papier -- Détermination de la résistance interne de la couleur à l'eau

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
18-Oct-2016
Withdrawal Date
18-Oct-2016
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
23-Aug-2016
Completion Date
19-Oct-2016
Ref Project

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ISO 18935:2016 - Imaging materials -- Colour images -- Determination of water resistance of printed colour images
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18935
Second edition
2016-10-15
Imaging materials — Colour images —
Determination of water resistance of
printed colour images
Matériaux pour l’image — Images en couleurs sur impressions en
papier — Détermination de la résistance interne de la couleur à l’eau
Reference number
ISO 18935:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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ISO 18935:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18935:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Categories of water resistance ............................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Water resistant ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4.3 Moderately water resistant .......................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.4 Not water resistant .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Water resistance estimating procedures .................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General considerations .................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Control sample ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2 Method 1 — Standing water evaporation ........................................................................................................................ 3

6.3 Method 2 — Standing water plus wiping effects ....................................................................................................... 3

6.4 Method 3 — Water soak ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.5 Method 4 — Edge immersion .................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Test pattern preparation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.1 General considerations .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Example test patterns ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (informative) Determination of resistance to other liquids................................................................................. 7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18935:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 42, Photography.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 18935:2005 and ISO 18935:2005, Cor.

1:2007), which has been technically revised.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18935:2016(E)
Introduction

Water resistance is not an important consideration in the normal storage of colour prints. However, in

a disaster situation, such as floods, earthquakes or water main breaks, this property can be of critical

importance if the print is to be salvaged. A wide variety of materials are used for digital colour prints

and the colorants used in some digital prints are water soluble. The degree of their water resistance

varies depending upon the colorants used and if the print has a water-resistant overcoat. In addition,

the paper or other substrate may be of equal importance. The same colorants may exhibit very good

water resistance on one substrate but can be completely washed off from a different substrate. Even

print systems that use water-insoluble colorants may be damaged by water exposure if the substrate

is not also water resistant. This document provides a standardized method to evaluate the qualitative

water resistance of colour prints.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18935:2016(E)
Imaging materials — Colour images — Determination of
water resistance of printed colour images
1 Scope

This document specifies tests to determine the relative water resistance of printed colour images. This

document is applicable to both digital and analogue prints.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
ambient conditions
environmental conditions of (23 ± 1) °C and (50 ± 5) % RH
3.2
mordant
substance that combines with a dye, used to fix it in a material
4 Categories of water resistance
4.1 General

The water resistance of a print is categorized into one of three categories, i.e. water resistant,

moderately water resistant and not water resistant as defined in 4.2 to 4.4.
4.2 Water resistant

Water-resistant print is print that is not noticeably affected by exposure to liquid water.

NOTE No significant degradation of the colorant (bleeding, smearing, hue change), of the support (curl,

cockle, delamination) or of the image surface (gloss changes, water rings, etc.) is found.

4.3 Moderately water resistant

Moderately water-resistant print is print that exhibits some change or damage by water but is still

considered usable for its intended application.

NOTE The damage can manifest itself as slight media curl, partial delamination along an edge, or ring-like

watermarks due to gloss changes or a minor amount of colorant migration. This damage can be mitigated by the

rapid removal of the water (careful blotting, shaking off the water, etc.).
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18935:2016(E)
4.4 Not water resistant

Print that is not water-resistant is print that is easily damaged by contact with water, even when

incidental (e.g. a water mist) and is considered unsuitable for applications involving contact with water.

NOTE Such damage can manifest itself as appreciable curl, delamination of the image layer, colorant bleed

into non-imaged areas or from colour to colour, or image degradation (hue and gloss changes, surface marks,

etc.). It is strongly advisable to users of these materials to prevent water contact.

5 Water resistance estimating procedures
5.1 General considerations

Water resistance is the ability of a print to resist water damage which may manifest itself in a number

of ways, such as migration of colorants; changes in the size and/or optical density of image elements;

degradation of the image layer, as well as cockle, curl or loss of gloss. The water resistance of prints

made by current methods varies considerably. For example, some ink-jet prints sustain no observable

damage when the surface is rubbed immediately after water has been poured over the image. While

others that do not show any water damage after soaking for hours, lose a portion of their image layer if

it is wiped off before drying.

For dye-based inkjet, water resistance of many systems is dependent on three interdependent variables:

[1]

ink absorption, coating solubility, and effectiveness of mordant . For other systems whe

...

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