This document specifies the principles and framework for comprehensive evaluation of industrial wastewater treatment reuse processes, including: a) establishing goals and scope; b) illustrating the evaluation procedure; and c) determination of evaluation indicators (technology indicator/sub-indicators, environment indicator/sub-indicators, resource indicator/sub-indicators, economy indicator/sub-indicators). This document describes how to comprehensively evaluate industrial wastewater treatment reuse processes using the proposed calculation approaches and recommended indicators. It does not specify methodologies for single evaluation indicators. The document is intended to provide assistance to a broad range of industrial wastewater treatment and reuse project stakeholders including professionals (planning, management, designers, and operators), administrative agencies (monitoring, assessment, regulation and administration) and local authorities. This document is applicable to a) evaluating comparing and selecting industrial wastewater treatment reuse processes, b) implementing continuous improvements, c) upgrading processes and improving performance for existing treatment and reuse facilities. The intended application of the comprehensive evaluation result is considered within the goal and scope definition.
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This document provides guidance on, the evaluation and comparison of wastewater softening and desalination processes for industrial wastewater reclamation and reuse with specific consideration for the following six: 1) chemical precipitation; 2) ion exchange; 3) nanofiltration (NF); 4) reverse osmosis (RO); 5) electrodialysis (ED) and 6) electrodeionization (EDI). This document provides guidance on the characterisation of both influent and effluent quality (e.g. hardness, alkalinity, etc.) and the effects of these processes on those constituents. The purpose of softening and desalination is only for the reuse usages that have requirements for hardness and salinity, such as cooling circulating water, boiler water, production process water, and cleaning water. This document includes the following sub-processes of wastewater softening and desalination processes: a) wastewater softening processes based on chemical precipitation, ion exchange and NF, which aim to remove hardness ions, such as Mg2+ and Ca2+; b) desalination processes based on ion exchange, RO, ED, EDI and NF, which aim to remove the most of total dissolved solids (TDS). This document is applicable to: a) industrial saline wastewater, which has been pre-treated to remove most of the organic matters if necessary; b) the selection or design of wastewater softening and desalination processes for reuse of wastewater from industries.
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This document provides the fundamental principles and guidelines for industrial wastewater treatment technology pilot studies. It does not address laboratory research and development, study or testing of a given technology. It does not cover reuse applications or operations, such as irrigation. This document applies to a wide range of industrial water treatment systems for the purposes of reuse.
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This document provides guidelines for cost analysis of the use of reclaimed water in industrial cooling systems. This document is intended for new-built industrial cooling systems using reclaimed water as make-up water, in which the reclaimed water originates from industrial wastewater and is generated through wastewater treatment systems for reuse. The source of industrial wastewater is from all the production plants inside the enterprise. In this document, the levelized cost of cooling water (LCOCW) is used to compare and determine which industrial cooling system is more expensive per-kilowatt-hour heat removed. Use of reclaimed water will have a direct impact on the operating cost of cooling systems and the environment. External benefits, including positive externalities and negative externalities, are provided in Annex A, which considers environmental, social and financial elements. This document is intended for all types of stakeholders involved in reclaimed water use in new-built industrial cooling systems. This document aims to ensure consistency within any organization engaged in reclaimed water reuse. This document provides a broad framework within which costs for new-built industrial cooling systems using reclaimed water can be assessed. The currency used is local currency (LCY).
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This document defines terms related to industrial cooling water systems and specifies technical guidelines for the use of reclaimed water for make-up water purposes water in industrial cooling systems. It provides a basic framework for consideration in the design and operation of industrial cooling systems using reclaimed water. The aim of the document is to promote and to help the implementation of the use of reclaimed water in industrial cooling systems. It provides: — Terms and definitions; — Technical guidelines for the use of reclaimed water in industrial cooling systems. This document is applicable to cooling systems that are considered to work as auxiliary systems for the normal operation of an industrial process. However, the operation of a cooling system in relation to process safety is not covered in this document. In addition, some environmental concerns also need to be taken into consideration, for example the drift control or the use of some persistent biocides. This document can be used to encourage consistency within any organization engaged in the use of reclaimed water.
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This document specifies the principles, categories, and codes for the classification of industrial wastewater and is applicable to all types and sources of industrial wastewater. It provides a broad framework classifying industrial wastewater into different categories based on industry type and the associated water quality constituents, namely physical, chemical and biological characteristics with a specific code assigned based on both industry type and waste-stream classification.
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This document sets out the general principles for, and provides guidance on, the quantitative characterization of the energy consumed by industrial biological wastewater treatment systems. It does not aim to characterize the treatment pollutants removal performance or process reliability or any other consideration in the selection of a wastewater treatment system. This document includes the following sub-systems of biological treatment system: — Biological reactors, which might be suspended growth or fixed film processes or a combination thereof, and can include anaerobic, anoxic and/or aerobic tanks and/or zones. — Solid-liquid separation processes such as sedimentation, flotation, or membrane filtration, used for clarification of the water before discharge to downstream processes, which can also involve the return of a the separated solids as sludge back to the biological reactor. — Any pumps, blowers and mixers for water circulation, mixing and air supply in and between the sub-systems listed herein. — Heating or cooling of the water for treatment. This document does not include the following subsystems of the biological treatment system: — Wastewater feed pumps. — Pre-treatment systems, which for the purposes of this document also include preliminary and primary treatment processes, such as but not limited to, screening, sedimentation, dissolved air flotation, chemical oxidation, oil separation. — Post-treatment processes, such as but not limited to, disinfection, desalination, ion exchange, sludge treatment and handling systems. — Site lighting or any energy consumption involved in office operation. — Energy recovery from processes such as anaerobic reactors producing biogas. Filtration processes, which are sometimes part of the biological treatment process and at other times part of the post treatment, are referred to separately within this document.
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