Petroleum and natural gas industries -- Arctic offshore structures

This document specifies requirements and provides recommendations and guidance for the design, construction, transportation, installation and decommissioning of offshore structures related to the activities of the petroleum and natural gas industries in arctic and cold regions. Reference to arctic and cold regions in this document is deemed to include both the Arctic and other locations characterized by low ambient temperatures and the presence or possibility of sea ice, icebergs, icing conditions, persistent snow cover, and/or permafrost. The objective of this document is to ensure that complete structures, including substructures, topsides structures, floating production vessel hulls, foundations and mooring systems, in arctic and cold regions provide an appropriate level of reliability with respect to personnel safety, environmental protection and asset value. Value includes value to the owner, to the industry and to society in general. This document does not contain requirements for the operation, maintenance, service-life inspection or repair of arctic and cold region offshore structures, unless the design strategy imposes specific requirements such as ice management (IM) to reduce ice actions. Provisions for the operation, maintenance, service‐life inspection and repair of mobile units are given in ISO 19905-1 and ISO 19905-3, supplemented by the provisions relating to ice actions and IM in this document. This document does not apply to mechanical, process and electrical equipment or any specialized process equipment associated with arctic and cold region offshore operations except in so far as it is necessary for the structure to sustain safely the actions imposed by the installation, housing and operation of such equipment. This document applies to equipment used for the positioning and disconnection of floating structures (see Clause 13).

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel -- Structures arctiques en mer

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Jul-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
21-Mar-2019
Completion Date
12-Jul-2019
Ref Project

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ISO 19906:2019 - Petroleum and natural gas industries -- Arctic offshore structures
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19906
Second edition
2019-07
Petroleum and natural gas
industries — Arctic offshore
structures
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Structures arctiques en mer
Reference number
ISO 19906:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 19906:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19906:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................... x

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ xi

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................ 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................. 10

4.1 Symbols ........................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................... 10

5 General requirements and conditions ...................................................................................... 12

5.1 Fundamental requirements ................................................................................................................. 12

5.2 Design methods ........................................................................................................................................ 12

5.3 Site-specific considerations ................................................................................................................. 13

5.4 Construction, transportation and installation ............................................................................. 15

5.5 Operational measures ............................................................................................................................ 16

5.6 Environmental protection .................................................................................................................... 16

5.7 Serviceability requirements including vibration ........................................................................ 17

5.8 Decommissioning and reclamation .................................................................................................. 17

6 Physical environmental conditions ........................................................................................... 17

6.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.1.1 Physical environment requirements ................................................................................ 17

6.1.2 Physical environmental data monitoring programmes ............................................ 18

6.2 Daylight hours ........................................................................................................................................... 18

6.3 Meteorology ............................................................................................................................................... 18

6.3.1 Air temperature ......................................................................................................................... 18

6.3.2 Wind ............................................................................................................................................... 19

6.3.3 Wind chill ..................................................................................................................................... 19

6.3.4 Snow ............................................................................................................................................... 19

6.3.5 Ice accretion ................................................................................................................................ 19

6.3.6 Visibility ........................................................................................................................................ 20

6.3.7 Polar lows ..................................................................................................................................... 20

6.4 Oceanography ............................................................................................................................................ 20

6.4.1 Water depth ................................................................................................................................ 20

6.4.2 Waves ............................................................................................................................................. 20

6.4.3 Ocean currents ........................................................................................................................... 20

6.4.4 Other oceanographic factors ................................................................................................ 21

6.5 Sea ice and icebergs ................................................................................................................................ 21

6.5.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 21

6.5.2 Ice types ........................................................................................................................................ 22

6.5.3 Ice morphology .......................................................................................................................... 22

6.5.4 Ice movement ............................................................................................................................. 22

6.5.5 Ice properties ............................................................................................................................. 23

6.5.6 Ice monitoring ............................................................................................................................ 23

6.6 Seabed considerations ........................................................................................................................... 23

6.6.1 Earthquakes ................................................................................................................................ 23

6.6.2 Permafrost ................................................................................................................................... 23

6.6.3 Ice gouge ....................................................................................................................................... 23

6.6.4 Strudel scours ............................................................................................................................. 23

7 Reliability and limit states design .............................................................................................. 24

7.1 Design philosophy ................................................................................................................................... 24

7.1.1 Governing principles ............................................................................................................... 24

7.1.2 Life-safety categories .............................................................................................................. 24

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ISO 19906:2019(E)

7.1.3 Consequence categories ......................................................................................................... 24

7.1.4 Exposure levels .......................................................................................................................... 25

7.1.5 Safety and reliability ................................................................................................................ 25

7.1.6 Limit states .................................................................................................................................. 25

7.1.7 Alternative design methods ................................................................................................. 25

7.2 Limit states design method .................................................................................................................. 26

7.2.1 Limit states .................................................................................................................................. 26

7.2.2 Actions ........................................................................................................................................... 28

7.2.3 Principal and companion environmental actions ....................................................... 29

7.2.4 Combinations of actions and partial action factors .................................................... 31

8 Events and actions ............................................................................................................................ 33

8.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 33

8.2 Ice events and actions ............................................................................................................................ 33

8.2.1 General principles for calculating ice actions ............................................................... 33

8.2.2 Representative values of ice actions ................................................................................. 34

8.2.3 Ice events and design situations ......................................................................................... 34

8.2.4 Global ice actions ...................................................................................................................... 35

8.2.5 Local ice actions......................................................................................................................... 37

8.2.6 Dynamic ice actions ................................................................................................................. 37

8.2.7 Operational measures to reduce ice actions .................................................................. 38

8.2.8 Physical and mechanical properties of ice ..................................................................... 38

8.3 Metocean related actions ...................................................................................................................... 39

8.3.1 Metocean actions on structures .......................................................................................... 39

8.3.2 Wave-induced velocity of ice features ............................................................................. 41

8.4 Seismic actions .......................................................................................................................................... 41

8.4.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 41

8.4.2 Companion seismic actions .................................................................................................. 42

8.4.3 Companion ice actions ............................................................................................................ 42

8.4.4 Factors influencing seismic actions and effects ........................................................... 42

8.4.5 Seismic isolation and damping systems .......................................................................... 42

9 Foundation design ............................................................................................................................ 42

9.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 42

9.2 Geotechnical data acquisition and identification of hazards ................................................. 43

9.2.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 43

9.2.2 Marine soil investigations ..................................................................................................... 44

9.2.3 Bathymetry survey ................................................................................................................... 44

9.2.4 Geophysical survey .................................................................................................................. 44

9.3 Representative values of soil properties ........................................................................................ 44

9.4 Design considerations ............................................................................................................................ 45

9.4.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 45

9.4.2 Action factors .............................................................................................................................. 46

9.4.3 Material and resistance factors ........................................................................................... 46

9.4.4 Dynamic action effect analysis ............................................................................................ 46

9.4.5 Ultimate limit states ................................................................................................................. 46

9.4.6 Serviceability limit states ...................................................................................................... 47

9.4.7 Fatigue limit states ................................................................................................................... 47

9.4.8 Abnormal limit states .............................................................................................................. 47

9.4.9 Construction and installation .............................................................................................. 47

9.5 Gravity-based structures ...................................................................................................................... 48

9.5.1 Arctic considerations for foundation design ................................................................. 48

9.5.2 Installation and removal ........................................................................................................ 48

9.6 Piled structures ......................................................................................................................................... 49

9.7 Design of anchors for floating systems ........................................................................................... 49

9.7.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 49

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ISO 19906:2019(E)

9.7.2 Drag anchors ............................................................................................................................... 49

9.7.3 Suction anchors ......................................................................................................................... 50

9.7.4 Piled anchors .............................................................................................................................. 51

9.7.5 Removal ........................................................................................................................................ 51

9.8 Scour ........................................................................................................................................................ 51

9.9 Inspection and performance monitoring ................................................................................. 51

9.10 Seismic analysis ................................................................................................................................... 52

10 Man-made islands ............................................................................................................................. 52

10.1 General .................................................................................................................................................... 52

10.2 Island types ........................................................................................................................................... 52

10.3 Design considerations ...................................................................................................................... 53

10.3.1 General design considerations ............................................................................................ 53

10.3.2 Considerations for man-made islands ............................................................................. 54

10.3.3 Design for ice .............................................................................................................................. 55

10.3.4 Geotechnical considerations ................................................................................................ 56

10.3.5 Coastal engineering ................................................................................................................. 58

10.3.6 Slope protection ........................................................................................................................ 59

10.4 Seismic design ...................................................................................................................................... 60

10.5 Construction ......................................................................................................................................... 61

10.5.1 Operational requirements .................................................................................................... 61

10.5.2 Fill quality control .................................................................................................................... 61

10.5.3 Armour rock quality control ................................................................................................ 62

10.6 Monitoring and maintenance ........................................................................................................ 62

10.6.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 62

10.6.2 Monitoring of the physical environment ........................................................................ 62

10.6.3 Structural monitoring ............................................................................................................. 63

10.6.4 Slope and slope-protection monitoring .......................................................................... 63

10.6.5 Maintenance ............................................................................................................................... 63

10.7 Decommissioning and reclamation ............................................................................................. 63

11 Fixed steel structures ...................................................................................................................... 64

11.1 General .................................................................................................................................................... 64

11.2 General design requirements ........................................................................................................ 64

11.2.1 Plastic design .............................................................................................................................. 64

11.2.2 Resistance factors .................................................................................................................... 64

11.2.3 Fracture control ........................................................................................................................ 64

11.2.4 Temperature effects ................................................................................................................ 65

11.2.5 Damage due to freezing water ............................................................................................ 65

11.3 Structural modelling and analysis ............................................................................................... 65

11.3.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 65

11.3.2 Interactions ................................................................................................................................. 65

11.3.3 Dynamic analysis ...................................................................................................................... 65

11.4 Strength of tubular members and joints ................................................................................... 65

11.5 Strength of stiffened-plate panels................................................................................................ 66

11.6 Strength of steel-concrete composite walls ............................................................................. 66

11.6.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 66

11.6.2 Analysis methods ..................................................................................................................... 67

11.6.3 Material properties .................................................................................................................. 67

11.6.4 Design for out-of-plane actions .......................................................................................... 67

11.6.5 Design for in-plane actions ................................................................................................... 68

11.7 Seismic design ...................................................................................................................................... 69

11.7.1 Framed structures ................................................................................................................... 69

11.7.2 Stiffened-plate structures ..................................................................................................... 69

11.8 Fatigue ..................................................................................................................................................... 69

11.9 Materials, testing and NDT ............................................................................................................. 69

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11.9.1 Material selection ..................................................................................................................... 69

11.9.2 Test temperature ...................................................................................................................... 70

11.9.3 Toughness and NDT ................................................................................................................ 70

11.10 Coatings ............................................................................................................................................... 70

11.11 Corrosion and abrasion protection .......................................................................................... 70

11.11.1 Cathodic protection .............................................................................................................. 70

11.11.2 Ice abrasion .............................................................................................................................. 70

11.11.3 Knife-line corrosion .............................................................................................................. 70

11.12 Welding ................................................................................................................................................ 70

12 Fixed concrete structures .............................................................................................................. 71

12.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................... 71

12.1.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 71

12.1.2 Structural requirements ........................................................................................................ 71

12.1.3 Material requirements ........................................................................................................... 71

12.2 Actions and action effects ............................................................................................................... 71

12.3 Structural analysis ............................................................................................................................. 72

12.3.1 Dynamic analysis ...................................................................................................................... 72

12.3.2 Loss of intended internal pressure ................................................................................... 72

12.3.3 Physical representation ......................................................................................................... 72

12.3.4 Types of analysis ...................................................................................................................... 73

12.3.5 Analysis requirements ........................................................................................................... 73

12.3.6 Seismic design ........................................................................................................................... 74

12.4 Concrete works.................................................................................................................................... 74

12.4.1 Design............................................................................................................................................ 74

12.4.2 Materials ...................................................................................................................................... 77

12.4.3 Execution ..................................................................................................................................... 80

12.5 Mechanical systems ........................................................................................................................... 81

12.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 81

12.5.2 Permanent mechanical systems ......................................................................................... 82

12.5.3 Mechanical systems — Temporary ballasting/deballasting water systems ... 82

12.5.4 Attachments and penetrations ........................................................................................... 82

12.5.5 Mechanical systems — Design of piping supports ..................................................... 82

12.6 Marine operations and construction afloat ............................................................................. 82

12.7 Corrosion control ..........
...

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