Dynamic signs in physical environments

This document describes general ergonomics requirements in relation to dynamic signs, as this responsive information presentation technology changes depending on the environmental conditions in which it is used (e.g. environmental illumination, density of people). Dynamic signs are presented adaptively to those environmental conditions. The general requirements for dynamic signs consist of visibility (divided into conspicuity, distinctiveness, legibility and comprehensibility), visual image safety and accessibility. The requirements and recommendations for each are also described. This document does not cover static signs. This document does not include requirements for safety signs for the marking of escape routes. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â There are some related recommendations in ISO 30061.

Signes dynamiques dans les environnements physiques

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Sep-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
07-Aug-2021
Completion Date
06-Aug-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23456-1
First edition
2021-09
Dynamic signs in physical
environments —
Part 1:
General requirements
Signes dynamiques dans les environnements physiques —
Partie 1: Exigences générales
Reference number
ISO 23456-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23456-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23456-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Dynamic signs .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Visibility ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Graphical symbols and pictorial symbols to be displayed ................................................................................ 4

5.3 Characters to be displayed ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3.1 Font style ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3.2 Font size ...................................................................... ............................................................................................................. 4

5.3.3 Presentation content and context .................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.4 Number of characters .................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 Types of dynamic display methods and their requirements ........................................................................... 5

5.4.1 Types of dynamic presentation incorporating movement .......................................................... 5

5.4.2 Types of temporal variation in brightness, chromaticity or shape ...................................... 5

5.5 Visual requirements for dynamic signs to be considered .................................................................................. 5

5.5.1 Information volume ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5.2 Size ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5.3 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.5.4 Contrast and luminance ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.5.5 Lead time, presentation time and velocity ................................................................................................ 5

5.5.6 Display location................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5.7 Discomfort and annoyance from signs ......................................................................................................... 6

5.5.8 Requirements for combinations of symbols and characters ..................................................... 6

6 Visual image safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Considerations for avoiding photosensitive seizures ............................................................................................ 6

6.2 Considerations for avoiding visually induced motion sickness .................................................................... 6

6.3 Considerations for avoiding visually induced balance disorder .................................................................. 6

6.4 Considerations for restricting misuse ................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Accessibility ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Consideration of diverse users and diverse context of use............................................................................... 6

7.2 Use of multiple languages .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Examples of dynamic sign use ....................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23456-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 5,

Ergonomics of the physical environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 23456 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23456-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Dynamic signs, which provide information with changing spatial and temporal images, are intended to

be used for delivering cautions to improve safety in road traffic environments, public buildings, outdoor

spaces and factories and for providing prompt and reliable guidance for enhanced convenience in those

situations. For static displays, ISO 7010 specifies the adequate size depending on the viewing distance.

Currently, most information indicating specific locations and directions within space depends on static

signs. The development of dynamic signs is at a practical stage in many countries (see Annex A).

Though the significance, necessity and feasibility of dynamic signs have been recognized, there

are currently no International Standards that describe the ergonomic requirements that should be

understood by both device manufacturers and content creators. In order to enable this new technology

to spread through the marketplace quickly and adequately, it is important that designs that do not take

into account the ergonomic characteristics of the information recipient are avoided. Accordingly, this

document describes the ergonomic principles for the application of dynamic signs.

This document describes a common set of general requirements for future developments of individual

standards, in which numerical criteria of requirements are set depending on the individual target

environment.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23456-1:2021(E)
Dynamic signs in physical environments —
Part 1:
General requirements
1 Scope

This document describes general ergonomics requirements in relation to dynamic signs, as this

responsive information presentation technology changes depending on the environmental conditions

in which it is used (e.g. environmental illumination, density of people).
Dynamic signs are presented adaptively to those environmental conditions.

The general requirements for dynamic signs consist of visibility (divided into conspicuity,

distinctiveness, legibility and comprehensibility), visual image safety and accessibility. The

requirements and recommendations for each are also described.
This document does not cover static signs.

This document does not include requirements for safety signs for the marking of escape routes.

NOTE There are some related recommendations in ISO 30061.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3864-1, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 1: Design principles for safety

signs and safety markings

ISO 3864-4, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 4: Colorimetric and photometric

properties of safety sign materials
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
dynamic sign

sign which changes position, size, colour, brightness and/or content for caution and guidance by

flashing, motion or both depending on the environmental conditions

Note 1 to entry: The term “dynamic” has two meanings: 1) the dynamic change increases the human perceptual

visibility (3.3); 2) the changing content conveys multiple information adaptively.

Note 2 to entry: Possible applications of dynamic signs are shown in Annex A.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 23456-1:2021(E)

Note 3 to entry: Combination of the properties is considered in terms of the visibility (3.3).

Note 4 to entry: Here, “caution” is a term defined in ISO 3864-2:2016, 3.1, i.e. “signal word used to indicate a

potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury”.

3.2
static sign

information display whose position, size, duration, visual attribution (e.g. colour, luminance, shape) and

meaning do not vary temporally or spatially
3.3
visibility
extent to which a visual display can be seen easily and accurately
3.4
conspicuity

extent to which the sign indicates its presence by attracting the attention visually

3.5
distinctiveness
extent to which the difference between visual signs can be detected
3.6
legibility
extent to which the characters are readable visually
3.7
comprehensibility
extent to which the sign is understandable
3.8
image safety

concept that has as its purpose the protection of vulnerable persons from the undesirable biomedical

effects on human health, particularly those caused by moving images presented on electronic displays

3.9
accessibility

extent to which products, systems, services, environments and facilities can be used by people from a

population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics and capabilities to achieve identified

goals in identified contexts of use
Note 1 to entry: C
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23456-1
ISO/TC 159/SC 5
Dynamic signs in physical
Secretariat: BSI
environments —
Voting begins on:
2021-06-11
Part 1:
Voting terminates on:
General requirements
2021-08-06
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 23456-1:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23456-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23456-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Dynamic signs .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Visibility ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Graphical symbols and pictorial symbols to be displayed ................................................................................ 4

5.3 Characters to be displayed ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3.1 Font style ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3.2 Font size ...................................................................... ............................................................................................................. 4

5.3.3 Presentation content and context .................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.4 Number of characters .................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 Types of dynamic display methods and their requirements ........................................................................... 5

5.4.1 Types of dynamic presentation incorporating movement .......................................................... 5

5.4.2 Types of temporal variation in brightness, chromaticity or shape ...................................... 5

5.5 Visual requirements for dynamic signs to be considered .................................................................................. 5

5.5.1 Information volume ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5.2 Size ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5.3 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.5.4 Contrast and luminance ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.5.5 Lead time, presentation time and velocity ................................................................................................ 5

5.5.6 Display location................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5.7 Discomfort and annoyance from signs ......................................................................................................... 6

5.5.8 Requirements for combinations of symbols and characters ..................................................... 6

6 Visual image safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Considerations for avoiding photosensitive seizures ............................................................................................ 6

6.2 Considerations for avoiding visually induced motion sickness .................................................................... 6

6.3 Considerations for avoiding visually induced balance disorder .................................................................. 6

6.4 Considerations for restricting misuse ................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Accessibility ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Consideration of diverse users and diverse context of use............................................................................... 6

7.2 Use of multiple languages .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Examples of dynamic sign use ....................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23456-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 5,

Ergonomics of the physical environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 23456 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23456-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Dynamic signs, which provide information with changing spatial and temporal images, are intended to

be used for delivering cautions to improve safety in road traffic environments, public buildings, outdoor

spaces and factories and for providing prompt and reliable guidance for enhanced convenience in those

situations. For static displays, ISO 7010 specifies the adequate size depending on the viewing distance.

Currently, most information indicating specific locations and directions within space depends on static

signs. The development of dynamic signs is at a practical stage in many countries (see Annex A).

Though the significance, necessity and feasibility of dynamic signs have been recognized, there

are currently no International Standards that describe the ergonomic requirements that should be

understood by both device manufacturers and content creators. In order to enable this new technology

to spread through the marketplace quickly and adequately, it is important that designs that do not take

into account the ergonomic characteristics of the information recipient are avoided. Accordingly, this

document describes the ergonomic principles for the application of dynamic signs.

This document describes a common set of general requirements for future developments of individual

standards, in which numerical criteria of requirements are set depending on the individual target

environment.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23456-1:2021(E)
Dynamic signs in physical environments —
Part 1:
General requirements
1 Scope

This document describes general ergonomics requirements in relation to dynamic signs, as this

responsive information presentation technology changes depending on the environmental conditions

in which it is used (e.g. environmental illumination, density of people).
Dynamic signs are presented adaptively to those environmental conditions.

The general requirements for dynamic signs consist of visibility (divided into conspicuity,

distinctiveness, legibility and comprehensibility), visual image safety and accessibility. The

requirements and recommendations for each are also described.
This document does not cover static signs.

This document does not include requirements for safety signs for the marking of escape routes.

NOTE There are some related recommendations in ISO 30061.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3864-1, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 1: Design principles for safety

signs and safety markings

ISO 3864-4, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 4: Colorimetric and photometric

properties of safety sign materials
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
dynamic sign

sign which changes position, size, colour, brightness and/or content for caution and guidance by

flashing, motion or both depending on the environmental conditions

Note 1 to entry: The term “dynamic” has two meanings: 1) the dynamic change increases the human perceptual

visibility (3.3); 2) the changing content conveys multiple information adaptively.

Note 2 to entry: Possible applications of dynamic signs are shown in Annex A.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23456-1:2021(E)

Note 3 to entry: Combination of the properties is considered in terms of the visibility (3.3).

Note 4 to entry: Here, “caution” is a term defined in ISO 3864-2:2016, 3.1, i.e. “signal word used to indicate a

potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury”.

3.2
static sign

information display whose position, size, duration, visual attribution (e.g. colour, luminance, shape) and

meaning do not vary temporally or spatially
3.3
visibility
extent to which a visual display can be seen easily and accurately
3.4
conspicuity

extent to which the sign indicates its presence by attracting the attention visually

3.5
distinctiveness
extent to which the difference between visual signs can be detected
3.6
legibility
extent to which the characters are readable visually
3.7
comprehensibility
extent to which the sign is understandable
3.8
image safety

concept that has as its purpose the protection of vulnerable persons from the undesirable biomedical

effects on human health, particularly those caused by moving images presented on electronic displays

3.9
...

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