Pilot plan for industrial wastewater treatment facilities in the objective of water reuse

This document provides the fundamental principles and guidelines for industrial wastewater treatment technology pilot studies. It does not address laboratory research and development, study or testing of a given technology. It does not cover reuse applications or operations, such as irrigation. This document applies to a wide range of industrial water treatment systems for the purposes of reuse.

Plan pilote pour les installations de traitement des eaux résiduaires industrielles en vue de la réutilisation de l’eau

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ISO 22524:2020 - Pilot plan for industrial wastewater treatment facilities in the objective of water reuse
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First edition
Pilot plan for industrial wastewater
treatment facilities in the objective of
water reuse
Plan pilote pour les installations de traitement des eaux résiduaires
industrielles en vue de la réutilisation de l’eau
Reference number
ISO 22524:2020(E)
ISO 2020

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ISO 22524:2020(E)

© ISO 2020
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
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ISO 22524:2020(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .v
Introduction .vi
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms . 1
3.1 Terms and definitions . 1
3.2 Abbreviated terms . 2
4 Lifecycle of a pilot study . 2
4.1 General . 2
4.2 Pilot plan lifecycle phases . 3
4.2.1 General. 3
4.2.2 Statement of pilot plan goals . 4
4.2.3 Pilot study programme . 4
4.2.4 Pilot plant/facility design and construction . 5
4.2.5 Operation and maintenance procedures and protocols . 6
4.2.6 Action planning . 6
4.2.7 Pilot plant/facility commissioning . 6
4.2.8 Pilot plant/facility operation and management . 7
4.2.9 Sample collection plan . 7
4.2.10 Pilot plan summary . 7
4.2.11 Pilot plant/facility shutdown and decommissioning . 7
5 Programme and project management . 8
5.1 General . 8
5.2 Oversight committee . 8
5.3 Pilot study team . 8
5.3.1 General. 8
5.3.2 Team members . 8
5.3.3 Team leader . 9
5.3.4 Additional team members . 9
5.3.5 Technical experts . 9
5.3.6 Team meetings . 9
5.4 Quality management system . 9
5.5 Risk management . 9
5.6 Schedule planning .10
5.6.1 General.10
5.6.2 Time reserve .10
6 Statement of pilot plan goals, scope and boundaries .10
6.1 Goals .10
6.2 Safety .10
6.3 Sustainability .10
6.4 Effectiveness .11
6.5 Efficiency .11
7 Pilot plan study programme .11
7.1 General .11
7.2 Pilot plan study programme contents and structure .12
7.2.1 General.12
7.2.2 Background and pilot plan goals and objectives .12
7.2.3 Prior project history, current project state and post-pilot-plan planned
activities .12
7.2.4 Pilot plan scope (within/beyond) .12
7.2.5 Pilot plan success/failure criteria .12
7.3 Description of technology and facilities .12
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ISO 22524:2020(E)

7.4 Description of pilot facility environment and site .12
7.5 Pilot plan correctness and coverage .12
7.6 Pilot plan flexibility .13
7.7 Plan review .13
7.8 Statistical measures, tools and techniques .13
7.9 Pilot plan study programme approval .13
8 Pilot plant/facility development and construction .13
8.1 General .13
8.2 Basis of design (BoD) .14
8.3 Conceptual and preliminary design .14
8.4 Detailed engineering design .14
8.5 Contracting and construction .14
8.6 Acceptance testing .15
8.7 Handover to commissioning and operational team .15
9 Operational framework establishment .15
9.1 General .15
9.2 Pilot plant/facility procedure manual .15
9.2.1 General.15
9.2.2 List of procedures .16
9.3 Sampling and measurement .16
9.3.1 Sampling and analysis planning .16
9.3.2 Measurement and sampling equipment, analysers and tools .17
9.3.3 Sampling frequency and sample size .17
9.3.4 Sampling and analysis validation .17
10 Pilot plant/facility commissioning phase .17
10.1 General .17
10.2 Commissioning process basic stages .17
10.2.1 General.17
10.2.2 ‘Dry’ run .18
10.2.3 ‘Wet’ run (water run) .18
11 Pilot plan operational phase .18
11.1 General .18
11.2 Reduced loading performance (best case).18
11.3 Normal loading performance (typical case) .19
11.4 Stressed loading performance (worst case) .19
12 Study summary and reporting .19
13 Permanent shutdown and decommissioning .19
Bibliography .21
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ISO 22524:2020(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the
World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/
iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 282, Water reuse, Subcommittee SC 4,
Industrial water reuse.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO 22524:2020(E)

Climate change impacts on water availability have industries across the globe seeking ways to drought-
proof their operations. One of the key water conservation methods is to implement water treatment
and reuse practices, simultaneously reducing demands on potable water resources and on industrial
wastewater effluent discharges, and associated residual contaminants, to the environment. The
greatest challenge to this approach lies in the characteristics of industrial wastewater and the water
quality requirements for reuse, which vary significantly between industries and processes and are
unique for each industrial operation. This variation depends on the type of process, raw materials,
reagents and additives used, all resulting in a unique set of circumstances for each location, even within
one industry. Therefore, industrial wastewater often requires unique treatment approaches, as well as
the development and implementation of novel and innovative water treatment technologies.
To overcome this challenge, following a review of source control measures and water treatment
alternatives, industries can choose to evaluate novel technologies using a scale-up study to transition
the research-based laboratory-scale or bench-scale proof-of-concept treatment process into a
functional demonstration or full-scale process. The use of a pilot plan for testing and evaluation of a
novel technology or process is the focus of this document.
Pilot plant/facility is a relative term in the sense that it is typically smaller than a full-scale production
plant. Still, it is built in a range of sizes and does not necessarily infer a small-scale application as it
could be conducted at demonstration-scale or full-scale and often involves a significant investment
of financial, equipment and labour resources; therefore, the term ‘pilot’ is relative. For new water
treatment technologies emerging from laboratory and bench-scale development, pilot-testing is the
first opportunity to establish or demonstrate commercial potential.
Pilot-testing can be used to check, on a reduced scale, a water treatment process developed through
laboratory research. The experience gained by operating a pilot plant/facility can assist in making a
decision as to whether or not to proceed with the full-scale plant by determining the likelihood of a
full-scale successful implementation. Furthermore, pilot-testing provides for more reliable capital and
operational cost estimates, and all necessary inputs (e.g. chemicals, power, labour resources), as well
as the ease of operation and maintenance of a given water treatment process. Other objectives can be
fulfilled simultaneously and some definitive considerations for the decision to build the pilot plant/
facility are possible.
An industrial wastewater treatment pilot plan is a specific case of a chemical, physical and biological
processing pilot plan. However, this type of treatment poses many unique challenges that need to
be covered by the pilot plan. For example, because some industrial wastewater characteristics vary
seasonally or are based on changes in industrial processing and product generation, it could be
necessary to adjust or test different operating conditions and control strategies and settings to achieve
the highest efficiencies and determine the most suitable economic operating conditions.
The concept of serviceability limit state (SLS) could be useful to determine these stress conditions.
To satisfy SLS criterion, a facility ought to remain functional for its intended use (subject to routine
operation conditions) after achieving SLS. A typical range of a ratio between the critical parameter values
characterizing SLS and routine operation conditions (e.g. concentration of treated target contaminants,
flow of wastewater stream, stream temperature) is 1,2/2, although it could be significantly higher for
the modern robust wastewater treatment technologies.
The transition from laboratory-scale to a pilot-scale study requires detailed knowledge about the
critical design and operating parameters, which initially does not exist and could include assumption
making within an iterative process of refinement. The inability to replicate laboratory-scale research
findings is often caused by failure to adequately scale-up critical process parameters. It is necessary
that the principles of similitude to correlate model and prototype behaviour are carefully observed.
Hydraulic similitude, commonly based on the Froude Number Law, is important, as it affects physical
attributes such as energy dissipation, as well as dimensional analysis, thus establishing the basic
relationship of the physical quantities involved in the dynamic behaviour of the treatment process. The
physical, chemical and biological behaviour of the pilot process can simulate, in a known manner, the
behaviour of the laboratory or bench-scale prototype, and similarly the behaviour of the pilot process
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ISO 22524:2020(E)

can simulate that of a full-scale application. All scalability criteria and specific similitude requirements
ought to be carefully defined prior to pilot planning.
Similarity assessment: since the similarity concept implies checking if the laboratory results are to be
applicable to the real-life situation, as a rule, the initial conditions for the simulation correspond to the
conditions of the performed laboratory research, whereas the boundary conditions correspond to the
expected 'typical' future conditions. In some cases, the boundary conditions also include design limit
states [e.g. SLS, fatigue limit state (FLS)] defined as the boundary conditions beyond which the tested
technology/process/system fails (or could fail) to perform the function that is expected of it .
This document, with some necessary modifications and adjustments, can be used for comparative
testing and analysis of the suitability of existing and proven commercial solutions to specific sites and
applications (given, for example, operational conditions or specific requirements).
By the nature of dealing with the unexpected, any pilot plan represents a big challenge. Even a successful
pilot plan cannot fully guarantee future success of full-scale implementation of tested solutions in real
industrial conditions, for the following reasons:
— partial relevance of pilot conditions and environment to real full-scale conditions and environment
(e.g. scale-up effects);
— partial coverage of tested pilot conditions of a spectrum of all possible full-scale states;
— short-term pilot performance (long-term effects, such as progressive failures as well as equipment-
degraded performance due to ageing or seasonal effects, could hardly be evaluated in the framework
of a pilot plan);
— uncertainty of statistical conclusions derived from rather limited collected pilot data;
— it could be that testing conducted at a single site of specific conditions will not represent the entire
range of possible conditions characterizing other sites.
This document is not oriented towards a specific type of industrial process; use of raw materials,
reagents and additives; or to a particular kind of wastewater. Rather, it provides comprehensive
general guiding principles for pilot planning and performance to verify laboratory-scale findings and
potential for commercialization. This document includes the critical considerations, methods, criteria
and processes which need to be a part of every pilot plant study, from the initial planning through to
the post-pilot analysis of the data collected during the pilot study.
A decision about performing a pilot plan ought to be made directly by all relevant stakeholders
and interested parties. This document is therefore intended to provide the critical guidelines and
considerations for successful implementation of a pilot plan.
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Pilot plan for industrial wastewater treatment facilities in
the objective of water reuse
1 Scope
This document provides the fundamental principles and guidelines for industrial wastewater treatment
technology pilot studies.
It does not address laboratory research and development, study or testing of a given technology. It does
not cover reuse applications or operations, such as irrigation.
This document applies to a wide range of industrial water treatment systems for the purposes of reuse.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 20670, Water reuse — Vocabulary
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 20670 and the following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
pilot plan
small (reduced) representative scale preliminary study, or a trial implementation and testing of a
proposed solution (technology/process/processing chain), limited by some timeframe and conducted in
predefined special conditions, in order to evaluate feasibility, effectiveness, efficiency, compliance and
sustainability of this solution in an attempt to reveal all

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