Public transport — Interoperable fare management system — Part 2: Business practices

ISO/TR 24014-2:2013 introduces a generic conceptual framework that can be applied to all Interoperable Fare Management Systems (IFMS) compliant with ISO 24014-1, as the basis for business practices relating to the conceptual framework for an IFMS, which is described in ISO 24014-1. This generic conceptual framework comprises three parts: structure of Set of Rules; collaboration of functional models; integration of Set of Rules.

Transport public — Système de gestion tarifaire interopérable — Partie 2: Pratiques commerciales

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Publication Date
06-Aug-2013
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6060 - International Standard published
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 24014-2
First edition
2013-08-15
Public transport — Interoperable fare
management system —
Part 2:
Business practices
Transport public — Système de gestion tarifaire interopérable —
Partie 2: Pratiques commerciales
Reference number
ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
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© ISO 2013

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ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Structure of Set of Rules ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 Classification of Set of Rules ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2 A table form of Set of Rules .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Structure of core part of Set of Rules ................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Structure of extra part of Set of Rules ................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5 Transforming structure of Set of Rules into business entities ....................................................................... 5

6 Three Dimensional Model in collaboration among functional models .......................................................7

6.1 Collaboration among functional models ........................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Three Dimensional Model ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Three Dimensional Model for IFMS ...................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Three Dimensional Model for IFMS and non-PT system .................................................................................11

7 Integration of Set of Rules ........................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Integration of Set of Rules and Interoperable States ..........................................................................................13

7.2 Migration Paths to expanding Interoperability .......................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Example of Set of Rules with Structure .............................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Classifications of rules in Set of Rules in Part 1 and Part 2 ..........................................22

Annex C (informative) European example of multiple functional models collaboration and their

migration paths ..................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from

that which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may

decide by a simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical

Report is entirely informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are

considered to be no longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 24014-2 was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 278, Road transport and traffic telematics, in collaboration with Technical Committee

ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This first edition of ISO/TR 24014-2, together with ISO/TR 24014-3:2013 and the future second edition

of ISO 24014-1, will cancel and replace ISO 24014-1:2007.

ISO 24014 consists of the following parts, under the general title Public transport — Interoperable fare

management system:
— Part 1: Architecture
— Part 2: Business practices [Technical Report]
— Part 3: Multi-application media [Technical Report]
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
Introduction

ISO 24014-1 defines the reference functional model of an Interoperable Fare Management System

(hereafter IFM functional model). The scope of ISO 24014-1 excludes irrelevant aspects related to

interoperability, particularly organizational and physical implementation.

Among the matters that are outside the scope and not clearly or concretely described in ISO 24014-1, this

Technical Report provides a conceptual framework to guide the integration of such business practices,

which is important when constructing an IFMS compliant with ISO 24014-1

For this purpose, this Technical Report provides a conceptual framework that is described below.

ISO 24014-1 states that a full IFMS is described by its functional model of IFMS and its Set of Rules. Therefore,

Set of Rules is one of the necessary components to understand the full or whole IFMS environment.

However, ISO 24014-1:2007 is limited in description, only addressing Set of Rules in addition to some

security and identification rules specifically stated as “… regulations achieving IFM policies expressed as

technical, commercial, security and legal requirements and standards relevant to only IFMS.”

The objective of this Technical Report then is to aid readers in their understanding of the whole structure

of Set of Rules by concretely clarifying the relationship with IFM functional model.

In the introduction of ISO 24014-1, it is noted that there may be cases where multiple existing IFMSs

work together collaboratively while distributing their functions across the different IFMSs. Specifically,

these cases that consider integrating/distributing functions between existing IFMSs are one of the

most effective ways of implementing and expanding the interoperability of existing IFMSs. However,

there are no concrete descriptions about the interoperability of multiple existing IFMSs, because, from

the viewpoint of ISO 24014-1, multiple existing IFMSs that achieve interoperability are functionally

considered as a single IFMS.

This Technical Report clarifies how interoperability that is realized among multiple existing IFMSs or

expanded to them can be understood from both IFM functional model and Set of Rules viewpoints.

Further, this Technical Report explains how cases of collaboration, in which IFM functional model

and functional model of non public transport applications are involved, can be interpreted from the

viewpoint of IFM functional model.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
Public transport — Interoperable fare management
system —
Part 2:
Business practices
1 Scope

This Technical Report introduces a generic conceptual framework that can be applied to all Interoperable

Fare Management Systems (hereafter IFMS) compliant with ISO 24014-1, as the basis for business

practices relating to the conceptual framework for an IFMS, which is described in ISO 24014-1.

This generic conceptual framework comprises three parts:
a) structure of Set of Rules;
b) collaboration of functional models;
c) integration of Set of Rules.

A “Structure of Set of Rules” is applied to Set of Rules covering the whole domain of IFMS functionality

in all aspects of a system including
— a structure based upon IFM-roles in the domain of IFM functional model,

— a structure based upon roles, abstract objects performing a set of functions, in all IFM domains, and

— a structure based upon business entities in all IFM domains.

These structures provide a method to easily understand the Structure of Set of Rules as a whole.

Collaboration of functional models is applied when different functional models that collaborate exist,

such as might be defined by the coexistence of applications on a medium, between functional models

of existing IFMS, or between IFM functional model and functional model of a non-PT system. Such

relationships are best explained and understood from the viewpoint of a three-dimensional model as

defined in Clause 6.

“Integration of Set of Rules” is applied to clarify the extent of interoperability that may exist between

existing IFMSs which are collaborating by quantifying the integration of Set of Rules based upon

“Structure of Set of Rules”.

This Technical Report is used as a tool for business practices. Any organizational references and concrete

descriptions in examples within this Technical Report are purely informative.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24014-1, Public transport — Interoperable fare management system — Part 1: Architecture

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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24014-1 and the following apply.

3.1
core part of set of rules

rules relating to only IFM-roles and the use cases defined in ISO 24014-1, which defines the functions of

a fare management system relating to interoperability
3.2
extra part of set of rules

rules including IFM-partners/IFM-silent-partners and other use cases except use cases defined in

ISO 24014-1, which work to decide serviceability of an IFMS and do not affect interoperability of the system

3.3
full IFM functional model
functional model played by all IFM-roles and IFM-partners

Note 1 to entry: See 6.1 for the relationship among full IFM functional model, extra IFM functional model and IFM

functional model.
3.4
extra IFM functional model
difference between full IFM functional model and IFM functional model
3.5
IFM functional model
functional model defined in ISO 24014-1
3.6
IFM-partner

role resides in the outside of IFM functional model, and performs a set of interactive fumctions in a

functional model/use cases
3.7
IFM-role
role within the IFM
Note 1 to entry: Corresponds to the definition of “entity” in ISO 24014-1:2007.
3.8
IFM-silent-partner

role resides in the outside of IFM functional model, and does not perform a set of interactive functions

in a functional model/use cases
3.9
management IFM-role
IFM-role played by security manager and registrar for administrating IFMs
3.10
non-PT-role
role within non-public transport systems
3.11
operational IFM-role

IFM-role played by product owner, product retailer, application retailer, collection and forwarding,

service operator, application owner, customer service, and customer related to PT daily operation

3.12
serviceability

level of functionality of a fare management system apart from interoperability such as kinds of payment

means, kinds of medium, methods of acquiring medium
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
IFMSs Interoperable Fare Management Systems
PT Public Transport
5 Structure of Set of Rules
5.1 Classification of Set of Rules

Set of Rules is defined in ISO 24014-1:2007 as “regulations achieving IFM policies expressed as technical,

commercial, security and legal requirements and standards relevant to only IFMS”. IFM Policy described

by Set of Rules defines all the functionality of IFMS, and thus all the conditions necessary for constructing

IFMS can be understood through Structure of Set of Rules. Therefore, the concept of Structure of Set

of Rules gives PT stakeholders a guideline from which to draw the whole picture of IFMS, currently

configured or as planned, compliant with ISO 24014-1.

Core part of Set of Rules is the subset of Set of Rules, which defines functions related to interoperability in a

functional IFMS. From the viewpoint of existing IFMSs, the structure of core part of Set of Rules is a useful

concept when integration or distribution of core part of Set of Rules is done to realize interoperability

among existing fare management systems. (See Clause 7 and ISO 24014-1:2007, Annex B, Figure B.4.)

Extra part of Set of Rules, also a subset of Set of Rules, is outside of the core part of Set of Rules. It defines

the contents of each element related to serviceability, such as payment options and accepted media.

From the viewpoint of multiple functional model collaboration, which is introduced in 6.1 for functional

models outside public transport area, the structure of extra part of Set of Rules is a necessary concept

for harmonization of services in collaboration with multiple functional models.
5.2 A table form of Set of Rules

In order to clearly show the structure of Set of Rules, a table form is proposed as a way of describing Set

of Rules. In Figure 1, the columns represent the IFM-roles and the rows represent the Use Cases defined

in ISO 24014-1. Based upon IFM-roles and the Use Cases, and by properties of rules, each rule can be

identified, defined and related. The following table form represents Structure of Set of Rules with three

characteristics of each rule: related Use Cases, related roles and related properties.

Figure 1 — Concept model of table form of Set of Rules
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
In ISO 24014-1, the following definitions are included:

— Pricing Rules: rules defining the price and payment relationships to the customer.

— Commercial Rules: rules defining the settlement and commission within the IFMS.

The description of a structure of Set of Rules in the table form makes it possible to easily relate specific

rules to IFM-roles and vice versa. For example, if IFM-roles are selected, rules that should be applied to

relevant IFM-roles can be known. If rules are sorted out by transit properties such as being related to

pricing, commercial, regulatory or others, all the relevant rules can be systematically known, which are

required by implementing transit properties.

The description of the structure of Set of Rules in the table form does not mean simply grouping of rules,

but showing a process of making rules in compliance with IFM functional model. Rules identify which

IFM-roles are subject to the rules and how such IFM-roles are related to each other. The structure of Set

of Rules gives a guide to making a real Set of Rules to PT stakeholders, and helps them to understand

an IFMS through analysing the existing Set of Rules. The structure of Set of Rules is a tool to aid in the

process of relating rules with roles.
5.3 Structure of core part of Set of Rules

IFM-roles and Use Cases necessary for making core part of Set of Rules are given by ISO 24014-1. As

explained in 5.2, in the concept model of the table form of core part of Set of Rules (see Figure 1), from the

viewpoint of each rule, the columns are IFM-roles that are governed by appropriate rules, and the rows are

the Use Cases to which the rule is applied. The cross points contain individual rules that are subdivided

into the properties of the rules, such as, pricing, commercial, regulatory, technical, privacy, and trust.

A generic table for applying core part of Set of Rules when used as a template is expanded as shown in

Figure 2. In this generic table, a row representing an instance of the Use Cases is subdivided into its

properties. At the cross points of the columns and the rows, concrete rules are described, relating Use

Cases defined in ISO 24014-1 and IFM-roles specific to a property category.
Figure 2 — Generic table form of Set of Rules

As guidance for actually making a table form of core part of Set of Rules, a table form addressing Use

Cases of Product is described in Annex A.
5.4 Structure of extra part of Set of Rules

Roles which are outside IFMS Functional model, even if they have functions relating to IFMS, are not

described in ISO 24014-1, because from the interoperability point of view of functional IFMS, they need

not be considered. However, these roles have to be considered from serviceability point of view.

These roles are categorized by attributes into two types. One is a role which has an interactive relationship

with IFM-roles and becomes an Actor in Use Cases defined in ISO 24014-1. This role actively performs a

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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)

set of functions of implementing serviceability of an IFMS in cooperation with IFM-roles, and if necessary

in collaboration with roles outside the IFMS. This is called IFM-partner. Full IFM functional model, the

functional model including serviceability, which defines functions of IFM apart from interoperability, is

described as interactive relationships among IFM-roles and IFM-partners.

The other is a role which must obey rules created by interactive relationships among IFM-roles and IFM-

partners. Therefore, the role is a party governed by Set of Rules, but is not a player in full IFM functional

model. This is called IFM-silent-partner.

As IFM-partners and IFM-silent-partners are also roles as well as being characterized by their IFM-roles,

the description of the structure of extra part of Set of Rules should be designed in a similar form to the

structure of core part of Set of Rules. The table form is expanded from core part of Set of Rules with

addition of columns of IFM-partners/IFM-silent-partners. This table presents Set of Rules for the whole

IFM functions. In this table, relationships about serviceability applied to non-PT systems can be contained.

The table form of Set of Rules expanded into the whole IFMS functionality is given in Figure 3. Additional

use cases may be required depending on the IFMS functionality.
Figure 3 — Extension of table form with IFM-partners/IFM-silent-partners
5.5 Transforming structure of Set of Rules into business entities

In an existing IFMS, objects responsible for rules are not roles but are business entities within real

organizations. To make the table form of Set of Rules a practical guideline to construct an IFMS, a

transformation from roles to business entities should be provided.

Figure 4 explains a way of transforming a table from roles to business entities. The following should be

noted when the table form of Set of Rules with business entities is created.

— One role may correspond to multiple business entities and one business entity may correspond to

multiple roles.

— The correspondence between roles and business entities may be different from Use Case to Use

Case. Therefore, this correspondence table may be specific for each Use Case.

— Each allocation of roles to business entities may differ from one existing IFMS to another.

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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
Figure 4 — Transformation table from functional to business entities

According to this concept, Figure 5 is created as the table form of the whole Set of Rules, including core

part and extra part, by applying correspondence of business entities with roles. The table form of the

whole Set of Rules useful for business practice can be obtained after filling out the table in Figure 5 for

all the Use Cases.

By sorting the rules of all the tables shown in Figure 5, in relation to a specific business entity, there will

be a subset of Set of Rules by which each entity is governed. This will be done for each business entity.

By sorting rules according to the property of rules, such as Pricing, Commercial, etc., the subset of Set of

Rules required to implement policies which relate to each property can be systematically determined.

Figure 5 — Transforming into a final form
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
6 Three Dimensional Model in collaboration among functional models
6.1 Collaboration among functional models

For expanding interoperability, there are cases where multiple existing IFMSs work together by

integrating/distributing the functions within them, such as:
— multiple applications (PT applications) are loaded on a single medium;

— existing IFMSs make own Products (PT products) usable on Applications of other existing IFMSs.

In these cases, there are collaborations between corresponding functional models of existing IFMSs for

related applications.

When IFMS Applications and non-PT applications are loaded on a single medium, there may be cases

where the related applications jointly achieve some serviceability. Even in these cases, there are

collaborations between full IFM functional model and the corresponding functional model for non-PT

applications.

The situations described above are called multiple functional models collaboration.

Multiple functional model collaboration is an effective way to realize and improve both interoperability

and serviceability. At the same time, this kind of collaboration can take any form of patterns. And in

case of non-PT functional models, the domains where collaborations can happen between the full IFM

functional model and non-PT functional model may differ depending upon the corresponding to a set of

functional models. Therefore, a tool to understand in a general way these kinds of collaborations is very

useful in addressing business practices.

NOTE The domain for the structure of Set of Rules, which is the whole IFMS domain, and the domain for

full IFM functional model do not necessarily coincide. As described in 5.4, in the former domain, IFM-roles, IFM-

partners, and IFM-silent-partner are involved parties. In the latter domain, only IFM-roles and IFM-partners are

involved (See Figure 6).
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)

Figure 6 — Relationships among roles and functional models within multiple functional model

collaboration
6.2 Three Dimensional Model
6.2.1 Concept of Three Dimensional Model

In this section, a Three Dimensional Model (TDM) is introduced as a tool to understand functional

structure of mutual relationship for collaboration among multiple functional models. In the TDM, each

functional model in multiple functional models collaboration is placed in a three dimensional space as

a detached plane, so that the collaboration among functional models can be understood as a graphical

relationship of functional models represented by planes in the three dimensional space and their

intersection.

IFM functional model is described by the IFM-roles and their mutual relationship. Full IFM functional

model can be described by the same elements (IFM-roles/IFM-partners and their mutual relationship)

as in the case of IFM functional model. Therefore, it would be appropriate in the TDM to describe mutual

relationships among respective functional models in multiple functional models collaboration as a set of

mutual relationship of the roles in the functional models.
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)
6.2.2 Usefulness of Three Dimensional Model

By virtue of the following two viewpoints, in the TDM, multiple functional models collaboration

environment can be understood from many perspectives without changing involved functional models:

— TDM gives a dynamic view to understand multiple functional models collaboration as the relationship

between IFM-roles/IFM-partners in existing IFMSs. And the TDM also gives the same view for the

relationship between IFM-roles/IFM-partners and non-PT-roles.

— By seeing each functional model as a plane, the necessary functions for realizing multiple functional

models collaboration, of IFM-roles/IFM-partners in existing IFMSs and non-PT-roles, can be determined.

6.3 Three Dimensional Model for IFMS
6.3.1 Characteristics of TDM for IFMS

An Application of existing IFMS is mapped on IFM functional model due to ISO 24014-1. For this reason, IFM

functional models of the existing IFMSs in multiple functional models collaboration can be drawn as multiple

functional models which share the same domain, but are placed within different planes (see Figure 7).

Figure 7 — IFM functional models of existing IFMS in a three dimensional space sharing the

same domain
6.3.2 TDM for functional model of existing IFMSs

Collaboration between functional models for existing IFMSs is explained from the mutual relationship

point of view.
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ISO/TR 24014-2:2013(E)

IFM functional model defines the interoperability of the IFMS. For making multiple existing FMSs

interoperable, at least the function of IFM-roles in existing IFMSs corresponding to Management IFM-

roles should be unified, though implementation of the function may be distributed within corresponding

roles in the existing IFMS.

Mutual relationship between IFM-roles in existing IFMSs corresponding to the operational IFM-roles

can be in any form and levels, such as, from an integration of Set of Rules to a sharing of whole or part

of functions performed by a business entity. Also, an integration of Set of Rules and a sharing business

entity co-exist in a mutual relationship for an IFM-role (see Figure 8).
Figure 8 — Combination of mutual relationship
6.3.3 FM Functional model and TDM for functional model of existing IFMSs

By mapping functional models of multiple existing IFMSs and their mutual relationship among IFM-

roles in existing IFMSs onto a two dimensional plane, they can be reduced to a single IFM functional

model. For this reason, multiple existing IFMSs which are interoperable can be seen as one IFMS from a

function
...

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