Space systems -- Explosive systems and devices

This document specifies criteria and requirements for the use of explosive systems and explosive devices commonly used on spacecraft and other space products, including launch vehicles and space vehicle systems. It addresses the aspects of design, analysis, verification, manufacturing, operations and safety. To the greatest extent possible, requirements from past and existing standards have been analyzed, selected and tailored to be incorporated herein. In addition, the requirements herein include those generated as a result of lessons learned from launch and space vehicle programs. NOTE Specific requirements for man-rating are not addressed.

Systèmes spaciaux -- Dispositifs et equipements explosifs

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Oct-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
23-Sep-2020
Completion Date
22-Sep-2020
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 26871:2020 - Space systems -- Explosive systems and devices
English language
77 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/FDIS 26871:Version 25-jul-2020 - Space systems -- Explosive systems and devices
English language
77 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 26871
Second edition
2020-10
Space systems — Explosive systems
and devices
Systèmes spaciaux — Dispositifs et equipements explosifs
Reference number
ISO 26871:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 26871:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 26871:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols ....................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

3.3 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.1 Background information ........................................................................................................................................10

4.1.2 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.3 Applicability ......................................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.4 Properties ...........................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2 Design ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2.2 Debris requirements..................................................................................................................................................12

4.2.3 Reliability and confidence levels .....................................................................................................................13

4.2.4 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................13

4.2.5 Wanted and unwanted response ....................................................................................................................13

4.2.6 Dimensioning ...................................................................................................................................................................13

4.3 Mission ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.4 Functionality ..........................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.5 Safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.5.2 Prevention of unintentional function ..........................................................................................................17

4.6 Survival and operational conditions .................................................................................................................................18

4.7 Interface requirements .................................................................................................................................................................19

4.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.7.2 Functional ...........................................................................................................................................................................19

4.7.3 Internal ..................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.7.4 External .................................................................................................................................................................................20

4.8 Mechanical, electrical, and thermal requirements ................................................................................................20

4.8.1 Mechanical .........................................................................................................................................................................20

4.8.2 Electrical ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

4.8.3 Thermal.................................................................................................................................................................................24

4.8.4 Status check.......................................................................................................................................................................25

4.9 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................26

4.10 Production lot .......................................................................................................................................................................................27

4.11 Non-explosive components and equipment ...............................................................................................................27

4.11.1 Connectors .........................................................................................................................................................................27

4.11.2 Wiring .....................................................................................................................................................................................27

4.11.3 Shielding...............................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.4 Faraday cap ........................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.5 Safety cap.............................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.6 Power ......................................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.7 Arm plug receptacle ...................................................................................................................................................29

4.11.8 Safe plug ...............................................................................................................................................................................29

4.11.9 Arm plug ...................................................................... .........................................................................................................30

4.11.10 Test plug ...............................................................................................................................................................................30

4.11.11 Safe and arm device....................................................................................................................................................30

4.11.12 Initiator harness connector .................................................................................................................................32

4.11.13 Initiator test substitute............................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 26871:2020(E)

4.12 Explosive components ...................................................................................................................................................................32

4.12.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................32

4.12.2 Initiators, cartridges, detonators and packaged charges ...........................................................33

4.12.3 Through-Bulkhead initiators ..............................................................................................................................38

4.12.4 Integral initiator connectors ...............................................................................................................................38

4.12.5 Transfer devices ............................................................................................................................................................39

4.12.6 Safe and arm devices containing explosive ............................................................................................40

4.12.7 Gas generators ................................................................................................................................................................41

4.12.8 Shaped charges...............................................................................................................................................................41

4.12.9 Expanding tube separation system ...............................................................................................................42

4.12.10 Distribution boxes .......................................................................................................................................................43

4.12.11 Explosive delays ............................................................................................................................................................44

4.13 Explosively actuated devices ...................................................................................................................................................45

4.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................45

4.13.2 Separation nuts and separation bolts .........................................................................................................46

4.13.3 Pullers ....................................................................................................................................................................................47

4.13.4 Pushers (Thrusters) ...................................................................................................................................................48

4.13.5 Cutters ....................................................................................................................................................................................48

4.13.6 Pyro-valves .........................................................................................................................................................................49

4.14 Items external to the flight equipment ............................................................................................................................50

4.14.1 GSE ............................................................................................................................................................................................50

4.14.2 Test equipment ...............................................................................................................................................................50

4.14.3 Launch site .........................................................................................................................................................................50

4.15 Verification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................50

4.15.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................50

4.15.2 Inspection ...........................................................................................................................................................................50

4.15.3 Tests .........................................................................................................................................................................................51

4.15.4 Qualification and lot acceptance .....................................................................................................................53

4.16 Transport, facilities, handling and storage ..................................................................................................................56

4.16.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................56

4.16.2 Transport .............................................................................................................................................................................56

4.16.3 Facilities ...................................................................... ..........................................................................................................57

4.16.4 Handling and storage ................................................................................................................................................57

4.17 In-service ..................................................................................................................................................................................................58

4.17.1 Information feedback ...............................................................................................................................................58

4.17.2 Launch site procedures ...........................................................................................................................................58

4.17.3 Monitoring ..........................................................................................................................................................................58

4.18 Product assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................58

4.18.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................58

4.18.2 Dependability ..................................................................................................................................................................58

4.18.3 Assembly integration and tests ........................................................................................................................58

4.19 Deliverables ............................................................................................................................................................................................59

Annex A (normative) Loads and factors of safety relationship .............................................................................................61

Annex B (normative) Factors of safety ............................................................................................................................................................63

Annex C (informative) Explosive component colour code ..........................................................................................................64

Annex D (informative) Component qualification test levels to be customized to the space

system considered ...........................................................................................................................................................................................65

Annex E (informative) Product user manual (PUM/UM) — DRD .........................................................................................67

Annex F (informative) Safety data sheet ........................................................................................................................................................73

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................77

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 26871:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 26871:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— simplification for some requirements;
— updating terminology;
— introduction of a paragraph about debris issues.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 26871:2020(E)
Introduction
0.1 Background

The evolution of this document is motivated by changes inputted by the last issue of 2 main mother

[1],[2]
documents .
0.2 Tailoring

This document may be tailored, by the contractor, in consultation with the procuring authority, for the

specific characteristics and constraints of a space project.

Tailoring is a process by which individual requirements or specifications, standards, and related

documents are evaluated and made applicable to a specific program or project by selection, and in some

cases, modification and addition (e.g., for manned spaceflight) of requirements in the standards.

However, the tailored requirements may achieve a level of verification equivalent to the baseline

described herein. Rationale for each tailored requirement may be established. If the requirements in

this document are not tailored by a contract, they stand as written.

This document will be updated and revised periodically, each five years as appropriate to incorporate

technological advances and innovations as well as lessons learned.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 26871:2020(E)
Space systems — Explosive systems and devices

IMPORTANT — The electronic file of this document contains colours which are considered to be

useful for the correct understanding of the document. Users should therefore consider printing

this document using a colour printer.
1 Scope

This document specifies criteria and requirements for the use of explosive systems and explosive

devices commonly used on spacecraft and other space products, including launch vehicles and space

vehicle systems. It addresses the aspects of design, analysis, verification, manufacturing, operations

and safety.

To the greatest extent possible, requirements from past and existing standards have been analyzed,

selected and tailored to be incorporated herein. In addition, the requirements herein include those

generated as a result of lessons learned from launch and space vehicle programs.
NOTE Specific requirements for man-rating are not addressed.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14300-1, Space systems — Programme management — Part 1: Structuring of a project

ISO 24113, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
actuator
component (3.1.10) that performs the moving function of a mechanism

Note 1 to entry: An actuator can be either an electric motor, or any other mechanical (e.g. spring) or electric

component or part providing the torque or force for the motion of the mechanism.
3.1.2
all-fire level

lowest level of the fire stimulus (including rise time, shape, duration), which results in initiation of a

first element (initiator) (3.1.36) within a specific reliability and confidence level as determined by test

and analysis
Note 1 to entry: The stimulus duration shall be compliant with the system.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 26871:2020(E)

Note 2 to entry: The test sequence should be carried out at the lowest temperature of the operating range.

Note 3 to entry: The probability of functioning should be equal to or better than 0,999 at the 95 % confidence level.

3.1.3
armed

status of an explosive subsystem, when all the safety devices have been disabled and which is able

to trigger
3.1.4
auto-ignition

spontaneous explosive reaction of energetic materials (3.1.19) in an explosively loaded device due to

exposure to environments or interfacing materials
3.1.5
bridgewire

resistive element incorporated into the first element (3.1.30) that converts electrical energy into heat or

shock to cause initiation of an explosive charge (3.1.8)
3.1.6
cartridge

explosive device designed to produce pressure for performing a mechanical function or actuate a

mechanical device

Note 1 to entry: A cartridge is called an initiator (3.1.36) if it is the first or only explosive element in an explosive

train (3.1.28).
3.1.7
catastrophic failure

failure which results in the loss of human life, mission or a major ground facility, or long-term

detrimental environmental effects
3.1.8
charge

explosive (3.1.23) loaded in a cartridge (3.1.6), detonator (3.1.14) or separate container for use in an

explosive device
3.1.9
closed bomb

fixed volume test chamber to measure output characteristics of pressure producing devices

3.1.10
component

set of materials, assembled according to defined and controlled processes, which cannot be disassembled

without destroying its capability and which performs a simple function that can be evaluated against

expected performance requirements

Note 1 to entry: The term “part” is preferred when referring to purely mechanical or explosive devices.

Note 2 to entry: The term “component” is preferred for EEE devices.
3.1.11
cook-off temperature

maximum temperature to which an explosively loaded device can be exposed for a period of one hour

without reaction

Note 1 to entry: The determination of the cook-off temperature is time and application dependent.

3.1.12
deflagration

chemical decomposition propagating through the explosive (3.1.23) at a subsonic velocity

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 26871:2020(E)
3.1.13
detonation

chemical decomposition propagating through the explosive (3.1.23) at a supersonic velocity such that a

shock wave is generated
3.1.14
detonator

initiator (3.1.36) whose function is to transform external energy (e.g., mechanical, electrical, thermal)

directly into a shock wave strong enough to detonate a secondary high explosive (3.1.34)

Note 1 to entry: Detonators are generally used to effect detonation (3.1.13) transfers within explosive trains

(3.1.28).
3.1.15
duding

explosive charge (3.1.8) or component (3.1.10) that fails to fire or function upon receipt of the prescribed

initiating stimulus, after an external effect (human failure, manufacturing failure, environmental,

chemical, ageing, etc.)
3.1.16
electro-explosive device
EED
first element (3.1.
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 26871
ISO/TC 20/SC 14
Space systems — Explosive systems
Secretariat: ANSI
and devices
Voting begins on:
2020­07­28
Systèmes spaciaux — Dispositifs et equipements explosifs
Voting terminates on:
2020­09­22
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols ....................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

3.3 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.1 Background information ........................................................................................................................................10

4.1.2 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1.3 Applicability ......................................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.4 Properties ...........................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2 Design ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2.2 Debris requirements..................................................................................................................................................12

4.2.3 Reliability and confidence levels .....................................................................................................................13

4.2.4 Performance .....................................................................................................................................................................13

4.2.5 Wanted and unwanted response ....................................................................................................................13

4.2.6 Dimensioning ...................................................................................................................................................................13

4.3 Mission ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.4 Functionality ..........................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.5 Safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.5.2 Prevention of unintentional function ..........................................................................................................18

4.6 Survival and operational conditions .................................................................................................................................19

4.7 Interface requirements .................................................................................................................................................................19

4.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.7.2 Functional ...........................................................................................................................................................................20

4.7.3 Internal ..................................................................................................................................................................................20

4.7.4 External .................................................................................................................................................................................20

4.8 Mechanical, electrical, and thermal requirements ................................................................................................20

4.8.1 Mechanical .........................................................................................................................................................................20

4.8.2 Electrical ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

4.8.3 Thermal.................................................................................................................................................................................25

4.8.4 Status check.......................................................................................................................................................................25

4.9 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................26

4.10 Production lot .......................................................................................................................................................................................27

4.11 Non-explosive components and equipment ...............................................................................................................27

4.11.1 Connectors .........................................................................................................................................................................27

4.11.2 Wiring .....................................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.3 Shielding...............................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.4 Faraday cap ........................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.5 Safety cap.............................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.6 Power ......................................................................................................................................................................................29

4.11.7 Arm plug receptacle ...................................................................................................................................................29

4.11.8 Safe plug ...............................................................................................................................................................................29

4.11.9 Arm plug ...................................................................... .........................................................................................................30

4.11.10 Test plug ...............................................................................................................................................................................30

4.11.11 Safe and arm device....................................................................................................................................................30

4.11.12 Initiator harness connector .................................................................................................................................32

4.11.13 Initiator test substitute............................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)

4.12 Explosive components ...................................................................................................................................................................32

4.12.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................32

4.12.2 Initiators, cartridges, detonators and packaged charges ...........................................................33

4.12.3 Through­Bulkhead initiators ..............................................................................................................................38

4.12.4 Integral initiator connectors ...............................................................................................................................38

4.12.5 Transfer devices ............................................................................................................................................................39

4.12.6 Safe and arm devices containing explosive ............................................................................................40

4.12.7 Gas generators ................................................................................................................................................................41

4.12.8 Shaped charges...............................................................................................................................................................41

4.12.9 Expanding tube separation system ...............................................................................................................42

4.12.10 Distribution boxes .......................................................................................................................................................43

4.12.11 Explosive delays ............................................................................................................................................................44

4.13 Explosively actuated devices ...................................................................................................................................................45

4.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................45

4.13.2 Separation nuts and separation bolts .........................................................................................................46

4.13.3 Pullers ....................................................................................................................................................................................47

4.13.4 Pushers (Thrusters) ...................................................................................................................................................48

4.13.5 Cutters ....................................................................................................................................................................................48

4.13.6 Pyro-valves .........................................................................................................................................................................49

4.14 Items external to the flight equipment ............................................................................................................................50

4.14.1 GSE ............................................................................................................................................................................................50

4.14.2 Test equipment ...............................................................................................................................................................50

4.14.3 Launch site .........................................................................................................................................................................50

4.15 Verification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................51

4.15.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................51

4.15.2 Inspection ...........................................................................................................................................................................51

4.15.3 Tests .........................................................................................................................................................................................51

4.15.4 Qualification and lot acceptance .....................................................................................................................53

4.16 Transport, facilities, handling and storage ..................................................................................................................56

4.16.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................56

4.16.2 Transport .............................................................................................................................................................................56

4.16.3 Facilities ...................................................................... ..........................................................................................................57

4.16.4 Handling and storage ................................................................................................................................................57

4.17 In­service ..................................................................................................................................................................................................58

4.17.1 Information feedback ...............................................................................................................................................58

4.17.2 Launch site procedures ...........................................................................................................................................58

4.17.3 Monitoring ..........................................................................................................................................................................58

4.18 Product assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................58

4.18.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................58

4.18.2 Dependability ..................................................................................................................................................................59

4.18.3 Assembly integration and tests ........................................................................................................................59

4.19 Deliverables ............................................................................................................................................................................................59

Annex A (normative) Loads and factors of safety relationship .............................................................................................61

Annex B (normative) Factors of safety ............................................................................................................................................................63

Annex C (informative) Explosive component colour code ..........................................................................................................64

Annex D (informative) Component qualification test levels to be customized to the space

system considered ...........................................................................................................................................................................................65

Annex E (informative) Product user manual (PUM/UM) — DRD .........................................................................................67

Annex F (informative) Safety data sheet ........................................................................................................................................................73

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................77

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 26871:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— simplification for some requirements;
— updating terminology;
— introduction of a paragraph about debris issues.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)
Introduction
0.1 Background

The evolution of this document is motivated by changes inputted by the last issue of 2 main mother

[1],[2]
documents .
0.2 Tailoring

This document may be tailored, by the contractor, in consultation with the procuring authority, for the

specific characteristics and constraints of a space project.

Tailoring is a process by which individual requirements or specifications, standards, and related

documents are evaluated and made applicable to a specific program or project by selection, and in some

cases, modification and addition (e.g., for manned spaceflight) of requirements in the standards.

However, the tailored requirements may achieve a level of verification equivalent to the baseline

described herein. Rationale for each tailored requirement may be established. If the requirements in

this document are not tailored by a contract, they stand as written.

This document will be updated and revised periodically, each five years as appropriate to incorporate

technological advances and innovations as well as lessons learned.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)
Space systems — Explosive systems and devices

IMPORTANT — The electronic file of this document contains colours which are considered to be

useful for the correct understanding of the document. Users should therefore consider printing

this document using a colour printer.
1 Scope

This document specifies criteria and requirements for the use of explosive systems and explosive

devices commonly used on spacecraft and other space products, including launch vehicles and space

vehicle systems. It addresses the aspects of design, analysis, verification, manufacturing, operations

and safety.

To the greatest extent possible, requirements from past and existing standards have been analyzed,

selected and tailored to be incorporated herein. In addition, the requirements herein include those

generated as a result of lessons learned from launch and space vehicle programs.
NOTE Specific requirements for man-rating are not addressed.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14300­1, Space systems — Programme management — Part 1: Structuring of a project

ISO 24113, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
actuator
component (3.1.10) that performs the moving function of a mechanism

Note 1 to entry: An actuator can be either an electric motor, or any other mechanical (e.g. spring) or electric

component or part providing the torque or force for the motion of the mechanism.
3.1.2
all-fire level

lowest level of the fire stimulus (including rise time, shape, duration), which results in initiation of a

first element (initiator) (3.1.36) within a specific reliability and confidence level as determined by test

and analysis
Note 1 to entry: The stimulus duration shall be compliant with the system.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)

Note 2 to entry: The test sequence should be carried out at the lowest temperature of the operating range.

Note 3 to entry: The probability of functioning should be equal to or better than 0,999 at the 95 % confidence level.

3.1.3
armed

status of an explosive subsystem, when all the safety devices have been disabled and which is able

to trigger
3.1.4
auto-ignition

spontaneous explosive reaction of energetic materials (3.1.19) in an explosively loaded device due to

exposure to environments or interfacing materials
3.1.5
bridgewire

resistive element incorporated into the first element (3.1.30) that converts electrical energy into heat or

shock to cause initiation of an explosive charge (3.1.8)
3.1.6
cartridge

explosive device designed to produce pressure for performing a mechanical function or actuate a

mechanical device

Note 1 to entry: A cartridge is called an initiator (3.1.36) if it is the first or only explosive element in an explosive

train (3.1.28).
3.1.7
catastrophic failure

failure which results in the loss of human life, mission or a major ground facility, or long-term

detrimental environmental effects
3.1.8
charge

explosive (3.1.23) loaded in a cartridge (3.1.6), detonator (3.1.14) or separate container for use in an

explosive device
3.1.9
closed bomb

fixed volume test chamber to measure output characteristics of pressure producing devices

3.1.10
component

set of materials, assembled according to defined and controlled processes, which cannot be disassembled

without destroying its capability and which performs a simple function that can be evaluated against

expected performance requirements

Note 1 to entry: The term “part” is preferred when referring to purely mechanical or explosive devices.

Note 2 to entry: The term “component” is preferred for EEE devices.
3.1.11
cook-off temperature

maximum temperature to which an explosively loaded device can be exposed for a period of one hour

without reaction

Note 1 to entry: The determination of the cook-off temperature is time and application dependent.

3.1.12
deflagration

chemical decomposition propagating through the explosive (3.1.23) at a subsonic velocity

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 26871:2020(E)
3.1.13
detonation

chemical decomposition propagating through the explosive (3.1.23) at a supersonic velocity such that a

shock wave is generated
3.1.14
det
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.