Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1: General concepts

This document: a) describes the general principles for data centres upon which the requirements of the ISO/IEC22237 series are based; b) defines the common aspects of data centres including terminology, parameters and reference models (functional elements and their accommodation) addressing both the size and complexity of their intended purpose; c) describes general aspects of the facilities and infrastructures required to support data centres; d) specifies a classification system, based upon the key criteria of “availability”, “security” and “energy-efficiency” over the planned lifetime of the data centre, for the provision of effective facilities and infrastructure; e) details the issues to be addressed in a business risk and operating cost analysis enabling application of the classification of the data centre; f) provides a reference to the operation and management of data centres. The following topics are outside of the scope of the ISO/IEC 22237 series: 1) the selection of information technology and network telecommunications equipment, software and associated configuration issues are outside the scope of this International Standard; 2) quantitative analysis of overall service availability resulting from multi-site data centres; 3) safety and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements (covered by other standards and regulations. However, information given in this document can be of assistance in meeting these standards and regulations).

Technologie de l’information — Installation et infrastructures de centres de traitement de données — Partie 1: Concepts généraux

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Oct-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
05-Oct-2021
Completion Date
05-Oct-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 22237-1
First edition
2021-10
Information technology — Data centre
facilities and infrastructures —
Part 1:
General concepts
Technologie de l’information — Installation et infrastructures de
centres de traitement de données —
Partie 1: Concepts généraux
Reference number
ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
© ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Business risk analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Business impact analysis............................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Risk analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Data centre design overview .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Spaces and facilities ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Classification system for the design of data centre facilities and infrastructures ....................12

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Availability .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

7.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.2 Single-site data centres .............................................................................................................................................12

7.2.3 Multi-site data centres ............................................................................................................................................... 14

7.3 Physical security ................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.2 Protection against unauthorized access .................................................................................................... 15

7.3.3 Protection against intrusion................................................................................................................................. 15

7.3.4 Protection against environmental events ................................................................................................ 15

7.4 Energy efficiency enablement ................................................................................................................................................ 16

7.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

7.4.2 Power distribution system ..................................................................................................................................... 17

7.4.3 Environmental monitoring and control...................................................................................................... 17

7.4.4 Operational processes and KPIs ........................................................................................................................ 17

8 Design and implementation process ...........................................................................................................................................17

8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.2 Design phases ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.2.1 Phase 1 — Strategy ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.2.2 Phase 2 — Objectives .................................................................................................................................................. 18

8.2.3 Phase 3 — System specifications ..................................................................................................................... 19

8.2.4 Phase 4 — Design proposal ................................................................................................................................... 19

8.2.5 Phase 5 — Decision ....................................................................................................................................................... 19

8.2.6 Phase 6 — Functional design ............................................................................................................................... 20

8.2.7 Phase 7 — Approval ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

8.2.8 Phase 8 — Final design and project plan................................................................................................... 20

8.2.9 Phase 9 — Contract ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

8.2.10 Phase 10 — Construction ........................................................................................................................................ 20

8.2.11 Phase 11 — Operation ................................................................................................................................................20

9 Design principles ..............................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.1 Design reference documentation ........................................................................................................................................ 20

9.2 Design principles to support energy efficiency ...................................................................................................... 21

9.3 Design principles for electromagnetic interference .......................................................................................... 21

9.4 Design principles to support operational excellence ........................................................................................ 21

9.5 Design principles for availability, reliability and resilience........................................................................ 21

iii
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)

Annex A (informative) Availability and Reliability ...........................................................................................................................23

Annex B (informative) Availability description ...................................................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 39, Sustainability, IT & Data Centres.

This first edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC TS 22237-1:2018), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes are as follows:

— reference to Key Performance Indicators of ISO/IEC 30134 series has been included;

— Clause 7 (Availability) has been revised;

— the design processes (Clause 8) and design principles (Clause 9) have been moved from an annex to

the main body of the document;
— the existing Annex A has been removed;
— new Annexes A and B have been added.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 22237 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to

an exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres

are housing and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment

for data processing, data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators

(delivering those services to customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres need to provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption

of data centres has become critical, both from an environmental point of view (reduction of carbon

footprint), and with respect to economic considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:
a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting or network operator facilities);
b) security level;
c) physical size; and
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).
NOTE Cloud services can be provided by all data centre types mentioned.

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and

the objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in

terms of building construction, power distribution, environmental control, telecommunications cabling

and physical security. Effective management and operational information are required to monitor

achievement of the defined needs and objectives.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties

involved in the design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of

facilities and infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:

1) owners, operators, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) consultants, architects, building designers and builders, system/installation designers, auditors,

test and commissioning agents;
3) suppliers of equipment; and
4) installers, maintainers.

At the time of publication of this document, the ISO/IEC 22237 series comprises the following

documents:

— ISO/IEC 22237-1 (this document), Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures

— Part 1: General concepts;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2:

Building construction;

— ISO/IEC 22237-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3: Power

distribution;

— ISO/IEC 22237-4, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4:

Environmental control;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-5, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 5:

Telecommunications cabling infrastructure;
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-7: Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 7:

Management and operational information.

The inter-relationship of the specifications within the ISO/IEC 22237 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the ISO/IEC 22237 series of documents

This document, ISO/IEC 22237-1, defines the general concepts for the design and operation of data

centres. This includes a business risk and operational cost analysis as well as a classification system for

data centres with respect to “availability”, “physical security” and “energy efficiency enablement”.

ISO/IEC TS 22237-2 to ISO/IEC TS 22237-6 specify requirements and recommendations for particular

facilities and infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security”

and “energy efficiency enablement” selected from ISO/IEC 22237-1 (this document).

ISO/IEC TS 22237-7 addresses the operational and management information (in accordance with the

requirements of this document).

This document is intended for use by and collaboration between architects, building designers and

builders, system and installation designers.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series does not address the selection of information technology and network

telecommunications equipment, software and associated configuration issues.
vii
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
Information technology — Data centre facilities and
infrastructures —
Part 1:
General concepts
1 Scope
This document:

a) describes the general principles for data centres upon which the requirements of the ISO/IEC 22237

series are based;

b) defines the common aspects of data centres including terminology, parameters and reference

models (functional elements and their accommodation) addressing both the size and complexity of

their intended purpose;

c) describes general aspects of the facilities and infrastructures required to support data centres;

d) specifies a classification system, based upon the key criteria of “availability”, “security” and

“energy-efficiency” over the planned lifetime of the data centre, for the provision of effective

facilities and infrastructure;

e) details the issues to be addressed in a business risk and operating cost analysis enabling application

of the classification of the data centre;
f) provides a reference to the operation and management of data centres.
The following topics are outside of the scope of the ISO/IEC 22237 series:

1) the selection of information technology and network telecommunications equipment, software and

associated configuration issues are outside the scope of this International Standard;

2) quantitative analysis of overall service availability resulting from multi-site data centres;

3) safety and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements (covered by other standards and

regulations. However, information given in this document can be of assistance in meeting these

standards and regulations).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
availability
ability to be in a state to perform as required

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-192:2015, 192-01-23, modified — Note 1 to entry and Note 2 to entry deleted.]

3.1.2
building entrance facility

facility (3.1.16) that provides all necessary services, and which complies with all relevant regulations

for the entry of specific infrastructures (3.1.21) or services into a building
3.1.3
building security

facilities (3.1.16) and systems (3.1.30) necessary to provide the required levels of security at the

entrance to and within the building containing the data centre (3.1.8)
3.1.4
co-hosting data centre

data centre (3.1.8) in which multiple customers are provided with access to network(s), servers and

storage equipment on which they operate their own services/applications

Note 1 to entry: Both the information technology equipment and the support infrastructure (3.1.21) of the

building are provided as a service by the data centre operator.
3.1.5
co-location data centre

data centre (3.1.8) in which multiple customers locate their own network(s), servers and storage

equipment

Note 1 to entry: The support infrastructure (3.1.21) of the building (such as power distribution and environmental

control) is provided as a service by the data centre operator.
3.1.6
computer room space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) that accommodates the data processing, data storage and

telecommunication equipment (3.1.33) that provides the primary function of the data centre

3.1.7
control room space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) used to control the operation of the data centre and to act as a central

point for all control and monitoring functions
3.1.8
data centre

a structure, or group of structures, dedicated to the centralized accommodation, interconnection

and operation of information technology and network telecommunications (3.1.31) equipment

providing data storage, processing and transport services together with all the facilities (3.1.16) and

infrastructures (3.1.21) for power distribution and environmental control together with the necessary

levels of resilience and security required to provide the desired service availability (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: A structure can consist of multiple buildings and/or spaces with specific functions to support the

primary function.

Note 2 to entry: The boundaries of the structure or space considered the data centre, which includes the

information and communication technology equipment and supporting environmental controls, can be defined

within a larger structure or building.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 30134-1:2016, 3.1.4]
3.1.9
data centre security

necessary facilities (3.1.16) and systems (3.1.30) that provide the required levels of security at the

entrance to and within the data centre (3.1.8)
3.1.10
demarcation point
point where the operational control or ownership changes
3.1.11
electrical distribution space

area used for housing facilities to distribute electrical power between the transformer space (3.1.36) and

electrical spaces (3.1.12) within the data centre (3.1.8) or elsewhere within the premises or individual

buildings within the premises
3.1.12
electrical space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) used for housing facilities (3.1.16) to deliver and control electrical

power to the data centre spaces (including switchboards, batteries, uninterruptible power systems

(3.1.37) (UPS), etc.)
3.1.13
enterprise data centre

data centre (3.1.8) that is operated by an enterprise which has the sole purpose of the delivery and

management of services to its employees and customers
3.1.14
external premises security

facilities (3.1.16) and systems (3.1.30) that provide the required levels of security for the area between

the building and the boundary of the premises
3.1.15
energy efficiency enablement

ability to measure the energy consumption and to allow calculation and reporting of energy efficiency

of the various facilities (3.1.16) and infrastructures (3.1.21)
3.1.16
facility
spaces and pathways that accommodate a specific infrastructure (3.1.21)
3.1.17
functional capability

ability of the data centre (3.1.8) (or system (3.1.30) or sub-system) to deliver its intended function

3.1.18
functional element
source of supply, device or path
3.1.19
generator space

area used for housing the installation of electrical power supply generation equipment together with

control systems (3.1.30), storage of associated fuels or energy conversion equipment

3.1.20
holding space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) used for the holding of equipment prior to being brought into service

or having been taken out of service
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
3.1.21
infrastructure

technical systems (3.1.30) providing functional capability (3.1.17) of the data centre (3.1.8)

Note 1 to entry: Examples are power distribution, environmental control and physical security (3.1.25).

3.1.22
main distributor

distributor used to make connections between the main distribution cabling subsystem, network

access cabling subsystem and cabling subsystems and active equipment

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11801-5:2017, 3.1.11, modified — removed “as specified in ISO/IEC 11801-1”.]

3.1.23
mechanical space

area that is used for housing mechanical equipment and infrastructure (3.1.21) that provides

environmental control for the data centre (3.1.8) spaces (including chillers and water treatment, air

handling and fire suppression systems [3.1.30])
3.1.24
network operator data centre

data centre (3.1.8) that has the primary purpose of the delivery and management of broadband services

to the operator's customers
3.1.25
physical security

measures (combining physical and technological controls), procedures and responsibilities to maintain

the desired level of availability (3.1.1) for the facilities (3.1.16) and infrastructures (3.1.21) of the data

centres (3.1.8) in relation to access control and environmental events
3.1.26
planned downtime

period of time during which a system (3.1.30) or sub-system does not provide functional capability

(3.1.17) whilst it undergoes maintenance or is switched off to test the response of a related system or

sub-system
3.1.27
premises entrance facility

facility (3.1.16) that provides all necessary services, and which complies with all relevant regulations,

for the entry of specific infrastructures (3.1.21) or services into premises
3.1.28
reliability

ability to perform as required, without failure, for a given time interval, under given conditions

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-192:2015, 192-01-24, modified — Note 1 to entry to Note 3 to entry deleted.]

3.1.29
storage space

secured area where general goods and/or data centre (3.1.8) goods to be used in the premises and data

centre are stored
3.1.30
system

set of interrelated functional elements (3.1.18) considered in a defined context as a whole and separated

from their environment
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021(E)
3.1.31
telecommunications

branch of technology concerned with the transmission, emission, and reception of signs, signals, writing,

images, and sounds, that is, information of any nature by cable, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic

systems (3.1.30)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11801-1:2017, 3.1.51, modified.]
3.1.32
telecommunications cabling

infrastructure (3.1.21) from the telecommunications space(s) (3.1.34) to the premises entrance facility

(3.1.27)
3.1.33
telecommunication equipment

equipment within the data centre (3.1.8) that provides telecommunication services within the data

centre
3.1.34
telecommunications space

area which may house demarcation points (3.1.10) and telecommunication equipment (3.1.33) associated

with the building entrance facility (3.1.2) and which may allow service providers restricted access to the

data centre (3.1.8)
3.1.35
testing space
area within the data centre (3.1.8) used for the testing and configuring of equ
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
22237-1
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 39
Information technology — Data centre
Secretariat: ANSI
facilities and infrastructures —
Voting begins on:
2021-07-05
Part 1:
Voting terminates on:
General concepts
2021-08-30
Technologie de l’information — Installation et infrastructures de
centres de traitement de données —
Partie 1: Concepts généraux
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Business risk analysis ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Business impact analysis ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.3 Risk analysis .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Data centre design overview .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Spaces and facilities ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7 Classification system for the design of data centre facilities and infrastructures ........................12

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Availability ...............................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.2 Single-site data centres ...........................................................................................................................................12

7.2.3 Multi-site data centres .............................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Physical security .................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.2 Protection against unauthorized access ...................................................................................................15

7.3.3 Protection against intrusion ...............................................................................................................................15

7.3.4 Protection against environmental events ...............................................................................................15

7.4 Energy efficiency enablement .................................................................................................................................................16

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.4.2 Power distribution system ...................................................................................................................................17

7.4.3 Environmental monitoring and control ....................................................................................................17

7.4.4 Operational processes and KPIs ......................................................................................................................17

8 Design and implementation process ............................................................................................................................................17

8.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Design phases........................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.1 Phase 1 — Strategy .....................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.2 Phase 2 — Objectives ................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.3 Phase 3 — System specifications ....................................................................................................................19

8.2.4 Phase 4 — Design proposal .................................................................................................................................19

8.2.5 Phase 5 — Decision ....................................................................................................................................................19

8.2.6 Phase 6 — Functional design .............................................................................................................................20

8.2.7 Phase 7 — Approval ...................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.8 Phase 8 — Final design and project plan .................................................................................................20

8.2.9 Phase 9 — Contract ....................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.10 Phase 10 — Construction ......................................................................................................................................20

8.2.11 Phase 11 — Operation .............................................................................................................................................20

9 Design principles ..............................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.1 Design reference documentation .........................................................................................................................................20

9.2 Design principles to support energy efficiency .......................................................................................................21

9.3 Design principles for electromagnetic interference ............................................................................................21

9.4 Design principles to support operational excellence ..........................................................................................21

9.5 Design principles for availability, reliability and resilience ..........................................................................21

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)

Annex A (informative) Availability and Reliability .............................................................................................................................23

Annex B (informative) Availability description .....................................................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 39, Sustainability, IT & Data Centres.

This first edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC TS 22237-1:2018), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— reference to Key Performance Indicators of ISO/IEC 30134 series has been included;

— Clause 7 (Availability) has been revised;

— the design processes (Clause 8) and design principles (Clause 9) have been moved from an annex to

the main body of the document;
— the existing Annex A has been removed;
— new Annexes A and B have been added.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 22237 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to

an exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres

are housing and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment

for data processing, data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators

(delivering those services to customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres need to provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption

of data centres has become critical, both from an environmental point of view (reduction of carbon

footprint), and with respect to economic considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:
a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting or network operator facilities);
b) security level;
c) physical size; and
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).
NOTE Cloud services can be provided by all data centre types mentioned.

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and

the objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in

terms of building construction, power distribution, environmental control, telecommunications cabling

and physical security. Effective management and operational information are required to monitor

achievement of the defined needs and objectives.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties

involved in the design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of

facilities and infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:

1) owners, operators, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) consultants, architects, building designers and builders, system/installation designers, auditors,

test and commissioning agents;
3) suppliers of equipment; and
4) installers, maintainers.

At the time of publication of this document, the ISO/IEC 22237 series comprises the following

documents:

— ISO/IEC 22237-1 (this document), Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures

— Part 1: General concepts;

— ISO/IEC/TS 22237-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2:

Building construction;

— ISO/IEC 22237-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3: Power

distribution;

— ISO/IEC 22237-4, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4:

Environmental control;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-5, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 5:

Telecommunications cabling infrastructure;
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-7: Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 7:

Management and operational information.

The inter-relationship of the specifications within the ISO/IEC 22237 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the ISO/IEC 22237 series of documents

This document, ISO/IEC 22237-1, defines the general concepts for the design and operation of data

centres. This includes a business risk and operational cost analysis as well as a classification system for

data centres with respect to “availability”, “physical security” and “energy efficiency enablement”.

ISO/IEC TS 22237-2 to ISO/IEC TS 22237-6 specify requirements and recommendations for particular

facilities and infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security”

and “energy efficiency enablement” selected from ISO/IEC 22237-1 (this document).

ISO/IEC TS 22237-7 addresses the operational and management information (in accordance with the

requirements of this document).

This document is intended for use by and collaboration between architects, building designers and

builders, system and installation designers.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series does not address the selection of information technology and network

telecommunications equipment, software and associated configuration issues.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
Information technology — Data centre facilities and
infrastructures —
Part 1:
General concepts
1 Scope
This document:

a) describes the general principles for data centres upon which the requirements of the ISO/IEC 22237

series are based;

b) defines the common aspects of data centres including terminology, parameters and reference

models (functional elements and their accommodation) addressing both the size and complexity of

their intended purpose;

c) describes general aspects of the facilities and infrastructures required to support data centres;

d) specifies a classification system, based upon the key criteria of “availability”, “security” and

“energy-efficiency” over the planned lifetime of the data centre, for the provision of effective

facilities and infrastructure;

e) details the issues to be addressed in a business risk and operating cost analysis enabling application

of the classification of the data centre;
f) provides a reference to the operation and management of data centres.
The following topics are outside of the scope of the ISO/IEC 22237 series:

1) the selection of information technology and network telecommunications equipment, software and

associated configuration issues are outside the scope of this International Standard;

2) quantitative analysis of overall service availability resulting from multi-site data centres;

3) safety and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements (covered by other standards and

regulations. However, information given in this document can be of assistance in meeting these

standards and regulations).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC/TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
availability
ability to be in a state to perform as required

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-192:2015, 192-01-23, modified — Note 1 to entry and Note 2 to entry deleted.]

3.1.2
building entrance facility

facility (3.1.16) that provides all necessary services, and which complies with all relevant regulations

for the entry of specific infrastructures (3.1.21) or services into a building
3.1.3
building security

facilities (3.1.16) and systems (3.1.30) necessary to provide the required levels of security at the

entrance to and within the building containing the data centre (3.1.8)
3.1.4
co-hosting data centre

data centre (3.1.8) in which multiple customers are provided with access to network(s), servers and

storage equipment on which they operate their own services/applications

Note 1 to entry: Both the information technology equipment and the support infrastructure (3.1.21) of the

building are provided as a service by the data centre operator.
3.1.5
co-location data centre

data centre (3.1.8) in which multiple customers locate their own network(s), servers and storage

equipment

Note 1 to entry: The support infrastructure (3.1.21) of the building (such as power distribution and environmental

control) is provided as a service by the data centre operator.
3.1.6
computer room space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) that accommodates the data processing, data storage and

telecommunication equipment (3.1.33) that provides the primary function of the data centre

3.1.7
control room space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) used to control the operation of the data centre and to act as a central

point for all control and monitoring functions
3.1.8
data centre

a structure, or group of structures, dedicated to the centralized accommodation, interconnection

and operation of information technology and network telecommunications (3.1.31) equipment

providing data storage, processing and transport services together with all the facilities (3.1.16) and

infrastructures (3.1.21) for power distribution and environmental control together with the necessary

levels of resilience and security required to provide the desired service availability (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: A structure can consist of multiple buildings and/or spaces with specific functions to support the

primary function.

Note 2 to entry: The boundaries of the structure or space considered the data centre, which includes the

information and communication technology equipment and supporting environmental controls, can be defined

within a larger structure or building.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 30134-1:2016, 3.1.4]
3.1.9
data centre security

necessary facilities (3.1.16) and systems (3.1.30) that provide the required levels of security at the

entrance to and within the data centre (3.1.8)
3.1.10
demarcation point
point where the operational control or ownership changes
3.1.11
electrical distribution space

area used for housing facilities to distribute electrical power between the transformer space (3.1.36) and

electrical spaces (3.1.12) within the data centre (3.1.8) or elsewhere within the premises or individual

buildings within the premises
3.1.12
electrical space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) used for housing facilities (3.1.16) to deliver and control electrical

power to the data centre spaces (including switchboards, batteries, uninterruptible power systems

(3.1.37) (UPS), etc.)
3.1.13
enterprise data centre

data centre (3.1.8) that is operated by an enterprise which has the sole purpose of the delivery and

management of services to its employees and customers
3.1.14
external premises security

facilities (3.1.16) and systems (3.1.30) that provide the required levels of security for the area between

the building and the boundary of the premises
3.1.15
energy efficiency enablement

ability to measure the energy consumption and to allow calculation and reporting of energy efficiency

of the various facilities (3.1.16) and infrastructures (3.1.21)
3.1.16
facility
spaces and pathways that accommodate a specific infrastructure (3.1.21)
3.1.17
functional capability

ability of the data centre (3.1.8) (or system (3.1.30) or sub-system) to deliver its intended function

3.1.18
functional element
source of supply, device or path
3.1.19
generator space

area used for housing the installation of electrical power supply generation equipment together with

control systems (3.1.30), storage of associated fuels or energy conversion equipment

3.1.20
holding space

area within the data centre (3.1.8) used for the holding of equipment prior to being brought into service

or having been taken out of service
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
3.1.21
infrastructure

technical systems (3.1.30) providing functional capability (3.1.17) of the data centre (3.1.8)

Note 1 to entry: Examples are power distribution, environmental control and physical security (3.1.25).

3.1.22
main distributor

distributor used to make connections between the main distribution cabling subsystem, network

access cabling subsystem and cabling subsystems and active equipment

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 11801-5:2017, 3.1.11, modified — removed “as specified in ISO/IEC 11801-1”.]

3.1.23
mechanical space

area that is used for housing mechanical equipment and infrastructure (3.1.21) that provides

environmental control for the data centre (3.1.8) spaces (including chillers and water treatment, air

handling and fire suppression systems [3.1.30])
3.1.24
network operator data centre

data centre (3.1.8) that has the primary purpose of the delivery and management of broadband services

to the operator's customers
3.1.25
physical security

measures (combining physical and technological controls), procedures and responsibilities to maintain

the desired level of availability (3.1.1) for the facilities (3.1.16) and infrastructures (3.1.21) of the data

centres (3.1.8) in relation to access control and environmental events
3.1.26
planned downtime

period of time during which a system (3.1.30) or sub-system does not provide functional capability

(3.1.17) whilst it undergoes maintenance or is switched off to test the response of a related system or

sub-system
3.1.27
premises entrance facility

facility (3.1.16) that provides all necessary services, and which complies with all relevant regulations,

for the entry of specific infrastructures (3.1.21) or services into premises
3.1.28
reliability

ability to perform as required, without failure, for a given time interval, under given conditions

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-192:2015, 192-01-24, modified — Note 1 to entry to Note 3 to entry deleted.]

3.1.29
storage space

secured area where general goods and/or data centre (3.1.8) goods to be used in the premises and data

centre are stored
3.1.30
system

set of interrelated functional elements (3.1.18) considered in a defined context as a whole and separated

from their environment
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021(E)
3.1.31
telecommunications

branch of technology concerned with the transmission, emission, and reception of signs, signals, writing,

images, and sounds, that is, information of any nature by cable, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic

systems (3.1.30)
[SOURCE: IS
...

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