Furniture - General safety guidelines - Entrapment of fingers

The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to CEN TC207 working groups on safety requirements for finger
entrapment for different product types and end uses.
The document is intended to rationalise the range of requirements currently used in different furniture standards, and provide a commentary on each requirement.
The requirements may need to be adapted to different product groups and end uses as necessary.

Möbel - Allgemeine Sicherheitsleitfäden - Fingerfangstellen

Ameublement - Lignes directrices générales de sécurité - Coincement des doigts

Le présent Rapport technique présente la philosophie générale de sécurité, des lignes directrices sur
l’évaluation de la sécurité qu’il est recommandé aux experts d’utiliser lors de la rédaction de normes et
des recommandations de sécurité spécifiques, ainsi que des méthodes d’essai relatives aux dangers
causés par les trous et les ouvertures qui sont communes à tous les types de meubles.
Le présent Rapport technique contient des recommandations pouvant être utilisées par les concepteurs
et les fabricants pour évaluer tout risque inhérent à leurs produits.
Ce Rapport technique a pour but de traiter des risques courants que présentent les articles de mobilier
pour les adultes et les enfants de plus de 36 mois. Pour les produits conçus pour les enfants de moins de
36 mois, l’attention est attirée sur la série de documents CEN/TR 13387.
Les risques pour la sécurité traités dans le présent Rapport technique correspondent aux dangers
causés par les trous et les ouvertures, et en particulier :
 le coincement des doigts ;
 le cisaillement ou la compression/l’écrasement des doigts ;
 les arêtes vives.
Les risques pour la sécurité qui ne sont pas traités dans le présent Rapport technique car ils sont
considérés comme étant hors du domaine d’application de ce dernier et associés à des types de produits
spécifiques, mais qui peuvent être causés par des trous et des ouvertures comprennent :
 le coincement de la tête et du cou ;
 le coincement des jambes.
Ces lignes directrices ne couvrent pas tous les types de dangers et de risques, tels que l’utilisation
inappropriée des produits ou la surveillance inadéquate des enfants.
NOTE L’attention est attirée sur l’importance de s’assurer que tous les autres dangers potentiels pertinents
pour le produit, par exemple stabilité, résistance et effets du courant électrique, etc., sont complètement traités
lors du processus de rédaction des normes.
Le présent Rapport technique comporte une annexe :
Annexe A (informative) – Données anthropométriques.

Pohištvo - Smernice za splošno varnost - Ujetje prstov

Namen tega dokumenta je podajanje smernic za delovne skupine CEN TC207 glede varnostnih zahtev za ujetje prstov pri različnih vrstah proizvodov in končnih uporab. Namen dokumenta je racionalizacija razpona trenutno uporabljenih zahtev pri različnih standardih v zvezi s pohištvom in komentiranje posamezne zahteve. Zahteve bodo morda morale biti po potrebi prilagojene različnim skupinam proizvodov in končnim uporabam.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Nov-2017
Publication Date
06-May-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Apr-2018
Due Date
09-Jun-2018
Completion Date
07-May-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
01-november-2017
[Not translated]
Furniture - General safety guidelines - Entrapment of fingers
Möbel - Allgemeine Sicherheitsleitfäden - Fingerfangstellen
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TR 17202
ICS:
97.140 Pohištvo Furniture
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL REPORT
FprCEN/TR 17202
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
September 2017
ICS 97.140
English Version
Furniture - General safety guidelines - Entrapment of
fingers
Leitfaden zur Risikobewertung von Fingerfangstellen
und Scher- und Quetschstellen

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

207.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 General safety ................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Hazard and risk assessment ....................................................................................................................... 7

6 Accessibility ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Entrapment of fingers ................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Hazards from moving parts ....................................................................................................................... 15

9 Hazards from sharp edges ......................................................................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Anthropometric data - Sizes of fingers ................................................................. 20

A.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 20

A.2 Children’s fingers .......................................................................................................................................... 20

A.3 Adult fingers ................................................................................................................................................... 21

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 23

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TR 17202:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 207

“Furniture”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TR.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)
Introduction

This Technical Report is a non-normative CEN publication which provides guidance information on the

common hazards that should be taken into consideration when developing safety standards for

furniture.

They have been drawn up by a working group of experts set up by CEN/TC 207 with the prime

objective of harmonizing the approach to hazard, risk assessment and injury prevention. These

guidelines give recommendations on preventative measures to avoid injuries that could be caused by

furniture.

The standards developed by CEN/TC 207 cover a wide range of users, including vulnerable group such

as children and the elderly. Furniture is a group that has large variations between different products,

however, many safety hazards associated with this diverse group of products are very similar. These

guidelines identify many of these safety hazards and give details that enable similar safety principles to

be applied to the drafting of standards across the group of products.

The information given in these guidelines reflects the state of the art at publication. Standards and

regulations will continuously be developed. Other sources may also provide useful information for the

reader.
How to use this guideline

The safety recommendations and test methods given are intended to give guidance and to lead to

consistency when writing safety standards for furniture. It is recommended to use these guidelines

when drafting standards.

The safety recommendations detailed do not constitute an exhaustive set that can be applied to all

furniture products. The application to particular products should be evaluated by experts.

In these guidelines rationales are given to explain the potential hazard. Wherever possible,

recommendations, test equipment and test methods are given which can be used when drafting

standards. The terminology in these guidelines is not the one required for standards: the word 'shall' is

meant to be used in standards, not 'should' as given in these guidelines.

CEN/TC 207 is, wherever possible when writing new standards or revising existing standards, drafting

their standards on a hazard based format.

This document should enable working groups to draft their standards in a hazard based format by

proceeding in the following way:
— identification of the hazards and assessment of the risk;
— definition of the recommendations to address an identified hazard and risk;
— definition of relevant test methods to check that the recommendations are met;

— provision of an Annex which contains anthropometric data for the inclusion of the

recommendations.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Report, contains the general safety philosophy, a guideline on the safety assessment that

experts are recommended to use when drafting standards and guidance on specific general safety

recommendations, and test methods, relating to hazards caused by holes and openings that are

common to all types of furniture.

The Technical Report contains guidance that is intended to be used by designers and manufacturers to

assess any inherent risk within their products.

The Technical Report is intended to address common risks posed by items of furniture to adults and

children over 36 months old. For products designed for children under 36 months attention is drawn to

the CEN/TR 13387 series of documents.

Safety risks addressed by this Technical Report are hazards caused by holes and openings and

specifically:
— entrapment of fingers;
— shearing or compression/crushing of fingers;
— sharp edges.

Safety risks not addressed by this Technical Report, because they are considered outside of the scope of

this report and associated with specific product types, but can be caused by holes and openings include:

— entrapment of head and neck;
— entrapment of limbs;

These guidelines do not cover all types of hazards and risks, such as inappropriate use of products, or

inadequate supervision of children.

NOTE Attention is drawn to the importance of ensuring that all other potential hazards relevant to the

product e.g. stability, strength and the effects of electrical power etc., are fully addressed in the process of

standards writing.
This Technical Report has one Annex:
Annex A (informative) – Anthropometric data.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
harm

injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the environment

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kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)
3.2
hazard
potential source of harm
3.3
hazard characterisation

quantitative evaluation of the nature of the adverse health effects following exposure to a risk source(s)

3.4
hazard identification
identification of a risk source(s) capable of causing adverse effect(s)
3.5
intended use
use in accordance with information provided together with a product
3.6
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

Note 1 to entry: The probability of occurrence includes the exposure to a hazardous situation, the occurrence of a

hazardous event, and the possibility to avoid or limit the harm.
3.7
risk analysis

systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk

3.8
risk assessment
overall process comprising a risk analysis and a risk evaluation

Note 1 to entry: In practical terms this means the evaluation, including the identification of the related

uncertainties, of the likelihood and severity of an adverse effect(s) following exposure under defined means to a

risk source(s).
3.9
risk evaluation

procedure based on the risk analysis to determine whether tolerable risk has been exceeded

4 General safety

Safety is often a balance between being safe from injury and the other demands of an item of furniture,

for example, ensuring that the item is fit for purpose as well as meeting consumers’ needs and

expectations.
Attention should be paid to:
— the intended users of the product, i.e. adults, children;

— the intended and foreseeable use of the product, bearing in mind that many products can be used in

environments where both children and adults are present.

Items of furniture should be designed to be safe. Hazards should be eliminated wherever possible. For

cases where a hazard cannot be eliminated or sufficiently minimized – by design or safeguards –

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)

product related information should be given. However product related information should not be used

as an alternative to safe design.
5 Hazard and risk assessment
5.1 Introduction

The approach to hazard risk assessment described in this clause should ensure that the specific hazards

addressed by this Technical Report are assessed when developing safety standards for furniture.

This clause details a process to identify these hazards and to assess the risks of injury to the user

associated with furniture.

When developing a new furniture safety standard, revising an existing one or working with a standard

where safety needs to be addressed, it is necessary to conduct a hazard and risk assessment. This

involves gathering information from a variety of sources such as accident data, RAPEX and recall

notifications, legal reports and other reliable sources of information such as expert opinion.

Additionally, reference should be made to relevant furniture safety guidelines, publications and safety

standards.

The hazard risk assessment methodology described in this clause may also be used to assist designers

and manufacturers in the development of new product.
5.2 Methodology

A hazard and risk assessment table is provided for the hazards covered by this Technical Report.

The table does not list all the known hazards that have been identified through review of available

guides and Standards, specifically those for children under 36 months, however standards for products

specifically designed for this age group should reference the CEN/TR 13387 series of guidance

documents. Additional hazards not listed in the table may be associated with certain product categories

and should also be considered. The methodology can be used for all potential risks.

Before the hazard and risk assessment table can be completed, all available data, such as accident data,

RAPEX and recall notifications, legal reports and other reliable sources of information, such as expert

opinion, require analysis. There is also a need to fully review the products available and to understand

how a user will interact with a product. It is also necessary to understand the type of injuries that can

occur and how they are caused, as well as how accidents themselves occur and the likely outcomes.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)
Table 1 — Hazard and risk assessment table
Hazard List Hazard identification Hazard analysis Risk Risk management Comments
level measures
Entrapment of
fingers
Hazards due to
moving parts, i.e.
shearing or
compression
6 Accessibility

This guidance document does not specify exact accessible zones for fingers for all products, as these

should be determined in relation to the hazards and risks of individual products when drafting a

standard. As a general guidance to the types of contact associated with the specified hazards:

— the hazardous part is in reach of the user from the intended position of use by hands and there is a

high probability of contact. Recommendation are needed to address this primary contact;

— the hazardous part may be reached by the user, beyond the intended position of use. Access to

hazardous parts is gained by passing/moving around the product or when contorting the body to

touch the hazardous part. The risk of harm deriving from contact may be less probable.

Recommendation may be needed to address this secondary contact, dependant on the associated

risk;

— the hazardous part may be reached by a person other than the user, with the product in its

intended position of use. Access to hazardous parts is gained by passing/moving around the

product. The risk of harm deriving from contact may be less probable. Recommendation may be

needed to address this secondary contact, dependant on the associated risk;
— the hazardous part exists, but cannot be reached by any user.

Irrespective of the access category, the reasonably foreseeable conditions of use should always be

considered when designing items of furniture and/or writing product standards.
Accident data
RAPEX
Product recalls
Reported incidents
Product reports
Expert opinion
Minor or reversible injuries
Serious and reversible, or minor
and irreversible injuries
Serious and irreversible injuries
Death
L (Low) – M (Medium) – H (High)
Hazard addressed by another
similar safety standard or a
previous version
Hazard to be addressed by safety
recommendation
Hazard to be addressed by product
information
Hazard not to be addressed
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
kSIST-TP FprCEN/TR 17202:2017
FprCEN/TR 17202:2017 (E)

The following are furniture specific examples of how an accessible zone could be defined, however

exact requirements may be specific to each product group and end use:

— seating, the accessible zone should be 120 mm in from the sides and the front of the seat;

— tables, the accessible zone should be 500 mm in from the edges users are likely to sit at and

200 mm from all other edges;

— storage, the accessible zone should be any parts that are less than 1000 mm above any surface on

which a child could stand, but with the exception of doors, flaps and extension elements including

their hardware.

If any adjustment devices require movement outside the recommended access zone, they should be

considered to be part of the accessible zone even though some contortion of the body may occur. Any

area within 50 mm of the area fingers interact with these devices should also be considered as

accessible by the user.

NOTE 1000 mm is the dimension defined in EN 1176-1 for access by children of 36 months or older.

7 Entrapment of fingers
7.1 Rationale

This clause deals with the entrapment of fingers in static openings and gaps. Hazards to fingers

associated with moving parts, which result in crushing and shearing are covered in Clause 8.

This hazard occurs when a user’s finger becomes stuck in openings / gaps and the flow of blood to the

finger is reduced. Additionally the weight or movement of the user may cause dislocation or

displacement of a finger joint.

A user may not always have the ability to extract their finger or fingers from the openings / gaps.

Reducing the depth of penetration in the free openings / gaps may avoid potential hazards.

The shape of the opening / gap is also to be considered when assessing a risk: a round or equilateral

shape may cause reduction of blood circulation, whereas a slot may not present a large risk.

The hazard asso
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
01-junij-2018
Pohištvo - Smernice za splošno varnost - Ujetje prstov
Furniture - General safety guidelines - Entrapment of fingers
Möbel - Allgemeine Sicherheitsleitfäden - Fingerfangstellen
Ameublement - Lignes directrices générales de sécurité - Coincement des doigts
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17202:2018
ICS:
97.140 Pohištvo Furniture
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
April 2018
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 97.140
English Version
Furniture - General safety guidelines - Entrapment of
fingers

Ameublement - Lignes directrices générales de sécurité Möbel - Allgemeine Sicherheitsleitfäden -

- Coincement des doigts Fingerfangstellen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 2 February 2018. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 207.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17202:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................... 5

4 General safety ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Hazard and risk assessment .......................................................................................................................... 7

6 Accessibility ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Entrapment of fingers ...................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Hazards from moving parts .......................................................................................................................... 15

9 Hazards from sharp edges ............................................................................................................................ 19

Annex A (informative) Anthropometric data - Sizes of fingers ................................................................. 20

A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................. 20

A.2 Children’s fingers ............................................................................................................................................. 20

A.3 Adult fingers ...................................................................................................................................................... 21

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 23

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17202:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 207

“Furniture”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)
Introduction

This document is a non-normative CEN publication which provides guidance information on the

common hazards that should be taken into consideration when developing safety standards for

furniture.

They have been drawn up by a working group of experts set up by CEN/TC 207 with the prime

objective of harmonizing the approach to hazard, risk assessment and injury prevention. These

guidelines give recommendations on preventative measures to avoid injuries that could be caused by

furniture.

The standards developed by CEN/TC 207 cover a wide range of users, including vulnerable group such

as children and the elderly. Furniture is a group that has large variations between different products,

however, many safety hazards associated with this diverse group of products are very similar. These

guidelines identify many of these safety hazards and give details that enable similar safety principles to

be applied to the drafting of standards across the group of products.

The information given in these guidelines reflects the state of the art at publication. Standards and

regulations will continuously be developed. Other sources may also provide useful information for the

reader.
How to use this guideline

The safety recommendations and test methods given are intended to give guidance and to lead to

consistency when writing safety standards for furniture. It is recommended to use these guidelines

when drafting standards.

The safety recommendations detailed do not constitute an exhaustive set that can be applied to all

furniture products. The application to particular products should be evaluated by experts.

In these guidelines rationales are given to explain the potential hazard. Wherever possible,

recommendations, test equipment and test methods are given which can be used when drafting

standards. The terminology in these guidelines is not the one required for standards: the word 'shall' is

meant to be used in standards, not 'should' as given in these guidelines.

CEN/TC 207 is, wherever possible when writing new standards or revising existing standards, drafting

their standards on a hazard based format.

This document should enable working groups to draft their standards in a hazard based format by

proceeding in the following way:
— identification of the hazards and assessment of the risk;
— definition of the recommendations to address an identified hazard and risk;
— definition of relevant test methods to check that the recommendations are met;

— provision of an Annex which contains anthropometric data for the inclusion of the

recommendations.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This document, contains the general safety philosophy, a guideline on the safety assessment that

experts are recommended to use when drafting standards and guidance on specific general safety

recommendations, and test methods, relating to hazards caused by holes and openings that are

common to all types of furniture.

The Technical Report contains guidance that is intended to be used by designers and manufacturers to

assess any inherent risk within their products.

The Technical Report is intended to address common risks posed by items of furniture to adults and

children over 36 months old. For products designed for children under 36 months attention is drawn to

CEN/TR 13387 series of documents.

Safety risks addressed by this document are hazards caused by holes and openings and specifically:

— entrapment of fingers;
— shearing or compression/crushing of fingers;
— sharp edges.

Safety risks not addressed by this document, because they are considered outside of the scope of this

report and associated with specific product types, but can be caused by holes and openings include:

— entrapment of head and neck;
— entrapment of limbs;

These guidelines do not cover all types of hazards and risks, such as inappropriate use of products, or

inadequate supervision of children.

NOTE Attention is drawn to the importance of ensuring that all other potential hazards relevant to the

product e.g. stability, strength and the effects of electrical power etc., are fully addressed in the process of

standards writing.
This document has one Annex:
Annex A (informative) – Anthropometric data.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
harm

injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the environment

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)
3.2
hazard
potential source of harm
3.3
hazard characterisation

quantitative evaluation of the nature of the adverse health effects following exposure to a risk source(s)

3.4
hazard identification
identification of a risk source(s) capable of causing adverse effect(s)
3.5
intended use
use in accordance with information provided together with a product
3.6
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

Note 1 to entry: The probability of occurrence includes the exposure to a hazardous situation, the occurrence of a

hazardous event, and the possibility to avoid or limit the harm.
3.7
risk analysis

systematic use of available information to identify hazards and to estimate the risk

3.8
risk assessment
overall process comprising a risk analysis and a risk evaluation

Note 1 to entry: In practical terms this means the evaluation, including the identification of the related

uncertainties, of the likelihood and severity of an adverse effect(s) following exposure under defined means to a

risk source(s).
3.9
risk evaluation

procedure based on the risk analysis to determine whether tolerable risk has been exceeded

4 General safety

Safety is often a balance between being safe from injury and the other demands of an item of furniture,

for example, ensuring that the item is fit for purpose as well as meeting consumers’ needs and

expectations.
Attention should be paid to:
— the intended users of the product, i.e. adults, children;

— the intended and foreseeable use of the product, bearing in mind that many products can be used in

environments where both children and adults are present.

Items of furniture should be designed to be safe. Hazards should be eliminated wherever possible. For

cases where a hazard cannot be eliminated or sufficiently minimized – by design or safeguards –

product related information should be given. However product related information should not be used

as an alternative to safe design.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)
5 Hazard and risk assessment
5.1 Introduction

The approach to hazard risk assessment described in this clause should ensure that the specific hazards

addressed by this document are assessed when developing safety standards for furniture.

This clause details a process to identify these hazards and to assess the risks of injury to the user

associated with furniture.

When developing a new furniture safety standard, revising an existing one or working with a standard

where safety needs to be addressed, it is necessary to conduct a hazard and risk assessment. This

involves gathering information from a variety of sources such as accident data, RAPEX and recall

notifications, legal reports and other reliable sources of information such as expert opinion.

Additionally, reference should be made to relevant furniture safety guidelines, publications and safety

standards.

The hazard risk assessment methodology described in this clause may also be used to assist designers

and manufacturers in the development of new product.
5.2 Methodology

A hazard and risk assessment table is provided for the hazards covered by this document.

The table does not list all the known hazards that have been identified through review of available

guides and Standards, specifically those for children under 36 months, however standards for products

specifically designed for this age group should reference the CEN/TR 13387 series of guidance

documents. Additional hazards not listed in the table may be associated with certain product categories

and should also be considered. The methodology can be used for all potential risks.

Before the hazard and risk assessment table can be completed, all available data, such as accident data,

RAPEX and recall notifications, legal reports and other reliable sources of information, such as expert

opinion, require analysis. There is also a need to fully review the products available and to understand

how a user will interact with a product. It is also necessary to understand the type of injuries that can

occur and how they are caused, as well as how accidents themselves occur and the likely outcomes.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17202:2018
CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)
Table 1 — Hazard and risk assessment table
Hazard List Hazard identification Hazard analysis Risk Risk management Comments
level measures
Entrapment of
fingers
Hazards due to
moving parts, i.e.
shearing or
compression
6 Accessibility

This guidance document does not specify exact accessible zones for fingers for all products, as these

should be determined in relation to the hazards and risks of individual products when drafting a

standard. As a general guidance to the types of contact associated with the specified hazards:

— the hazardous part is in reach of the user from the intended position of use by hands and there is a

high probability of contact. Recommendation are needed to address this primary contact;

— the hazardous part may be reached by the user, beyond the intended position of use. Access to

hazardous parts is gained by passing/moving around the product or when contorting the body to

touch the hazardous part. The risk of harm deriving from contact may be less probable.

Recommendation may be needed to address this secondary contact, dependant on the associated

risk;

— the hazardous part may be reached by a person other than the user, with the product in its

intended position of use. Access to hazardous parts is gained by passing/moving around the

product. The risk of harm deriving from contact may be less probable. Recommendation may be

needed to address this secondary contact, dependant on the associated risk;
— the hazardous part exists, but cannot be reached by any user.

Irrespective of the access category, the reasonably foreseeable conditions of use should always be

considered when designing items of furniture and/or writing product standards.
Accident data
RAPEX
Product recalls
Reported incidents
Product reports
Expert opinion
Minor or reversible injuries
Serious and reversible, or minor
and irreversible injuries
Serious and irreversible injuries
Death
L (Low) – M (Medium) – H (High)
Hazard addressed by another
similar safety standard or a
previous version
Hazard to be addressed by safety
recommendation
Hazard to be addressed by product
information
Hazard not to be addressed
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CEN/TR 17202:2018 (E)

The following are furniture specific examples of how an accessible zone could be defined, however

exact requirements may be specific to each product group and end use:

— seating, the accessible zone should be 120 mm in from the sides and the front of the seat;

— tables, the accessible zone should be 500 mm in from the edges users are likely to sit at and

200 mm from all other edges;

— storage, the accessible zone should be any parts that are less than 1000 mm above any surface on

which a child could stand, but with the exception of doors, flaps and extension elements including

their hardware.

If any adjustment devices require movement outside the recommended access zone, they should be

considered to be part of the accessible zone even though some contortion of the body may occur. Any

area within 50 mm of the area fingers interact with these devices should also be considered as

accessible by the user.

NOTE 1000 mm is the dimension defined in EN 1176-1 for access by children of 36 months or older.

7 Entrapment of fingers
7.1 Rationale

This clause deals with the entrapment of fingers in static openings and gaps. Hazards to fingers

associated with moving parts, which result in crushing and shearing are covered in Clause 8.

This hazard occurs when a user’s finger becomes stuck in openings / gaps and the flow of blood to the

finger is reduced. Additionally the weight or movement of the user may cause dislocation or

displacement of a finger joint.

A user may not always have the ability to extract their finger or fingers from the openings / gaps.

Reducing the depth of penetration in the free openings / gaps may avoid potential hazards.

The shape of the opening / gap is also to be considered when assessing a risk: a round or equilateral

shape may cause reduction of blood circulation, whereas a slot may not present a large risk.

The hazard associated with flexible
...

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