Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures

(1) The basis for the design of building and civil engineering works in masonry is given in this Part 1-1 of EN 1996, which deals with unreinforced masonry, reinforced masonry and confined masonry. Principles for the design of prestressed masonry are also given. This Part 1-1 of EN 1996 is not valid for masonry elements with a plan area of less than 0,04 m2.
(2) For those types of structures not covered entirely, for new structural uses for established materials, for new materials, or where actions and other influences outside normal experience have to be resisted, the provisions given in this Part 1-1 of EN 1996 may be applicable, but may need to be supplemented.
(3) Part 1-1 of EN 1996 gives detailed rules which are mainly applicable to ordinary buildings. The applicability of these rules may be limited, for practical reasons or due to simplifications; any limits of applicability are given in the text where necessary.
(4) Part 1-1 of EN 1996 does not cover:
—   resistance to fire (which is dealt with in EN 1996-1-2);
—   particular aspects of special types of building (for example, dynamic effects on tall buildings);
—   particular aspects of special types of civil engineering works (such as masonry bridges, dams, chimneys or liquid-retaining structures);
—   particular aspects of special types of structures (such as arches or domes);
—   masonry where gypsum, with or without cement, mortars are used;
—   masonry where the units are not laid in a regular pattern of courses (rubble masonry);
—   masonry reinforced with other materials than steel.

Eurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Regeln für bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk

1.1   Anwendungsbereich von prEN 1996 1 1
(1) Die Grundlage für die Konstruktion und Bemessung von Gebäuden und Ingenieurbauten aus Mauerwerk ist in diesem Teil 1 1 von EN 1996 angegeben, der unbewehrtes, bewehrtes und eingefasstes Mauerwerk behandelt. Darüber hinaus sind die Grundsätze für vorgespanntes Mauerwerk angegeben. Dieser Teil 1 1 von EN 1996 gilt nicht für Mauerwerkselemente mit einer Grundrissfläche von weniger als 0,04 m2.
(2) Teil 1 1 von EN 1996 enthält ausführliche Regeln, die hauptsächlich für normale Gebäude gelten. Die Anwendbarkeit dieser Regeln kann aus praktischen Gründen oder aufgrund von Vereinfachungen begrenzt sein; alle Beschränkungen der Anwendbarkeit sind gegebenenfalls im Text angegeben.
(3) Die Ausführung wird behandelt, soweit dies notwendig ist, um die Qualität der Baustoffe und Produkte, die verwendet werden, um den erforderlichen handwerklichen Qualitätsgrad auf der Baustelle, um die Annahmen im Rahmen der Bemessungsregeln zu erfüllen, anzugeben.
(4) Für diese nicht vollständig behandelten Bauten, für neue bauliche Nutzungen bestehender Werkstoffe, für neue Werkstoffe oder wo Einwirkungen und anderen Einflüssen außerhalb der normalen Erfahrung widerstanden werden muss, können die in diesem Teil 1 1 von EN 1996 enthaltenen Bestimmungen angewandt werden, müssen aber gegebenenfalls ergänzt werden.
(5) Teil 1 1 von EN 1996 behandelt nicht:
-   Feuerbeständigkeit (die in EN 1996 1 2 behandelt wird);
-   besondere Aspekte bestimmter Gebäudearten (z. B. dynamische Wirkungen hoher Gebäude);
-   besondere Aspekte bestimmter Arten von Ingenieurbauten (wie etwa Mauerwerkbrücken, Dämme, Schornsteine oder flüssigkeitshaltende Bauten);
-   besondere Aspekte bestimmter Arten von Bauwerken (wie etwa Bögen oder Kuppeln);
-   Mauerwerk, bei dem Gips mit oder ohne Zementmörtel verwendet wird;
-   Mauerwerk, dessen Einheiten in einem regelmäßigen Schichtmuster verlegt werden (Bruchsteinmauern);
-   mit anderen Materialien als Stahl bewehrtes Mauerwerk.
1.2   Annahmen
(1) Die Annahmen in EN 1990 gelten für prEN 1996 1 1.

Eurocode 6 - Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Partie 1-1 : Règles générales pour ouvrages en maçonnerie armée et non armée

1.1   Domaine d’application du prEN 1996 1 1
(1) La présente partie 1-1 de l’EN 1996 énonce les principes de base du calcul des bâtiments et des ouvrages de génie civil en maçonnerie non armée, armée et confinée. Les principes de calcul de la maçonnerie précontrainte sont également énoncés. La présente Partie 1-1 de l’EN 1996 ne s’applique pas aux ouvrages en maçonnerie de section en plan inférieure à 0,04 m2.
(2) La Partie 1-1 de l’EN 1996 donne des règles détaillées surtout applicables aux bâtiments courants. Leur mise en application peut s’avérer limitée, pour des raisons pratiques ou du fait de simplifications ; toute restriction d’application est détaillée, le cas échéant, par le texte.
(3) L’exécution des travaux n’est traitée que dans la mesure nécessaire à la définition des qualités de matériaux de construction et de produits à mettre en œuvre, et à la définition de la qualité d’exécution sur chantier requise conformément aux hypothèses des règles de calcul.
(4) Pour ces types de structure non entièrement couverts, des nouveaux types de structure pour des matériaux traditionnels, des nouveaux matériaux ou lorsque les actions et autres influences en dehors de l’expérience courante doivent être prises en compte, les dispositions de la présente Partie 1-1 de l’EN 1996 peuvent être appliquées, mais avec la nécessité éventuelle de compléments.
(5) La Partie 1-1 de l’EN 1996 ne traite pas les sujets suivants :
-   la résistance au feu (qui est traitée par l’EN 1996-1-2) ;
-   les aspects particuliers de types de bâtiments spéciaux (tels que les effets dynamiques exercés sur les bâtiments élevés) ;
-   les aspects particuliers de types spéciaux d’ouvrages de génie civil (tels que les ponts, barrages, cheminées ou réservoirs en maçonnerie) ;
-   les aspects particuliers de types spéciaux de structure (tels que les voûtes ou les coupoles) ;
-   la maçonnerie qui utilise les mortiers de plâtre avec ou sans ciment ;
-   la maçonnerie pour laquelle les éléments ne sont pas posés selon un aspect régulier (maçonnerie de moellons bruts) ;
-   la maçonnerie armée au moyen d’autres matériaux que l’acier.
1.2   Hypothèses
(1) Les hypothèses énoncées dans l’EN 1990 s’appliquent au prEN 1996-1-1.

Evrokod 6 - Projektiranje zidanih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila za armirano in nearmirano zidovje

(1) Ta del 1-1 standarda EN 1996, ki obravnava nearmirano, armirano in povezano zidovje, daje podlago za projektiranje stavb in gradbenih inženirskih objektov iz zidovja. Vsebuje tudi principe za projektiranje prednapetih zidov. Ta del 1-1 standarda EN 1996 se ne uporablja za elemente zidovja s tlorisno površino manj kot 0,04 m2.
(2) Za tiste tipe konstrukcij, ki jih standard ne zajema v celoti, za nove vrste uporabe konstrukcij iz uveljavljenih materialov, za konstrukcije iz novih materialov oziroma za konstrukcije, ki morajo prevzeti vplive in druge posledice, za katere ni običajnih izkušenj, se določbe v delu 1-1 standarda EN 1996 lahko uporabljajo, vendar se po potrebi dopolnijo.
(3) Del 1-1 standarda EN 1996 navaja podrobna pravila, ki so v glavnem uporabna za običajne stavbe. Zaradi praktičnih razlogov ali poenostavitev je uporabnost teh pravil lahko omejena. Kakršna koli omejitev uporabnosti je omenjena v besedilu na mestih, kjer je potrebno.
(4) Del 1-1 standarda EN 1996 ne zajema:
–   požarne odpornosti (ki jo obravnava EN 1996-1-2);
–   posebnih vidikov posebnih tipov stavb (na primer dinamičnih učinkov na visoke stavbe);
–   posebnih vidikov posebnih tipov gradbenih inženirskih objektov (kot so zidani mostovi, pregrade, dimniki ali konstrukcije, ki zadržujejo tekočine);
–   posebnih vidikov posebnih tipov konstrukcije (kot so loki ali kupole);
–   zidovja, kjer se za zidanje uporabljajo malte z mavcem brez cementa ali z njim;
–   zidovja, kjer zidaki niso položeni v pravilnem razporedu v vrstah (kamnito zidovje);
–   zidovje, armirano z drugimi materiali kot z jeklom.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Dec-2019
Publication Date
12-May-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-May-2022
Due Date
10-Jul-2022
Completion Date
13-May-2022

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
01-junij-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 1996-1-1:2006+A1:2013

Evrokod 6 - Projektiranje zidanih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila za armirano

in nearmirano zidovje

Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and

unreinforced masonry structures
Eurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten - Teil 1-1:
Allgemeine Regeln für bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk

Eurocode 6 - Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Partie 1-1 : Règles générales pour

ouvrages en maçonnerie armée et non armée
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1996-1-1:2022
ICS:
91.010.30 Tehnični vidiki Technical aspects
91.080.30 Zidane konstrukcije Masonry
SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.30 Supersedes EN 1996-1-1:2005+A1:2012
English Version
Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 1-1:
General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry
structures

Eurocode 6 : Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Eurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von

Partie 1-1: Règles générales pour ouvrages en Mauerwerksbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Regeln für

maçonnerie armée et non armée bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 January 2022.

This European Standard was corrected and reissued by the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre on 20 April 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
C O M I T É E U R O P É E N D E N O R M A L I S A T I O N
E U R O P Ä I S C H E S K O M I T E E F Ü R N O R M U N G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1996-1-1:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms, definitions and symbols .............................................................................................................. 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................ 10

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 17

4 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 23

4.1 General rules .................................................................................................................................................. 23

4.2 Principles of limit state design ................................................................................................................ 23

4.3 Basic variables .............................................................................................................................................. 23

4.4 Verification by the partial factor method ............................................................................................ 23

4.5 Design assisted by testing ......................................................................................................................... 25

5 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

5.1 Masonry units ................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.2 Mortar .............................................................................................................................................................. 27

5.3 Concrete infill ................................................................................................................................................ 27

5.4 Steel reinforcement ..................................................................................................................................... 28

5.5 Prestressing systems .................................................................................................................................. 28

5.6 Ancillary components ................................................................................................................................. 29

5.7 Mechanical properties of masonry ........................................................................................................ 29

5.8 Deformation properties of masonry ..................................................................................................... 38

6 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 41

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 41

6.2 Classification of environmental conditions ........................................................................................ 41

6.3 Durability of masonry ................................................................................................................................ 41

6.4 Masonry below ground .............................................................................................................................. 44

7 Structural analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 44

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 44

7.2 Structural behaviour in accidental situations (other than fire) ................................................. 44

7.3 Imperfections ................................................................................................................................................ 45

7.4 Second order effects .................................................................................................................................... 45

7.5 Analysis of structural members .............................................................................................................. 46

8 Ultimate limit states .................................................................................................................................... 58

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 58

8.2 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to mainly vertical loading .............. 58

8.3 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to combined vertical and

horizontal loading in the plane of the wall ......................................................................................... 64

8.4 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to mainly lateral loading ................ 65

8.5 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to combined vertical and

lateral loading ............................................................................................................................................... 68

8.6 Ties .................................................................................................................................................................... 69

8.7 Verification of reinforced masonry members subjected to bending, bending and

axial loading, or axial loading .................................................................................................................. 70

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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1:2022 (E)

8.8 Verification of reinforced masonry members subjected to shear loading .............................. 79

8.9 Prestressed masonry ................................................................................................................................... 82

8.10 Confined masonry......................................................................................................................................... 83

9 Serviceability limit states .......................................................................................................................... 86

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 86

9.2 Unreinforced masonry walls .................................................................................................................... 86

9.3 Reinforced masonry members ................................................................................................................ 87

9.4 Prestressed masonry members ............................................................................................................... 87

9.5 Confined masonry members ..................................................................................................................... 87

9.6 Walls subjected to concentrated loads ................................................................................................. 87

10 Detailing ........................................................................................................................................................... 88

10.1 Masonry details ............................................................................................................................................. 88

10.2 Reinforcement details ................................................................................................................................. 89

10.3 Prestressing details ..................................................................................................................................... 95

10.4 Confined masonry details .......................................................................................................................... 95

10.5 Connection of walls ...................................................................................................................................... 95

10.6 Chases and recesses on walls ................................................................................................................... 97

10.7 Damp proof courses ..................................................................................................................................... 99

10.8 Thermal and long term movement ........................................................................................................ 99

11 Execution ......................................................................................................................................................... 99

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 99

11.2 Design of structural members.................................................................................................................. 99

11.3 Loading of masonry...................................................................................................................................... 99

Annex A (informative) Consideration of partial factor for materials relating to execution ....... 100

A.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 100

A.2 Scope and field of application ............................................................................................................... 100

A.3 General .......................................................................................................................................................... 100

Annex B (informative) Method for calculating the second order effect .............................................. 102

B.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 102

B.2 Scope and field of application ............................................................................................................... 102

B.3 Total moment including second order effects ................................................................................ 102

Annex C (informative) Simplified methods for calculating the out-of-plane eccentricity of

loading on walls.......................................................................................................................................... 104

C.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 104

C.2 Scope and field of application ............................................................................................................... 104

C.3 Eccentricity with reinforced concrete floors ................................................................................... 104

C.4 Eccentricity with timber floors ............................................................................................................. 109

Annex D (informative) Bending moment coefficients, α , in single leaf laterally loaded wall

panels ............................................................................................................................................................. 111

D.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 111

D.2 Scope and field of application ............................................................................................................... 111

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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1:2022 (E)

Annex E (informative) Limiting height and length to thickness ratios for unreinforced walls

and walls with only bed joint reinforcement under the serviceability limit state ............. 118

E.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 118

E.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 118

E.3 Limiting height and length to thickness ratios ................................................................................ 118

Annex F (informative) Capacity reduction factor for slenderness and eccentricity ....................... 121

F.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 121

F.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 121

F.3 Reduction factor Φ for masonry walls subjected to mainly vertical loading

(expressed as a function of eccentricity) ........................................................................................... 121

F.4 Reduction factor Φ for masonry walls subjected to combined vertical and lateral

loading (expressed as a function of normal load ratio) ............................................................... 122

Annex G (informative) Adjustment of lateral load for walls supported on three or four

edges subjected to out-of-plane horizontal loading and vertical loading ............................. 125

G.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 125

G.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 125

G.3 Calculation of the reduction factor for the lateral load ................................................................ 125

Annex H (informative) Reinforced masonry members subjected to shear loading:

enhancement of the design shear strength of masonry, f ........................................................ 126

H.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 126

H.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 126

H.3 Calculation of the design shear strength of masonry, f ............................................................ 126

Annex I (informative) A design method for complex shaped members subjected to mainly

vertical loading ........................................................................................................................................... 127

I.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 127

I.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 127

I.3 Design of complex shaped members ................................................................................................... 128

Annex J (informative) Method for walls under combined lateral and vertical loading taking

buckling due to vertical loading and flexural strength into account ...................................... 133

J.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 133

J.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 133

J.3 Verifications ................................................................................................................................................. 133

Annex K (informative) Mean material properties ....................................................................................... 134

K.1 Use of this Informative Annex ............................................................................................................... 134

K.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 134

K.3 Mechanical properties of masonry ...................................................................................................... 134

K.4 Deformation properties of masonry ................................................................................................... 136

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................... 137

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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 1996-1-1:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250 “Structural

Eurocodes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural

Eurocodes and has been assigned responsibility for structural and geotechnical design matters by CEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2027, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2028.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1996-1-1:2005+A1:2012.

The first generation of EN Eurocodes was published between 2002 and 2007. This document forms part

of the second generation of the Eurocodes, which have been prepared under a Mandate M/515 given to

CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

The Eurocodes have been drafted to be used in conjunction with relevant execution, material, product

and test standards, and to identify requirements for execution, materials, products and testing that are

relied upon by the Eurocodes.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are listed below:
— improvement of the verification of combined loading;
— improvement of the capacity reduction factor for slenderness and eccentricity;
— addition of the out-of-plane shear friction coefficient;
— addition of rules for confined masonry;

— addition of informative annexes for complex shapes and mean material properties.

The Eurocodes recognize the responsibility of each Member State and have safeguarded their right to

determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level through the use of National

Annexes.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1:2022 (E)
0 Introduction
0.1 Introduction to the Eurocodes

The Structural Eurocodes comprise the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

— EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural and geotechnical design
— EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
— EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
— EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
— EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
— EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
— EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
— EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
— EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
— EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

The Eurocodes are intended for use by designers, clients, manufacturers, constructors, relevant

authorities (in exercising their duties in accordance with national or international regulations),

educators, soft-ware developers, and committees drafting standards for related product, testing and

execution standards.

NOTE Some aspects of design are most appropriately specified by relevant authorities or, where not specified,

can be agreed on a project-specific basis between relevant parties such as designers and clients. The Eurocodes

identify such aspects making explicit reference to relevant authorities and relevant parties.

0.2 Introduction to EN 1996 Eurocode 6

EN 1996 Eurocode 6 standards apply to the design of building and civil engineering works, or parts

thereof, in unreinforced, reinforced, prestressed and confined masonry.

EN 1996 (all parts) deal only with the requirements for resistance, serviceability and durability of

structures. Other requirements, for example, concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.

EN 1996 (all parts) do not cover the specific requirements of seismic design. Provisions related to such

requirements are given in EN 1998 (all parts), which complements, and is consistent with EN 1996 (all

parts).

EN 1996 (all parts) do not cover numerical values of the actions on building and civil engineering works

to be taken into account in the design. They are provided in EN 1991(all parts).
0.3 Introduction to EN 1996-1-1

For the design of new structures, EN 1996-1-1 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with

the other Eurocodes where applicable.
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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1:2022 (E)
0.4 Verbal forms used in the Eurocodes

The verb “shall" expresses a requirement strictly to be followed and from which no deviation is permitted

in order to comply with the Eurocodes.

The verb “should” expresses a highly recommended choice or course of action. Subject to national

regulation and/or any relevant contractual provisions, alternative approaches could be used/adopted

where technically justified.

The verb “may" expresses a course of action permissible within the limits of the Eurocodes.

The verb “can" expresses possibility and capability; it is used for statements of fact and clarification of

concepts.
0.5 National Annex for EN 1996-1-1

National choice is allowed in this standard where explicitly stated within notes. National choice includes

the selection of values for Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs).

The national standard implementing EN 1996-1-1 can have a National Annex containing all national

choices to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant

country.

When no national choice is given, the default choice given in this standard is to be used.

When no national choice is made and no default is given in this standard, the choice can be specified by a

relevant authority or, where not specified, agreed for a specific project by appropriate parties.

National choice is allowed in EN 1996-1-1 through notes to the following:
4.4.4(2) 5.2.2(2) 5.7.1.2(1) 5.7.1.3(2)
5.7.2.1(1) 5.7.2.1(2) 5.7.2.2(4) 5.7.4(4) – 3 choices
5.8.2(3) 5.8.4(3) 6.3.3(2) 6.3.3(3)
7.5.1.4(4) 8.3.1(2) 8.10.3.1(2) 10.1.2(2)
10.5.2.2(2) 10.5.2.3(2) 10.6.2(1) 10.6.3(1)

National choice is allowed in EN 1996-1-1 on the application of the following informative annexes:

Annex A Annex B Annex C Annex D
Annex E Annex F Annex G Annex H
Annex I Annex J Annex K

The National Annex can contain, directly or by reference, non-contradictory complementary information

for ease of implementation, provided it does not alter any provisions of the Eurocodes.

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SIST EN 1996-1-1:2022
EN 1996-1-1:2022 (E)
1 Scope
1.1 Scope of EN 1996-1-1

(1) The basis for the design of building and civil engineering works in masonry is given in this document,

which deals with unreinforced masonry, reinforced masonry and confined masonry. Principles for the

design of prestressed masonry are also given.

(2) This document is not valid for masonry elements with a plan area of less than 0,04 m .

(3) Reinforced masonry and confined masonry built with Group 4 units and subjected to mainly vertical

loading are not covered by this document.

(4) This document gives detailed rules which are mainly applicable to ordinary buildings. The

applicability of these rules can be limited, for practical reasons or due to simplifications; any limits of

applicability are given in the text where necessary.

(5) Execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to indicate the quality of the construction

materials and products that are to be used and the standard of workmanship on site needed to comply

with the assumptions made in the design rules.
(6) For those types of structure
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 1996-1-1:2019
01-december-2019

Evrokod 6: Projektiranje zidanih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila za armirano

in nearmirano zidovje

Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and

unreinforced masonry structures
Eurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Mauerwerksbauten - Teil 1-1:
Allgemeine Regeln für bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk

Eurocode 6 : Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Partie 1-1: Règles générales pour

ouvrages en maçonnerie armée et non armée
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 1996-1-1:2019
ICS:
91.010.30 Tehnični vidiki Technical aspects
91.080.30 Zidane konstrukcije Masonry
oSIST prEN 1996-1-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 1996-1-1:2019
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oSIST prEN 1996-1-1:2019
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 1996-1-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2019
ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.30 Will supersede EN 1996-1-1:2005+A1:2012
English Version
Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 1-1:
General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry
structures

Eurocode 6 : Calcul des ouvrages en maçonnerie - Eurocode 6 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von

Partie 1-1: Règles générales pour ouvrages en Mauerwerksbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Regeln für

maçonnerie armée et non armée bewehrtes und unbewehrtes Mauerwerk

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 250.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 1996-1-1:2019:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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oSIST prEN 1996-1-1:2019
prEN 1996-1-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 11

1.1 Scope of prEN 1996-1-1 .............................................................................................................................. 11

1.2 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................................... 11

2 Normative references ................................................................................................................................. 11

3 Terms, definitions and symbols .............................................................................................................. 12

3.1 Terms relating to masonry ....................................................................................................................... 13

3.2 Terms relating to strength of masonry ................................................................................................ 13

3.3 Terms relating to masonry units ............................................................................................................ 14

3.4 Terms relating to mortar .......................................................................................................................... 15

3.5 Terms relating to concrete infill ............................................................................................................. 16

3.6 Terms relating to reinforcement ............................................................................................................ 16

3.7 Terms relating to ancillary components ............................................................................................. 16

3.8 Terms relating to mortar joints .............................................................................................................. 16

3.9 Terms relating to wall types .................................................................................................................... 17

3.10 Miscellaneous terms ................................................................................................................................... 18

3.11 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 19

4 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 25

4.1 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 25

4.1.1 Basic requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 25

4.1.2 Reliability ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

4.1.3 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

4.2 Principles of limit state design ................................................................................................................ 25

4.3 Basic variables .............................................................................................................................................. 26

4.3.1 Actions .............................................................................................................................................................. 26

4.3.2 Material, and product properties ........................................................................................................... 26

4.4 Verification by the partial factor method ............................................................................................ 26

4.4.1 Design values of actions ............................................................................................................................. 26

4.4.2 Design values of material properties .................................................................................................... 26

4.4.3 Combination of actions .............................................................................................................................. 26

4.4.4 Ultimate limit states .................................................................................................................................... 26

4.4.5 Serviceability limit states .......................................................................................................................... 27

4.5 Design assisted by testing ......................................................................................................................... 27

5 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 27

5.1 Masonry units ................................................................................................................................................ 27

5.1.1 Type of masonry units ................................................................................................................................ 27

5.1.2 Specification and grouping of masonry units .................................................................................... 28

5.1.3 Properties of masonry units..................................................................................................................... 30

5.2 Mortar .............................................................................................................................................................. 30

5.2.1 Type of masonry mortar ............................................................................................................................ 30

5.2.2 Specification of masonry mortar ............................................................................................................ 30

5.2.3 Properties of masonry mortar ................................................................................................................ 30

5.3 Concrete infill ................................................................................................................................................ 31

5.3.1 Type of concrete infill ................................................................................................................................. 31

5.3.2 Specification of concrete infill ................................................................................................................. 31

5.3.3 Properties of concrete infill ..................................................................................................................... 31

5.4 Steel reinforcement ..................................................................................................................................... 31

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prEN 1996-1-1:2019 (E)

5.4.1 Type of reinforcing steel ............................................................................................................................ 31

5.4.2 Specification of reinforcing steel ............................................................................................................ 31

5.4.3 Properties of reinforcing steel ................................................................................................................. 32

5.4.4 Properties of bed joint reinforcement .................................................................................................. 32

5.5 Prestressing steel ......................................................................................................................................... 32

5.5.1 Type of prestressing steel .......................................................................................................................... 32

5.5.2 Specification of prestressing steel .......................................................................................................... 32

5.5.3 Properties of prestressing steel .............................................................................................................. 32

5.6 Ancillary components ................................................................................................................................. 32

5.6.1 Damp proof courses ..................................................................................................................................... 32

5.6.2 Wall ties ............................................................................................................................................................ 32

5.6.3 Straps, hangers and brackets ................................................................................................................... 32

5.6.4 Prefabricated lintels .................................................................................................................................... 32

5.6.5 Prestressing devices .................................................................................................................................... 32

5.7 Mechanical properties of masonry ......................................................................................................... 32

5.7.1 Characteristic compressive strength of masonry ............................................................................. 32

5.7.2 Characteristic shear strength of masonry ........................................................................................... 36

5.7.3 Characteristic shear strength of the interface between masonry and prefabricated

lintel................................................................................................................................................................... 38

5.7.4 Characteristic flexural strength of masonry ....................................................................................... 38

5.7.5 Characteristic anchorage strength of reinforcement ...................................................................... 41

5.8 Deformation properties of masonry ...................................................................................................... 41

5.8.1 Stress-strain relationship .......................................................................................................................... 41

5.8.2 Modulus of elasticity .................................................................................................................................... 42

5.8.3 Shear modulus ............................................................................................................................................... 43

5.8.4 Creep, moisture expansion or shrinkage and thermal expansion .............................................. 43

6 Durability......................................................................................................................................................... 44

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 44

6.2 Classification of environmental conditions ........................................................................................ 44

6.3 Durability of masonry ................................................................................................................................. 44

6.3.1 Masonry units ................................................................................................................................................ 44

6.3.2 Mortar ............................................................................................................................................................... 44

6.3.3 Reinforcing steel ........................................................................................................................................... 44

6.3.4 Prestressing steel ......................................................................................................................................... 46

6.3.5 Prestressing devices .................................................................................................................................... 46

6.3.6 Ancillary components ................................................................................................................................. 46

6.4 Masonry below ground ............................................................................................................................... 47

7 Structural analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 47

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 47

7.2 Structural behaviour in accidental situations (other than fire) .................................................. 47

7.3 Imperfections ................................................................................................................................................. 48

7.4 Second order effects .................................................................................................................................... 48

7.5 Analysis of structural members .............................................................................................................. 49

7.5.1 Masonry walls subjected to mainly vertical loading ........................................................................ 49

7.5.2 Unreinforced masonry walls subjected to mainly vertical loading ............................................ 54

7.5.3 Reinforced masonry members subjected to mainly vertical loading ........................................ 54

7.5.4 Confined masonry walls subjected to mainly vertical loading .................................................... 57

7.5.5 Masonry walls subjected to in-plane horizontal loading ............................................................... 57

7.5.6 Reinforced masonry beams subjected to flexure and shear ......................................................... 58

7.5.7 Masonry walls subjected to mainly lateral loading .......................................................................... 59

8 Ultimate limit states .................................................................................................................................... 61

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 61

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8.2 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to mainly vertical loading .............. 62

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 62

8.2.2 Reduction factor for slenderness and eccentricity .......................................................................... 63

8.2.3 Concentrated loads ...................................................................................................................................... 65

8.3 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to combined vertical and

horizontal loading in the plane of the wall ......................................................................................... 67

8.3.1 In-plane shear resistance .......................................................................................................................... 67

8.3.2 Compressed part of the wall..................................................................................................................... 68

8.4 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to mainly lateral loading ................ 69

8.4.1 Loading types ................................................................................................................................................. 69

8.4.2 Walls in flexure ............................................................................................................................................. 69

8.4.3 Walls arching between supports ............................................................................................................ 70

8.4.4 Out-of-plane shear resistance ................................................................................................................. 71

8.5 Verification of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to combined vertical and

lateral loading ............................................................................................................................................... 71

8.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 71

8.5.2 Method using Φ factor ................................................................................................................................ 72

8.5.3 Method taking buckling and flexural strength into account ........................................................ 72

8.5.4 Method using the out-of-plane bending capacity of the wall ....................................................... 72

8.6 Ties .................................................................................................................................................................... 73

8.7 Verification of reinforced masonry members subjected to bending, bending and

axial loading, or axial loading .................................................................................................................. 73

8.7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 73

8.7.2 Walls subjected to in-plane bending or in-plane bending and axial loading ......................... 74

8.7.3 Walls subjected to out-of-plane bending or out-of-plane bending and axial loading ......... 75

8.7.4 Walls subjected to second order effects .............................................................................................. 79

8.7.5 Beams subjected to bending .................................................................................................................... 80

8.7.6 Deep beams subjected to bending ......................................................................................................... 80

8.7.7 Composite lintels subjected to bending ............................................................................................... 82

8.8 Verification of reinforced masonry members subjected to shear loading .............................. 83

8.8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 83

8.8.2 Walls subjected to horizontal loads in the plane of the wall ........................................................ 83

8.8.3 Beams subjected to shear loading .......................................................................................................... 84

8.8.4 Deep beams subjected to shear loading ............................................................................................... 86

8.8.5 Composite lintels subjected to shear loading .................................................................................... 86

8.9 Prestressed masonry .................................................................................................................................. 86

8.9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 86

8.9.2 Verification of members ............................................................................................................................ 86

8.10 Confined masonry ........................................................................................................................................ 87

8.10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 87

8.10.2 Verification of confined masonry walls subjected to mainly vertical loading ....................... 87

8.10.3 Verification of confined masonry walls subjected to combined vertical and

horizontal loading in the plane of the wall ......................................................................................... 88

8.10.4 Verification of confined masonry walls subjected to other loading conditions .................... 89

9 Serviceability limit states .......................................................................................................................... 90

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 90

9.2 Unreinforced masonry walls .................................................................................................................... 90

9.3 Reinforced masonry members ................................................................................................................ 90

9.4 Prestressed masonry members .............................................................................................................. 90

9.5 Confined masonry members .................................................................................................................... 91

9.6 Walls subjected to concentrated loads ................................................................................................. 91

10 Detailing .......................................................................................................................................................... 91

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prEN 1996-1-1:2019 (E)

10.1 Masonry details ............................................................................................................................................. 91

10.1.1 Masonry materials ....................................................................................................................................... 91

10.1.2 Minimum thickness of wall ....................................................................................................................... 91

10.1.3 Minimum area of wall ................................................................................................................................. 91

10.1.4 Bonding of masonry ..................................................................................................................................... 92

10.1.5 Mortar joints ................................................................................................................................................... 93

10.1.6 Bearings under concentrated loads ....................................................................................................... 93

10.2 Reinforcement details ................................................................................................................................. 93

10.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 93

10.2.2 Cover to reinforcement .............................................................................................................................. 93

10.2.3 Minimum area of reinforcement ............................................................................................................. 94

10.2.4 Size of reinforcing steel .............................................................................................................................. 94

10.2.5 Anchorage and laps ...................................................................................................................................... 95

10.2.6 Restraint of compression reinforcing steel ......................................................................................... 97

10.2.7 Spacing of reinforcing steel ....................................................................................................................... 98

10.3 Prestressing details ..................................................................................................................................... 98

10.4 Confined masonry details .......................................................................................................................... 98

10.5 Connection of walls ...................................................................................................................................... 99

10.5.1 Connection of walls to floors and roofs ................................................................................................ 99

10.5.2 Connection between walls .............................................................

...

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