Space systems -- Space debris mitigation design and operation manual for launch vehicle orbital stages

This document contains information on the design and operational practices for launch vehicle orbital stages for mitigating space debris. This document provides information to engineers on the requirements and recommendations in the space debris mitigation standards to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbital lifetime.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Lignes directrices de conception et de manœuvre des étages orbitaux de lanceurs pour réduire les débris spatiaux

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
22-Mar-2021
Completion Date
22-Mar-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Technical report
ISO/TR 20590:2021 - Space systems -- Space debris mitigation design and operation manual for launch vehicle orbital stages
English language
31 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/PRF TR 20590:Version 06-mar-2021 - Space systems - Space debris mitigation design and operation manual for launch vehicle orbital stages
English language
31 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 20590
Second edition
2021-04
Space systems — Space debris
mitigation design and operation
manual for launch vehicle orbital
stages
Systèmes spatiaux — Lignes directrices de conception et de
manœuvre des étages orbitaux de lanceurs pour réduire les débris
spatiaux
Reference number
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 System-level activities ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects ......................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113 ........................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2.3 Identification of released objects and design measures ................................................................ 4

5.2.4 Monitoring during operation ................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.5 Preventing failure ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Break-up prevention .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 Break-up caused by intentional behaviour, or stored energy ................................................... 5

5.3.2 Avoidance of collision .................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Disposal manoeuvres at the end of operation ............................................................................................................. 7

5.4.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113 ........................................................................................................... 7

5.4.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4.3 LEO mission ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.4 GEO missions and other high-elliptical orbit missions .................................................................. 9

5.5 Ground safety from re-entering objects .........................................................................................................................10

5.5.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113 ........................................................................................................10

5.5.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.3 Preventive measures .................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.4 Risk detection: notification ..................................................................................................................................13

5.5.5 Countermeasures: controlled re-entry and monitoring .............................................................13

5.6 Reliability and QA ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

6 Debris-related work in the development life cycle .......................................................................................................13

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Concept of debris-related work in each phase .........................................................................................................13

6.3 Mission requirements analysis phase (pre-phase A) ..........................................................................................18

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.2 Debris-related works ................................................................................................................................................18

6.4 Feasibility phase (phase A) .......................................................................................................................................................18

6.5 Definition phase (phase B) ........................................................................................................................................................18

6.5.1 Work in phase B .............................................................................................................................................................18

6.5.2 Work procedure .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.6 Development phase (phase C) ................................................................................................................................................19

6.7 Production phase (phase D) .....................................................................................................................................................20

6.7.1 Work in phase D ............................................................................................................................................................20

6.7.2 Qualification review ...................................................................................................................................................20

6.7.3 Launch service ................................................................................................................................................................20

6.8 Utilization phase (phase E) .......................................................................................................................................................20

6.9 Disposal phase (phase F) ............................................................................................................................................................20

7 System-level information..........................................................................................................................................................................21

7.1 System design........................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.2 Mission analysis for each launch mission .....................................................................................................................21

8 Subsystem/Component design and operation ...................................................................................................................22

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)

8.1.1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1.2 Debris-mitigation measures and subsystem-level actions for realizing them ........22

8.2 Propulsion subsystem ....................................................................................................................................................................23

8.2.1 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................23

8.2.2 Information of propulsion subsystems .....................................................................................................23

8.2.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................25

8.3 Guidance and control subsystem .........................................................................................................................................26

8.3.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................26

8.3.2 Information of the guidance and control subsystem .....................................................................27

8.4 Electric power-supply subsystem .......................................................................................................................................27

8.4.1 Debris related design ................................................................................................................................................27

8.4.2 Information of power subsystems .................................................................................................................27

8.4.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................28

8.5 Communication subsystem .......................................................................................................................................................28

8.5.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................28

8.5.2 Design of communication subsystem .........................................................................................................28

8.5.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................29

8.6 Structure subsystem .......................................................................................................................................................................29

8.6.1 Design measures ...........................................................................................................................................................29

8.6.2 Practices for structure subsystem .................................................................................................................29

8.6.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................30

8.7 Range safety subsystem (self-destruct subsystem) .............................................................................................30

8.7.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................30

8.7.2 Information of command destruction subsystem ............................................................................30

8.7.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 20590:2017), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— text has been updated to be aligned with ISO 24113:2019;

— information has been added that the total number of structural elements and orbital stages is

limited according to the number of payloads;

— information has been added that the ejection of slag debris from solid rocket motors is limited newly

in low Earth orbit in addition to GEO previously;

— information relating to collision avoidance against catalogued space objects has been improved;

— corresponding to the new requirement limiting the total probability of successful disposal to be at

least 0,9, the state of the art to confirm the compliance with that taken in the world space industries

and national agencies has been added;
— other information relating to the changes in ISO 24113 has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Introduction

Coping with debris is essential to preventing the deterioration of the orbital environment and ensuring

the sustainability of space activities. Effective actions can also be taken to ensure the safety of those on

the ground from re-entering objects that were disposed of from Earth orbit.

Recently, the orbital environment has become so deteriorated by debris that it is necessary to take

actions to mitigate the generation of orbital debris in design and operation of both spacecraft and the

launch vehicle orbital stages.

ISO 24113 and other ISO documents, introduced in Bibliography, were developed to encourage debris

mitigation activities.

In Clause 5, information about the major space debris mitigation requirements is provided.

In Clause 6, information about life-cycle implementation of space-debris-mitigation-related activities is

provided.

In Clause 7, the system level aspects stemming from the space debris mitigation requirements are

highlighted; while in Clause 8, the impacts at subsystem and component levels are detailed.

This document provides comprehensive information on the requirements and recommendations from

ISO documents for the design and operation of the launch vehicles.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Space systems — Space debris mitigation design and
operation manual for launch vehicle orbital stages
1 Scope

This document contains information on the design and operational practices for launch vehicle orbital

stages for mitigating space debris.

This document provides information to engineers on the requirements and recommendations in the

space debris mitigation standards to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that launch vehicle

orbital stages are designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating

debris throughout their orbital lifetime.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24113:2019, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24113 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
CDR critical design review
CNES Centre National d'Études Spatiales
COPUOS Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
CSpOC Combined Space Operations Center (USA)
DAS debris assessment software (NASA)
DRAMA debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (ESA)
E expected number of casualties
EOMDP end-of-mission (operation) disposal plan
EOL end-of-life
ESA European Space Agency
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
FDIR failure detection, isolation and recovery
FMEA failure mode and effect analysis
GEO geostationary Earth orbit
GTO geosynchronous transfer orbit
IADC Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee
JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
LEO low Earth orbit
LV launch vehicle
NOTAM notice to airmen and notice to mariners
NM notice to mariners
PDR preliminary design review
QA quality assurance
QR qualification review
S/C spacecraft
SDMP space-debris-mitigation plan
SRR system requirement definition review
STELA semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (CNES)
UN United Nations
5 System-level activities
5.1 General

To accomplish comprehensive activities for debris mitigation work, the following steps are considered:

a) Identifying debris related requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

b) Determining how to comply with requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

c) Applying debris mitigation measures early and throughout development and manufacturing to

assure sound debris mitigation capability in the final product.

d) Applying appropriate QA and qualification programs to ensure compliance with debris mitigation

requirements.

e) Applying appropriate procedures during operation/utilisation and disposal to implement proper

space debris mitigation.

This clause provides information useful for taking comprehensive action at the system level. More

detailed information for action at the subsystem and component levels is provided in Clause 8. The

following specific subjects are emphasized:
— limiting the release of objects into the Earth orbit;
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
— preventing fragmentation in orbit;
— proper disposal at the end of operation;
— minimization of hazards on the ground from re-entering debris;
— collision avoidance during launch at least for inhabited systems;
— quality, safety, and reliability assurance.
5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects
5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113

ISO 24113:2019, 6.1, requires avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during

normal operations, including general objects such as fasteners, fragments (larger than 1 mm) from

pyrotechnics, slag (larger than 1 mm) from solid rocket motors, etc.
The following objects are concerned:

a) objects released according to the mission requirements (not directly indicated in ISO 24113:2019,

6.1.1.1, though);

b) mission-related objects, such as yo-yo de-spinners, fasteners and other parts (ISO 24113:2019,

6.1.1.1);

c) total number of structural elements in multi-payloads launches and orbital stages. (ISO 24113:2019,

6.1.1.2);

d) fragments and combustion products from pyrotechnic devices (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.1);

e) slag from solid motors (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.2).

ISO 24113 implies that if objects are unavoidably released despite the requirements, the orbital lifetime

of such objects in LEO and the interference with GEO is limited as described in ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.3

(a typical example is the support structure utilized in a multiple payloads mission).

5.2.2 Work breakdown

Table 1 shows the work breakdown as delineated in ISO 24113 to prevent the release of debris.

Table 1 — Work breakdown for preventing the release of debris
Process Subjects Major work

Preventive measures Identification of re- a) Take preventive design to avoid releasing objects that would turn

leased objects and into space debris.
design measures
b) Minimise the total number of structural elements in multi-
payloads launches, orbital stages, etc.
c) If release is unavoidable, designers estimate the orbital lifetime
of released objects and check compliance with ISO 24113:2019,
6.1.1.3.
d) Apply pyrotechnic device which doesn’t eject fragments or
combustion product.
e) When applying the solid motors, the possibility of generation of
slag and its risk posed to environment will be assessed.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Process Subjects Major work

Corrective actions Trouble shooting Reference: If an object would be released unexpectedly, it is investi-

gated and taken appropriate action to avoid repeating the release in
the following missions.
5.2.3 Identification of released objects and design measures
a) Mission-related objects
The following objects are concerned (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.1):

1) nozzle closures for propulsion devices and certain types of igniters for solid motors, which are

ejected into space after ignition (particularly if their orbital lifetimes are longer than 25 years);

2) clamp bands that tie the S/C and launch vehicles;

3) structural elements used in multi-payloads launches, fragments and combustion products from

pyrotechnic devices, and slag from solid motors are excluded from ISO24113: 2019, 6.1.1.1, but

are mentioned in ISO24113: 2019, 6.1.1.2 and 6.1.2.

b) Structural elements in multi-payloads launches, orbital stages, etc. (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.2)

ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.2 requires limiting the total number of orbital stages and “space objects” to

one for the launch of a single spacecraft and two for the launch of multiple spacecraft. Generally,

“space objects” means structural elements such as payload adaptors.

This requirement seems to prohibit to inject multiple stages in any instance. However, considering

the ultimate objective to minimize the number and mass of orbital objects, this requirement can

be understood in a slightly different way. For example, in the case that a three-stage LV is designed

to leave two stages in orbit during the launch of a single spacecraft, if the second stage has a very

short decay life, the third stage is relatively small, and that the total in-orbit collision risk and the

total re-entry casualty risk are demonstrably lower compared to the option of leaving one stage

in orbit, it is an option worth studying. Careful analysis is needed to confirm the benefit before

applying this requirement.

c) Fragments and combustion products from pyrotechnic devices (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.1)

Adequately designed devices are selected to avoid the release of fragments or combustion products.

It is possible to apply parts that trap all fragments and combustion products larger than 1 mm

inside for segregation.
d) Combustion products from solid motors (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.1)

1) It is preferable not to use an upper-stage with solid propulsion potentially leaving debris

in orbit (slag, throat elements), especially if the altitude of the orbit is higher than that of

inhabited systems, and if the solid propulsion system conception includes a dead-zone where

recirculating gases can concentrate some metalized slag which can be ejected in orbit.

2) It is taken into consideration that if a solid motor is fired to decrease the velocity of the orbital

object, to deorbit it for instance, as the particles velocity would increase with that of the orbital

object, leading to an increase in apogee of the particles.
e) Estimation of orbital lifetime (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.3)

The orbital lifetime of released objects is assessed as specified in ISO 27852. ISO 27852 designates

acceptable analysis methodologies the user employs dependent upon the orbit regime. The available

simplified tools that are admissible to estimate the long-term orbital lifetime are introduced in

5.4.3.1.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
5.2.4 Monitoring during operation

The released objects, if they are large enough to be detected from the ground, can be confirmed by

ground-based space tracking facilities to ensure that they are released as expected and that their

orbital lifetimes are sufficiently short. The Space Situation Report provided by the US Combined Space

Operations Center (CSpOC https:// www .space -track .org/ auth/ login) provides a good reference.

5.2.5 Preventing failure

If objects are released unexpectedly, the origin of the objects can be identified to help prevent

recurrence in future missions. Because such phenomena can indicate a malfunction, the situation is

reviewed carefully, and appropriate action is taken to prevent further abnormal conditions.

5.3 Break-up prevention
5.3.1 Break-up caused by intentional behaviour, or stored energy
5.3.1.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113

ISO 24113:2019, 6.2 requires the prevention of break-ups caused by intentional beha

...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 20590
Second edition
Space systems - Space debris mitigation
design and operation manual for
launch vehicle orbital stages
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 System-level activities ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects ......................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113 ........................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2.3 Identification of released objects and design measures ................................................................ 4

5.2.4 Monitoring during operation ................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.5 Preventing failure ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Break-up prevention .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 Break-up caused by intentional behaviour, or stored energy ................................................... 5

5.3.2 Avoidance of collision .................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Disposal manoeuvres at the end of operation ............................................................................................................. 7

5.4.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113 ........................................................................................................... 7

5.4.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4.3 LEO mission ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.4 GEO missions and other high-elliptical orbit missions .................................................................. 9

5.5 Ground safety from re-entering objects .........................................................................................................................10

5.5.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113 ........................................................................................................10

5.5.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.3 Preventive measures .................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.4 Risk detection: notification ..................................................................................................................................13

5.5.5 Countermeasures: controlled re-entry and monitoring .............................................................13

5.6 Reliability and QA ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

6 Debris-related work in the development life cycle .......................................................................................................13

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Concept of debris-related work in each phase .........................................................................................................13

6.3 Mission requirements analysis phase (pre-phase A) ..........................................................................................18

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.3.2 Debris-related works ................................................................................................................................................18

6.4 Feasibility phase (phase A) .......................................................................................................................................................18

6.5 Definition phase (phase B) ........................................................................................................................................................18

6.5.1 Work in phase B .............................................................................................................................................................18

6.5.2 Work procedure .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.6 Development phase (phase C) ................................................................................................................................................19

6.7 Production phase (phase D) .....................................................................................................................................................20

6.7.1 Work in phase D ............................................................................................................................................................20

6.7.2 Qualification review ...................................................................................................................................................20

6.7.3 Launch service ................................................................................................................................................................20

6.8 Utilization phase (phase E) .......................................................................................................................................................20

6.9 Disposal phase (phase F) ............................................................................................................................................................20

7 System-level information..........................................................................................................................................................................21

7.1 System design........................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.2 Mission analysis for each launch mission .....................................................................................................................21

8 Subsystem/Component design and operation ...................................................................................................................22

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)

8.1.1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1.2 Debris-mitigation measures and subsystem-level actions for realizing them ........22

8.2 Propulsion subsystem ....................................................................................................................................................................23

8.2.1 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................23

8.2.2 Information of propulsion subsystems .....................................................................................................23

8.2.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................25

8.3 Guidance and control subsystem .........................................................................................................................................26

8.3.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................26

8.3.2 Information of the guidance and control subsystem .....................................................................27

8.4 Electric power-supply subsystem .......................................................................................................................................27

8.4.1 Debris related design ................................................................................................................................................27

8.4.2 Information of power subsystems .................................................................................................................27

8.4.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................28

8.5 Communication subsystem .......................................................................................................................................................28

8.5.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................28

8.5.2 Design of communication subsystem .........................................................................................................28

8.5.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................29

8.6 Structure subsystem .......................................................................................................................................................................29

8.6.1 Design measures ...........................................................................................................................................................29

8.6.2 Practices for structure subsystem .................................................................................................................29

8.6.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................30

8.7 Range safety subsystem (self-destruct subsystem) .............................................................................................30

8.7.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................30

8.7.2 Information of command destruction subsystem ............................................................................30

8.7.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 20590:2017), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— text has been updated to be aligned with ISO 24113:2019;

— information has been added that the total number of structural elements and orbital stages is

limited according to the number of payloads;

— information has been added that the ejection of slag debris from solid rocket motors is limited newly

in low Earth orbit in addition to GEO previously;

— information relating to collision avoidance against catalogued space objects has been improved;

— corresponding to the new requirement limiting the total probability of successful disposal to be at

least 0,9, the state of the art to confirm the compliance with that taken in the world space industries

and national agencies has been added;
— other information relating to the changes in ISO 24113 has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Introduction

Coping with debris is essential to preventing the deterioration of the orbital environment and ensuring

the sustainability of space activities. Effective actions can also be taken to ensure the safety of those on

the ground from re-entering objects that were disposed of from Earth orbit.

Recently, the orbital environment has become so deteriorated by debris that it is necessary to take

actions to mitigate the generation of orbital debris in design and operation of both spacecraft and the

launch vehicle orbital stages.

ISO 24113 and other ISO documents, introduced in Bibliography, were developed to encourage debris

mitigation activities.

In Clause 5, information about the major space debris mitigation requirements is provided.

In Clause 6, information about life-cycle implementation of space-debris-mitigation-related activities is

provided.

In Clause 7, the system level aspects stemming from the space debris mitigation requirements are

highlighted; while in Clause 8, the impacts at subsystem and component levels are detailed.

This document provides comprehensive information on the requirements and recommendations from

ISO documents for the design and operation of the launch vehicles.
vi PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Space systems - Space debris mitigation design and
operation manual for launch vehicle orbital stages
1 Scope

This document contains information on the design and operational practices for launch vehicle orbital

stages for mitigating space debris.

This document provides information to engineers on the requirements and recommendations in the

space debris mitigation standards to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that launch vehicle

orbital stages are designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating

debris throughout their orbital lifetime.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24113:2019, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24113 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
CDR critical design review
CNES Centre National d'Études Spatiales
COPUOS Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
CSpOC Combined Space Operations Center (USA)
DAS debris assessment software (NASA)
DRAMA debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (ESA)
E expected number of casualties
EOMDP end-of-mission (operation) disposal plan
EOL end-of-life
ESA European Space Agency
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
FDIR failure detection, isolation and recovery
FMEA failure mode and effect analysis
GEO geostationary Earth orbit
GTO geosynchronous transfer orbit
IADC Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee
JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
LEO low Earth orbit
LV launch vehicle
NOTAM notice to airmen and notice to mariners
NM notice to mariners
PDR preliminary design review
QA quality assurance
QR qualification review
S/C spacecraft
SDMP space-debris-mitigation plan
SRR system requirement definition review
STELA semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (CNES)
UN United Nations
5 System-level activities
5.1 General

To accomplish comprehensive activities for debris mitigation work, the following steps are considered:

a) Identifying debris related requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

b) Determining how to comply with requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

c) Applying debris mitigation measures early and throughout development and manufacturing to

assure sound debris mitigation capability in the final product.

d) Applying appropriate QA and qualification programs to ensure compliance with debris mitigation

requirements.

e) Applying appropriate procedures during operation/utilisation and disposal to implement proper

space debris mitigation.

This clause provides information useful for taking comprehensive action at the system level. More

detailed information for action at the subsystem and component levels is provided in Clause 8. The

following specific subjects are emphasized:
— limiting the release of objects into the Earth orbit;
2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
— preventing fragmentation in orbit;
— proper disposal at the end of operation;
— minimization of hazards on the ground from re-entering debris;
— collision avoidance during launch at least for inhabited systems;
— quality, safety, and reliability assurance.
5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects
5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113

ISO 24113:2019, 6.1, requires avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during

normal operations, including general objects such as fasteners, fragments (larger than 1 mm) from

pyrotechnics, slag (larger than 1 mm) from solid rocket motors, etc.
The following objects are concerned:

a) objects released according to the mission requirements (not directly indicated in ISO 24113:2019,

6.1.1.1, though);

b) mission-related objects, such as yo-yo de-spinners, fasteners and other parts (ISO 24113:2019,

6.1.1.1);

c) total number of structural elements in multi-payloads launches and orbital stages. (ISO 24113:2019,

6.1.1.2);

d) fragments and combustion products from pyrotechnic devices (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.1);

e) slag from solid motors (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.2).

ISO 24113 implies that if objects are unavoidably released despite the requirements, the orbital lifetime

of such objects in LEO and the interference with GEO is limited as described in ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.3

(a typical example is the support structure utilized in a multiple payloads mission).

5.2.2 Work breakdown

Table 1 shows the work breakdown as delineated in ISO 24113 to prevent the release of debris.

Table 1 — Work breakdown for preventing the release of debris
Process Subjects Major work

Preventive measures Identification of re- a) Take preventive design to avoid releasing objects that would turn

leased objects and into space debris.
design measures
b) Minimise the total number of structural elements in multi-
payloads launches, orbital stages, etc.
c) If release is unavoidable, designers estimate the orbital lifetime
of released objects and check compliance with ISO 24113:2019,
6.1.1.3.
d) Apply pyrotechnic device which doesn’t eject fragments or
combustion product.
e) When applying the solid motors, the possibility of generation of
slag and its risk posed to environment will be assessed.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Process Subjects Major work

Corrective actions Trouble shooting Reference: If an object would be released unexpectedly, it is investi-

gated and taken appropriate action to avoid repeating the release in
the following missions.
5.2.3 Identification of released objects and design measures
a) Mission-related objects
The following objects are concerned (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.1):

1) nozzle closures for propulsion devices and certain types of igniters for solid motors, which are

ejected into space after ignition (particularly if their orbital lifetimes are longer than 25 years);

2) clamp bands that tie the S/C and launch vehicles;

3) structural elements used in multi-payloads launches, fragments and combustion products from

pyrotechnic devices, and slag from solid motors are excluded from ISO24113: 2019, 6.1.1.1, but

are mentioned in ISO24113: 2019, 6.1.1.2 and 6.1.2.

b) Structural elements in multi-payloads launches, orbital stages, etc. (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.2)

ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.2 requires limiting the total number of orbital stages and “space objects” to

one for the launch of a single spacecraft and two for the launch of multiple spacecraft. Generally,

“space objects” means structural elements such as payload adaptors.

This requirement seems to prohibit to inject multiple stages in any instance. However, considering

the ultimate objective to minimize the number and mass of orbital objects, this requirement can

be understood in a slightly different way. For example, in the case that a three-stage LV is designed

to leave two stages in orbit during the launch of a single spacecraft, if the second stage has a very

short decay life, the third stage is relatively small, and that the total in-orbit collision risk and the

total re-entry casualty risk are demonstrably lower compared to the option of leaving one stage

in orbit, it is an option worth studying. Careful analysis is needed to confirm the benefit before

applying this requirement.

c) Fragments and combustion products from pyrotechnic devices (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.1)

Adequately designed devices are selected to avoid the release of fragments or combustion products.

It is possible to apply parts that trap all fragments and combustion products larger than 1 mm

inside for segregation.
d) Combustion products from solid motors (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.2.1)

1) It is preferable not to use an upper-stage with solid propulsion potentially leaving debris

in orbit (slag, throat elements), especially if the altitude of the orbit is higher than that of

inhabited systems, and if the solid propulsion system conception includes a dead-zone where

recirculating gases can concentrate some metalized slag which can be ejected in orbit.

2) It is taken into consideration that if a solid motor is fired to decrease the velocity of the orbital

object, to deorbit it for instance, as the particles velocity would increase with that of the orbital

object, leading to an increase in apogee of the particles.
e) Estimation of orbital lifetime (ISO 24113:2019, 6.1.1.3)

The orbital lifetime of released objects is assessed as specified in ISO 27852. ISO 27852 designates

acceptable analysis methodologies the user employs dependent upon the orbit regime. The available

simplified tools that are admissible to estimate the long-term orbital lifetime are introduced in

5.4.3.1.
4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20590:2021(E)
5.2.4 Monitoring during operation

The released objects, if they are large enough to be detected from the ground, can be confirmed by

ground-based space tracking facilities to ensure that they are released as expected and that their

orbital lifetimes are sufficiently short. The Space Situation Report provided by the US Combined Space

Operations Center (CSpOC https:// www .space -track .org/ auth/ login) provides a good reference.

5.2.5 Preventing failure

If objects are released unexpectedly, the origin of the objects can be identified to help prevent

recurrence in future missions. Because such phenomena can indicate a malfunction, the situation is

reviewed carefully, and appropriate action is taken to prevent further abnormal conditions.

5.3 Break-up prevention
5.3.1 Break-up caused by intentional behaviour, or stored energy
5.3.1.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113

ISO 24113:2019, 6.2 requires the prevention of break-ups caused by intentional behaviour, store

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.