Leather -- Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in leather

This document specifies a chromatographic method to determine the amount of middle-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) C14 to C17 in processed and unprocessed leathers.

Cuir -- Dosage des hydrocarbures chlorés dans le cuir

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-May-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
07-Apr-2021
Completion Date
06-Apr-2021
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 18219-2:2021 - Leather -- Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in leather
English language
15 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:Version 05-feb-2021 - Leather -- Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in leather
English language
15 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18219-2
IULTCS
IUC 30-2
First edition
2021-05
Leather — Determination of
chlorinated hydrocarbons in
leather —
Part 2:
Chromatographic method for middle-
chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs)
Cuir — Dosage des hydrocarbures chlorés dans le cuir —
Partie 2: Méthode chromatographique pour les paraffines chlorées à
chaîne moyenne (PCCM)
Reference numbers
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

8 Sample preparation and analysis ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

8.1 Preparation of MCCPs calibration solution (50 µg/ml) with 55 % chlorination degree ........ 2

8.2 Extraction of leather ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.3 Sulfuric acid clean-up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8.4 GC-ECNI-MS Determination ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

9 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

9.1 Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

9.2 Ions used for quantification ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

9.3 Interference to MCCPs determination ................................................................................................................................ 3

9.4 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

9.5 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (informative) Gas chromatographic (GC-ECNI-MS) analysis operating parameters ...................6

Annex B (informative) Liquid chromatographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis operating parameters ................8

Annex C (informative) Integration with peak shape evaluation (PSE) with GC-ECNI-MS ...........................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the Chemical Test Commission of the International Union of Leather

Technologists and Chemists Societies (IUC Commission, IULTCS) in collaboration with the European

Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 289, Leather, the secretariat of

which is held by UNI, in accordance with the agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

IULTCS, originally formed in 1897, is a world-wide organization of professional leather societies to

further the advancement of leather science and technology. IULTCS has three Commissions, which

are responsible for establishing international methods for the sampling and testing of leather. ISO

recognizes IULTCS as an international standardizing body for the preparation of test methods for

leather.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Introduction

Middle-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) are a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons with a

carbon chain length of 14 to 17, and a chlorine content range of 40 % to 70 %. MCCPs are expected to

be persistent and bioaccumulative in the environment, based on their similar chemical and physical

properties to short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs).

The analysis of chlorinated paraffins is a challenge. The technical compounds are mixtures of up to 200

congeners with different chain lengths and degrees of chlorination. GC chromatograms of these complex

mixtures typically show a lot of overlapping peaks that can be difficult to separate. In particular, the

responses to the various chlorination degrees can vary over a large range.

In addition, the presence of sulfochlorinated paraffins and equivalent chain-length chloroalkenes in

such technical compounds can cause interference.

This document describes a procedure to compare the chromatogram results for MCCPs compounds from

a test sample with the chromatogram results of a defined calibration standard of the most typically

used mixture (55 % chlorination for MCCPs). With this GC-ECNI-MS (gas chromatography negative ion

chemical ionization mass spectrometry) procedure it uses four ion traces for identifying the MCCPs.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Leather — Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in
leather —
Part 2:
Chromatographic method for middle-chain chlorinated
paraffins (MCCPs)
1 Scope

This document specifies a chromatographic method to determine the amount of middle-chain

chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) C to C in processed and unprocessed leathers.
14 17
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2418, Leather — Chemical, physical and mechanical and fastness tests — Sampling location

ISO 4044, Leather — Chemical tests — Preparation of chemical test samples
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Principle

The test sample is extracted using n-hexane at 60 °C in an ultrasonic bath for 60 min. After a sulfuric

acid clean-up, an aliquot is then analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective

detector with chemical ionization (GC-ECNI-MS).

A liquid chromatography system single quad (LC-MS) or with triple quad mass spectrometry (LC-

MS/MS), as described in Annex B, can also be used if the user has demonstrated that the accuracy of

measurement is equivalent to that of the GC-ECNI-MS method.

In some cases when determining MCCPs using the GC-ECNI-MS method, the presence of sulfochlorinated

paraffins and equivalent chain-length chloroalkenes can cause interference. Annex B proposes a LC-

MS/MS application method that aims to give a better resolution and eliminates possible false positives

determined with the GC-ECNI-MS method.
5 Apparatus and materials
Use normal laboratory apparatus and, in particular, the following.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
5.1 Analytical balance.
5.2 Sealable vessel, with lid, 20 ml, suitable for extraction with n-hexane.

5.3 Ultrasonic bath, with controllable heating capable of maintaining a temperature of (60 ± 5) °C.

NOTE A frequency of 40KHz is suitable.
5.4 Pipette, 1 ml to 10 ml capacity.
5.5 Volumetric flask, 2 ml.

5.6 Gas chromatograph and mass selective detector with chemical ionization (GC-ECNI-MS).

5.7 Shaker or agitator, ensuring an efficient mixing of the phases.
6 Reagents
If not otherwise defined, analytical reagent grade chemicals shall be used.
6.1 n-hexane, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) No 110-54-3.
6.2 Internal standard (IS) solution, lindane, CAS No 58-89-9, 1 000 µg/ml.

6.3 Standard solutions, MCCPs, C to C , with different chlorine content, each 100 µg/ml.

14 17
6.3.1 MCCPs C to C 52 % Cl, technical grade, CAS 85535-85-9.
14 17
6.3.2 MCCPs C to C 57 % Cl, technical grade.
14 17
NOTE These MCCP calibration solutions are available commercially.
6.4 Concentrated sulfuric acid, (ρ = 1,84 g/ml at 20 °C).
7 Sampling

Sample in accordance with ISO 2418. If sampling in accordance with ISO 2418 is not possible (e.g.

leathers from finished products like shoes, garments), provide details about sampling together with the

test report. Glue residuals shall be mechanically removed from leather samples.
Prepare the leather samples according to ISO 4044.
8 Sample preparation and analysis
8.1 Preparation of MCCPs calibration solution (50 µg/ml) with 55 % chlorination
degree

Transfer 400 µl MCCPs C to C 52 % Cl standard solution (6.3.1) and 600 µl MCCP C to C 57 % Cl

14 17 14 17

standard solution (6.3.2) into a 2 ml volumetric flask (5.5). Add 20 µl of internal standard solution (6.2)

and fill up the flask to the volume with n-hexane (6.1).

The calibration standard with 55 % chlorine content shall be used for the quantification of all samples,

independent of their chlorination degree (if known).
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
8.2 Extraction of leather

Weigh (0,5 ± 0,001) g test leather sample with the analytical balance (5.1) into the sealable vessel (5.2).

Add 9,9 ml n-hexane (6.1) and 100 µl internal standard (6.2) and seal the vessel. Extract the sample at

(60 ± 5) °C in an ultrasonic bath (5.3) for (60 ±
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 18219-2
IULTCS
IUC 30-2
IULTCS
Leather — Determination of
Voting begins on:
2021-02-09
chlorinated hydrocarbons in
Voting terminates on: leather —
2021-04-06
Part 2:
Chromatographic method for middle-
chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs)
Cuir — Dosage des hydrocarbures chlorés dans le cuir —
Partie 2: Méthode chromatographique pour les paraffines chlorées à
chaîne moyenne (PCCM)
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference numbers
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 1

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

8 Sample preparation and analysis ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

8.1 Preparation of MCCPs calibration solution (50 µg/ml) with 55 % chlorination degree ........ 2

8.2 Extraction of leather ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.3 Sulfuric acid clean-up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8.4 GC-ECNI-MS Determination ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

9 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

9.1 Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

9.2 Ions used for quantification ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

9.3 Interference to MCCPs determination ................................................................................................................................ 3

9.4 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

9.5 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (informative) Gas chromatographic (GC-ECNI-MS) analysis operating parameters ...................6

Annex B (informative) Liquid chromatographic (LC-MS/MS) analysis operating parameters ................8

Annex C (informative) Integration with peak shape evaluation (PSE) with GC-ECNI-MS ...........................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the Chemical Test Commission of the International Union of Leather

Technologists and Chemists Societies (IUC Commission, IULTCS) in collaboration with the European

Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 289, Leather, the secretariat of

which is held by UNI, in accordance with the agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

IULTCS, originally formed in 1897, is a world-wide organization of professional leather societies to

further the advancement of leather science and technology. IULTCS has three Commissions, which

are responsible for establishing international methods for the sampling and testing of leather. ISO

recognizes IULTCS as an international standardizing body for the preparation of test methods for

leather.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Introduction

Middle-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) are a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons with a

carbon chain length of 14 to 17, and a chlorine content range of 40 % to 70 %. MCCPs are expected to

be persistent and bioaccumulative in the environment, based on their similar chemical and physical

properties to short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs).

The analysis of chlorinated paraffins is a challenge. The technical compounds are mixtures of up to 200

congeners with different chain lengths and degrees of chlorination. GC chromatograms of these complex

mixtures typically show a lot of overlapping peaks that can be difficult to separate. In particular, the

responses to the various chlorination degrees can vary over a large range.

In addition, the presence of sulfochlorinated paraffins and equivalent chain-length chloroalkenes in

such technical compounds can cause interference.

This document describes a procedure to compare the chromatogram results for MCCPs compounds from

a test sample with the chromatogram results of a defined calibration standard of the most typically

used mixture (55 % chlorination for MCCPs). With this GC-ECNI-MS (gas chromatography negative ion

chemical ionization mass spectrometry) procedure it uses four ion traces for identifying the MCCPs.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:2021(E)
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
Leather — Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in
leather —
Part 2:
Chromatographic method for middle-chain chlorinated
paraffins (MCCPs)
1 Scope

This document specifies a chromatographic method to determine the amount of middle-chain

chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) C to C in processed and unprocessed leathers.
14 17
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2418, Leather — Chemical, physical and mechanical and fastness tests — Sampling location

ISO 4044, Leather — Chemical tests — Preparation of chemical test samples
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Principle

The test sample is extracted using n-hexane at 60 °C in an ultrasonic bath for 60 min. After a sulfuric

acid clean-up, an aliquot is then analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective

detector with chemical ionization (GC-ECNI-MS).

A liquid chromatography system single quad (LC-MS) or with triple quad mass spectrometry (LC-

MS/MS), as described in Annex B, can also be used if the user has demonstrated that the accuracy of

measurement is equivalent to that of the GC-ECNI-MS method.

In some cases when determining MCCPs using the GC-ECNI-MS method, the presence of sulfochlorinated

paraffins and equivalent chain-length chloroalkenes can cause interference. Annex B proposes a LC-

MS/MS application method that aims to give a better resolution and eliminates possible false positives

determined with the GC-ECNI-MS method.
5 Apparatus and materials
Use normal laboratory apparatus and, in particular, the following.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 18219-2:2021(E)
IULTCS/IUC 30-2:2021(E)
5.1 Analytical balance.
5.2 Sealable vessel, with lid, 20 ml, suitable for extraction with n-hexane.

5.3 Ultrasonic bath, with controllable heating capable of maintaining a temperature of (60 ± 5) °C.

NOTE A frequency of 40KHz is suitable.
5.4 Pipette, 1 ml to 10 ml capacity.
5.5 Volumetric flask, 2 ml.

5.6 Gas chromatograph and mass selective detector with chemical ionization (GC-ECNI-MS).

5.7 Shaker or agitator, ensuring an efficient mixing of the phases.
6 Reagents
If not otherwise defined, analytical reagent grade chemicals shall be used.
6.1 n-hexane, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) No 110-54-3.
6.2 Internal standard (IS) solution, lindane, CAS No 58-89-9, 1 000 µg/ml.

6.3 Standard solutions, MCCPs, C to C , with different chlorine content, each 100 µg/ml.

14 17
6.3.1 MCCPs C to C 52 % Cl, technical grade, CAS 85535-85-9.
14 17
6.3.2 MCCPs C to C 57 % Cl, technical grade.
14 17
NOTE These MCCP calibration solutions are available commercially.
6.4 Concentrated sulfuric acid, (ρ = 1,84 g/ml at 20 °C).
7 Sampling

Sample in accordance with ISO 2418. If sampling in accordance with ISO 2418 is not possible (e.g.

leathers from finished products like shoes, garments), provide details about sampling together with the

test report. Glue residuals shall be mechanically removed from leather samples.
Prepare the leather samples according to ISO 4044.
8 Sample preparation and analysis

8.1 Preparation of MCCPs calibration solution (50 µg/ml) with 55 % chlorination degree

Transfer 400 µl MCCPs C to C 52 % Cl standard solution (6.3.1) and 600 µl MCCP C to C 57 % Cl

14 17 14 17

standard solution (6.3.2) into a 2 ml volumetric flask (5.5). Add 20 µl of internal standard solution (6.2)

and fill up the flask to the volume with n-hexane (6.1).

The calibration standard with 55 % chlorine content shall be used for the quantification of all samples,

independent of their chlorination degree (if known).
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 18219-
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.