Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS) - The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3 - TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types

The present document defines the Behaviour Types package of TTCN-3. TTCN-3 can be used for the specification of all types of reactive system tests over a variety of communication ports. Typical areas of application are protocol testing (including mobile and Internet protocols), service testing (including supplementary services), module testing, testing of APIs, etc. TTCN-3 is not restricted to conformance testing and can be used for many other kinds of testing including interoperability, robustness, regression, system and integration testing. The specification of test suites for physical layer protocols is outside the scope of the present document. TTCN-3 packages are intended to define additional TTCN-3 concepts, which are not mandatory as concepts in the TTCN-3 core language, but which are optional as part of a package which is suited for dedicated applications and/or usages of TTCN-3. This package defines types for behaviour definitions in TTCN-3. While the design of TTCN-3 package has taken into account the consistency of a combined usage of the core language with a number of packages, the concrete usages of and guidelines for this package in combination with other packages is outside the scope of the present document.

Metode za preskušanje in specificiranje (MTS) - 3. različica zapisa preskušanja in krmiljenja preskusov - Razširitev nabora jezikov TTCN-3: tipi obnašanja

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-May-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-May-2020
Due Date
30-Jul-2020
Completion Date
26-May-2020

Buy Standard

Standard
ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05) - Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types
English language
44 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02) - Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types
English language
44 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standardization document
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
English language
44 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
ETSI STANDARD
Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS);
The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3;
TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Reference
RES/MTS-202785v171
Keywords
conformance, testing, TTCN-3
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 6

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Package conformance and compatibility .................................................................................................. 6

5 Package concepts for the core language ................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 5 (Basic language elements) .............................................................. 7

5.2 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 6 (Types and values).......................................................................... 8

5.3 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 7 (Expressions) ................................................................................ 14

5.4 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 8 (Modules) ..................................................................................... 14

5.5 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 10 (Declaring constants) .................................................................. 14

5.6 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 11 (Declaring variables) .................................................................. 14

5.7 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 15 (Declaring templates) ................................................................. 15

5.8 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 16 (Functions, altsteps and test cases) ............................................. 15

5.9 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 19 (Basic program statements) ........................................................ 16

5.10 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 20 (Statements and operations for alternative behaviours) .............. 17

5.11 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 21 (Configuration Operations) ........................................................ 17

5.12 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 26 (Module control) ........................................................................ 18

5.13 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, annex A (BNF and static semantics) .......................................................... 19

5.13.0 New keywords and TTCN-3 syntax BNF productions ............................................................................... 19

5.13.1 Changes to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause A.1.6 (TTCN-3 syntax BNF productions) ................................... 19

6 Package semantics .................................................................................................................................. 20

6.1 Replacements ................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.2 Activate statement ............................................................................................................................................ 20

6.3 Replacements in Execute statement's operational semantics ............................................................................ 21

6.3.0 Execute statement ....................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.1 Flow graph segment ....................................................................................... 22

6.4 Replacements in Function call's operational semantics .................................................................................... 23

6.4.0 Function call ............................................................................................................................................... 23

6.4.1 Flow graph segment .................................................................................................. 25

6.4.2 Flow graph segment ............................................................................................... 25

6.5 Start component operation ................................................................................................................................ 25

7 TRI extensions for the package .............................................................................................................. 28

8 TCI extensions for the package .............................................................................................................. 28

8.1 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 7 (TTCN-3 control interface and operations)................................. 28

8.2 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 8 (Java language mapping) ............................................................ 29

8.3 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 9 (ANSI C language mapping) ...................................................... 30

8.4 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 10 (C++ language mapping) .......................................................... 30

8.5 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 11 (W3C XML mapping) .............................................................. 32

9 Extensions to TTCN-3 documentation comment specification for the package .................................... 42

9.1 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-10, annex A (where Tags can be used) ......................................................... 42

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 44

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Methods for Testing and Specification

(MTS).

The use of underline (additional text) highlights the differences between base document and extended

documents.

The present document relates to the multi-part standard ETSI ES 201 873 covering the Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3, as identified in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1].
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
1 Scope

The present document defines the Behaviour Types package of TTCN-3. TTCN-3 can be used for the specification of

all types of reactive system tests over a variety of communication ports. Typical areas of application are protocol testing

(including mobile and Internet protocols), service testing (including supplementary services), module testing, testing of

APIs, etc. TTCN-3 is not restricted to conformance testing and can be used for many other kinds of testing including

interoperability, robustness, regression, system and integration testing. The specification of test suites for physical layer

protocols is outside the scope of the present document.

TTCN-3 packages are intended to define additional TTCN-3 concepts, which are not mandatory as concepts in the

TTCN-3 core language, but which are optional as part of a package which is suited for dedicated applications and/or

usages of TTCN-3.
This package defines types for behaviour definitions in TTCN-3.

While the design of TTCN-3 package has taken into account the consistency of a combined usage of the core language

with a number of packages, the concrete usages of and guidelines for this package in combination with other packages

is outside the scope of the present document.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI ES 201 873-1: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 1: TTCN-3 Core Language".

[2] ETSI ES 201 873-4: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 4: TTCN-3 Operational Semantics".

[3] ETSI ES 201 873-5: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 5: TTCN-3 Runtime Interface (TRI)".

[4] ETSI ES 201 873-6: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 6: TTCN-3 Control Interface (TCI)".

[5] ISO/IEC 9646-1: "Information technology -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Conformance

testing methodology and framework; Part 1: General concepts".

[6] ETSI ES 202 784: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Advanced Parameterization".

[7] ETSI ES 201 873-10: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test

Control Notation version 3; Part 10: TTCN-3 Documentation Comment Specification".

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI ES 201 873-7: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 7: Using ASN.1 with TTCN-3".

[i.2] ETSI ES 201 873-8: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping".

[i.3] ETSI ES 201 873-9: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 9: Using XML schema with TTCN-3".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms

For the purposes of the present document, the terms given in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1], ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2],

ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3], ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4], ISO/IEC 9646-1 [5] and the following apply:

behaviour definition: definition of an altstep, function, or testcase that can be called explicitly

NOTE: A control part is not considered a behaviour definition, because it cannot be called explicitly.

behaviour type: type of behaviour definitions
NOTE: Behaviour types are of kind altstep, function, or testcase.
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1], ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2],

ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3], ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4] and ISO/IEC 9646-1 [5] apply.
4 Package conformance and compatibility
The package presented in the present document is identified by the package tag:

"TTCN-3:2009 Behaviour Types" - to be used with modules complying with the present document

For an implementation claiming to conform to this package version, all features specified in the present document shall

be implemented consistently with the requirements given in the present document; in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] and ETSI

ES 201 873-4 [2]. All features marked [AdvancedParameterization] have to be implemented only in case that this

package is used together with the Advanced Parameterization package [6].
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
The package presented in the present document is compatible with:
• ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2] (V4.4.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-7 [i.1] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-8 [i.2] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-9 [i.3] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-10 [7] (V4.5.1).

If later versions of those parts are available and should be used instead, the compatibility to the package presented in the

present document has to be checked individually.
The package presented in the present document is also compatible with:
• ETSI ES 202 784 [6] Package Advanced Parameterization (V1.3.1);
and can be used together with this package.

If later versions of those packages are available and should be used instead, the compatibility to the package presented

in the present document has to be checked individually.
5 Package concepts for the core language
5.1 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 5 (Basic language
elements)
Clause 5.4 Parameterization
Values of behaviour types can be passed as parameters as indicated in table 2.
Table 2: Overview of parameterizable TTCN-3 objects
Keyword Allowed kind of Allowed form of Allowed types in formal parameter lists
Parameterization Parameterization

module Value parameterization Static at start of run-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

type.

type Value parameterization Static at compile-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

(see note)
type.

template Value and template Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

parameterization
type, template, and behaviour types.

function Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

timer parameterization type, component type, port type, default,
behaviour types, template and timer.

altstep Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

timer parameterization type, component type, port type, default,
behaviour types, template and timer.

testcase Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types and of all user-defined types,

timer parameterization address type, template, and behaviour types.

signature Value and template Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

parameterization
type, component type, and behaviour types.

NOTE: Record of, set of, enumerated, port, component and sub-type definitions do not allow parameterization.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Clause 5.4.1.1 Formal parameters of kind value
Also, values of behaviour types can be passed as value parameters.
5.2 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 6 (Types and
values)

Behaviour types such as altstep, function, and testcase may be used to define flexible behaviour of TTCN-3

libraries.
No subtyping is defined for behaviour types.
Clause 6.2 Structured Types and Values
Extend clause 6.2 Structured types and values by the following clause 6.2.13.
6.2.13 Behaviour Types
6.2.13.1 Behaviour Type Definitions

Behaviour types are the set of identifiers of altstep, function, and testcase definitions with a specific parameter list, runs

on, system, mtc and return clauses. They denote those altsteps, functions, and testcases, respectively, defined in the test

suite that have a compatible parameter list and compatible runs on or system clauses.

Syntactical Structure
type function BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1

"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTimerPar | FormalTemplatePar | FormalPortPar ) [","] } ] ")"

[ runs on ( ComponentType | self ] NOTE 2
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
[ return [ template ] Type ]
type altstep BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1

"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTimerPar | FormalTemplatePar | FormalPortPar ) [","] } ] ")"

[ runs on ( ComponentType | self ] NOTE 2
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type testcase BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1
"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTemplatePar ) [","] } ] ")"
runs on ComponentType
[ system ComponentType ]
Semantic Description
Behaviour types define prototypes of altsteps, functions, and testcases.

NOTE 1: [AdvancedParameterization] If the advanced parameterization package [6] is also supported, behaviour

types can have type parameters.

NOTE 2: runs on self indicates a specific compatibility check, see extension of clause 6.3.

Restrictions

a) The rules for formal parameter lists shall be followed as defined in the TTCN-3 Core Language [1] clause 5.4

and extended in clause 5.1 of the present document.

b) Behaviour types of kind altstep may have a runs on, system or mtc clause, behaviour types of type

function may have a runs on, system, mtc or return clause, behaviour types of kind testcase

shall have a runs on clause and may have a system clause.
c) runs on self shall not be used for test cases.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Examples
EXAMPLE 1: Function type with one parameter and a return value.
type function MyFunc1 ( in integer p1 ) return boolean;

EXAMPLE 2: Function type with one parameter, a runs on clause and a return value.

type function MyFunc2 ( in integer p1 ) runs on MyCompType return boolean;
EXAMPLE 3: Altstep type with a type parameter and a runs on clause.
type altstep MyAltstep1 ( in T p1 ) runs on MyCompType;

EXAMPLE 4: Testcase type without parameter, with a runs on clause and a system clause.

type testcase MyTestcase1 ( ) runs on MyCompType system MySysType;
6.2.13.2 Behaviour Values

The values of a behaviour type are the identifiers of altsteps, functions, and testcases with compatible parameters and

runs on, system, mtc and return clauses. Both predefined and user-defined, including external, functions can

be used as values. Type compatibility of behaviour types is defined in the extension to clause 6.3.5 within the present

document.
Syntactical Structure
VariableRef | FunctionInstance | FunctionRef | AltstepRef | TestcaseRef | null
Semantic Description

The literal behaviour values are the identifiers of the predefined and user-defined altsteps, (external) functions, and

testcases and the special value null. The special value null is available to indicate an undefined behaviour value,

e.g. for the initialization of variables. Behaviour values can be passed around as parameters and behaviour values can be

stored. Behaviour values can be used, together with a corresponding list of actual parameters, to invoke the behaviours

in statements and expressions. Behaviour values can also be used, again together with a corresponding list of actual

parameters, in activate, start, and execute statements, respectively.

The only operators (see clause 7.1 of the TTCN-3 core language [1]) on behaviour values that are defined are the check

for equality and inequality.
Restrictions

a) Values of a behaviour type with a runs on self clause shall not be sent to another test component.

b) Values of a behaviour type with a runs on self clause shall not be used in a start test component

operation.
c) The special value null shall not be used to invoke a behaviour.
Examples
type function MyFunc3 ( in integer p1 ) return charstring;
function blanks (in integer p1) return charstring {
// return a charstring of p1 blank characters
var MyFunc3 myVar1 := blanks;
var MyFunc3 myVar1 := int2char;
6.2.13.3 Deferred Behaviour Type Definitions

Deferred behaviour types are the set of altstep, function, and testcase behaviours with possible runs on, system and mtc

clauses paired with their actual parameter list which can be passed to the activate, start and execute operations,

respectively. They denote those instantiations of altsteps, functions, and testcases defined in the test suite that have

compatible runs on, system or mtc clauses.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Syntactical Structure
type function BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ runs on ComponentType ]
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type altstep BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ runs on ComponentType ]
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type testcase BehaviourTypeIdentifier
runs on ComponentType
[ system ComponentType ]
Semantic Description

Deferred behaviour types define references to executable behaviours. Deferred function behaviour types define the set

of behaviours that can be started on a ptc. Deferred altstep behaviour types define the set of behaviours that can be

activated as default alternatives. Deferred testcase behaviour types define the set of behaviours that can be executed

from the control part.

The actual parameters of a deferred behaviour value are evaluated when creating the value.

Restrictions

a) The same restrictions apply for the start, activate and execute operations that apply for functions, altsteps and

testcases used directly in these statements in a non-deferred way.
Examples
EXAMPLE 1: Deferred function type with.
type function MyFunc1;
EXAMPLE 2: Deferred function type with a runs on clause.
type function MyFunc2 runs on MyCompType;
EXAMPLE 3: Deferred altstep type with a runs on clause.
type altstep MyAltstep1 runs on MyCompType;
EXAMPLE 4: Deferred testcase type with a runs on clause and a system clause.
type testcase MyTestcase1 runs on MyCompType system MySysType;
6.2.13.4 Deferred Behaviour Values

The values of a deferred behaviour type are the un-executed instantiations of altsteps, functions, and testcases together

with their compatible actual parameters which have compatible runs on, system and mtc clauses to those in the

behaviour type. Type compatibility of deferred behaviour types is defined in the extension to clause 6.3.5 within the

present document.
Syntactical Structure
VariableRef | FunctionInstance
Semantic Description

The literal deferred behaviour values are the function instance expressions of the user-defined altsteps, (external)

functions, and testcases. Deferred behaviour values can be passed around as actual parameters or stored in a variable.

Deferred altstep, function or testcase behaviour values can be used in activate, start, and execute statements,

respectively.

The only operators (see clause 7.1 of the TTCN-3 core language [1]) on deferred behaviour values that are defined are

the check for equality and inequality.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Restrictions

a) Only in functions, altsteps and tescases without inout or out parameters shall be used as deferred behaviour

values.

b) For the actual parameters of a function behaviour value instance, restrictions from clause 21.3.2 of the core

language specification shall apply.

c) For the actual parameters of an alstep behaviour value instance, restrictions from clause 20.5.2 of the core

language specification shall apply.

d) For the actual parameters of a testcase behaviour value instance, restriction from clause 26.1 of the core

language specification shall apply.
Examples
EXAMPLE 1:
type function MyFunctionBehaviour;
function MyFunction (in integer p1) {
// …
}

var MyFunctionBehaviour v_myBehaviour := MyFunction(4); // does not invoke MyFunction(4)

var PtcType ptc := PtcType.create;
ptc.start(myBehaviour); // starts MyFunction(4) on component ptc
EXAMPLE 2:
type altstep MyAltstepType runs on PtcType;
altstep MyAltstep(integer i) runs on PtcType {
[] …
var MyAltstepType v_myAltstep := MyAltstep(3);
activate(v_myAltstep);
EXAMPLE 3:
type testcase MyTestcaseBehaviour runs on PtcType;
...

Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
ETSI STANDARD
Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS);
The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3;
TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
Reference
RES/MTS-202785v171
Keywords
conformance, testing, TTCN-3
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 6

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Package conformance and compatibility .................................................................................................. 6

5 Package concepts for the core language ................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 5 (Basic language elements) .............................................................. 7

5.2 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 6 (Types and values).......................................................................... 8

5.3 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 7 (Expressions) ................................................................................ 14

5.4 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 8 (Modules) ..................................................................................... 14

5.5 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 10 (Declaring constants) .................................................................. 14

5.6 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 11 (Declaring variables) .................................................................. 14

5.7 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 15 (Declaring templates) ................................................................. 15

5.8 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 16 (Functions, altsteps and test cases) ............................................. 15

5.9 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 19 (Basic program statements) ........................................................ 16

5.10 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 20 (Statements and operations for alternative behaviours) .............. 17

5.11 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 21 (Configuration Operations) ........................................................ 17

5.12 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 26 (Module control) ........................................................................ 18

5.13 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, annex A (BNF and static semantics) .......................................................... 19

5.13.0 New keywords and TTCN-3 syntax BNF productions ............................................................................... 19

5.13.1 Changes to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause A.1.6 (TTCN-3 syntax BNF productions) ................................... 19

6 Package semantics .................................................................................................................................. 20

6.1 Replacements ................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.2 Activate statement ............................................................................................................................................ 20

6.3 Replacements in Execute statement's operational semantics ............................................................................ 21

6.3.0 Execute statement ....................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.1 Flow graph segment ....................................................................................... 22

6.4 Replacements in Function call's operational semantics .................................................................................... 23

6.4.0 Function call ............................................................................................................................................... 23

6.4.1 Flow graph segment .................................................................................................. 25

6.4.2 Flow graph segment ............................................................................................... 25

6.5 Start component operation ................................................................................................................................ 25

7 TRI extensions for the package .............................................................................................................. 28

8 TCI extensions for the package .............................................................................................................. 28

8.1 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 7 (TTCN-3 control interface and operations)................................. 28

8.2 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 8 (Java language mapping) ............................................................ 29

8.3 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 9 (ANSI C language mapping) ...................................................... 30

8.4 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 10 (C++ language mapping) .......................................................... 30

8.5 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 11 (W3C XML mapping) .............................................................. 32

9 Extensions to TTCN-3 documentation comment specification for the package .................................... 42

9.1 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-10, annex A (where Tags can be used) ......................................................... 42

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 44

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This final draft ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Methods for Testing and

Specification (MTS), and is now submitted for the ETSI standards Membership Approval Procedure.

The use of underline (additional text) highlights the differences between base document and extended

documents.

The present document relates to the multi-part standard ETSI ES 201 873 covering the Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3, as identified in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1].
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
1 Scope

The present document defines the Behaviour Types package of TTCN-3. TTCN-3 can be used for the specification of

all types of reactive system tests over a variety of communication ports. Typical areas of application are protocol testing

(including mobile and Internet protocols), service testing (including supplementary services), module testing, testing of

APIs, etc. TTCN-3 is not restricted to conformance testing and can be used for many other kinds of testing including

interoperability, robustness, regression, system and integration testing. The specification of test suites for physical layer

protocols is outside the scope of the present document.

TTCN-3 packages are intended to define additional TTCN-3 concepts, which are not mandatory as concepts in the

TTCN-3 core language, but which are optional as part of a package which is suited for dedicated applications and/or

usages of TTCN-3.
This package defines types for behaviour definitions in TTCN-3.

While the design of TTCN-3 package has taken into account the consistency of a combined usage of the core language

with a number of packages, the concrete usages of and guidelines for this package in combination with other packages

is outside the scope of the present document.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI ES 201 873-1: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 1: TTCN-3 Core Language".

[2] ETSI ES 201 873-4: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 4: TTCN-3 Operational Semantics".

[3] ETSI ES 201 873-5: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 5: TTCN-3 Runtime Interface (TRI)".

[4] ETSI ES 201 873-6: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 6: TTCN-3 Control Interface (TCI)".

[5] ISO/IEC 9646-1: "Information technology -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Conformance

testing methodology and framework; Part 1: General concepts".

[6] ETSI ES 202 784: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Advanced Parameterization".

[7] ETSI ES 201 873-10: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test

Control Notation version 3; Part 10: TTCN-3 Documentation Comment Specification".

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI ES 201 873-7: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 7: Using ASN.1 with TTCN-3".

[i.2] ETSI ES 201 873-8: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping".

[i.3] ETSI ES 201 873-9: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 9: Using XML schema with TTCN-3".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms

For the purposes of the present document, the terms given in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1], ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2],

ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3], ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4], ISO/IEC 9646-1 [5] and the following apply:

behaviour definition: definition of an altstep, function, or testcase that can be called explicitly

NOTE: A control part is not considered a behaviour definition, because it cannot be called explicitly.

behaviour type: type of behaviour definitions
NOTE: Behaviour types are of kind altstep, function, or testcase.
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1], ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2],

ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3], ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4] and ISO/IEC 9646-1 [5] apply.
4 Package conformance and compatibility
The package presented in the present document is identified by the package tag:

"TTCN-3:2009 Behaviour Types" - to be used with modules complying with the present document

For an implementation claiming to conform to this package version, all features specified in the present document shall

be implemented consistently with the requirements given in the present document; in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] and ETSI

ES 201 873-4 [2]. All features marked [AdvancedParameterization] have to be implemented only in case that this

package is used together with the Advanced Parameterization package [6].
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
The package presented in the present document is compatible with:
• ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2] (V4.4.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-7 [i.1] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-8 [i.2] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-9 [i.3] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-10 [7] (V4.5.1).

If later versions of those parts are available and should be used instead, the compatibility to the package presented in the

present document has to be checked individually.
The package presented in the present document is also compatible with:
• ETSI ES 202 784 [6] Package Advanced Parameterization (V1.3.1);
and can be used together with this package.

If later versions of those packages are available and should be used instead, the compatibility to the package presented

in the present document has to be checked individually.
5 Package concepts for the core language
5.1 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 5 (Basic language
elements)
Clause 5.4 Parameterization
Values of behaviour types can be passed as parameters as indicated in table 2.
Table 2: Overview of parameterizable TTCN-3 objects
Keyword Allowed kind of Allowed form of Allowed types in formal parameter lists
Parameterization Parameterization

module Value parameterization Static at start of run-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

type.

type Value parameterization Static at compile-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

(see note)
type.

template Value and template Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

parameterization
type, template, and behaviour types.

function Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

timer parameterization type, component type, port type, default,
behaviour types, template and timer.

altstep Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

timer parameterization type, component type, port type, default,
behaviour types, template and timer.

testcase Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types and of all user-defined types,

timer parameterization address type, template, and behaviour types.

signature Value and template Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

parameterization
type, component type, and behaviour types.

NOTE: Record of, set of, enumerated, port, component and sub-type definitions do not allow parameterization.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
Clause 5.4.1.1 Formal parameters of kind value
Also, values of behaviour types can be passed as value parameters.
5.2 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 6 (Types and
values)

Behaviour types such as altstep, function, and testcase may be used to define flexible behaviour of TTCN-3

libraries.
No subtyping is defined for behaviour types.
Clause 6.2 Structured Types and Values
Extend clause 6.2 Structured types and values by the following clause 6.2.13.
6.2.13 Behaviour Types
6.2.13.1 Behaviour Type Definitions

Behaviour types are the set of identifiers of altstep, function, and testcase definitions with a specific parameter list, runs

on, system, mtc and return clauses. They denote those altsteps, functions, and testcases, respectively, defined in the test

suite that have a compatible parameter list and compatible runs on or system clauses.

Syntactical Structure
type function BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1

"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTimerPar | FormalTemplatePar | FormalPortPar ) [","] } ] ")"

[ runs on ( ComponentType | self ] NOTE 2
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
[ return [ template ] Type ]
type altstep BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1

"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTimerPar | FormalTemplatePar | FormalPortPar ) [","] } ] ")"

[ runs on ( ComponentType | self ] NOTE 2
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type testcase BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1
"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTemplatePar ) [","] } ] ")"
runs on ComponentType
[ system ComponentType ]
Semantic Description
Behaviour types define prototypes of altsteps, functions, and testcases.

NOTE 1: [AdvancedParameterization] If the advanced parameterization package [6] is also supported, behaviour

types can have type parameters.

NOTE 2: runs on self indicates a specific compatibility check, see extension of clause 6.3.

Restrictions

a) The rules for formal parameter lists shall be followed as defined in the TTCN-3 Core Language [1] clause 5.4

and extended in clause 5.1 of the present document.

b) Behaviour types of kind altstep may have a runs on, system or mtc clause, behaviour types of type

function may have a runs on, system, mtc or return clause, behaviour types of kind testcase

shall have a runs on clause and may have a system clause.
c) runs on self shall not be used for test cases.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
Examples
EXAMPLE 1: Function type with one parameter and a return value.
type function MyFunc1 ( in integer p1 ) return boolean;

EXAMPLE 2: Function type with one parameter, a runs on clause and a return value.

type function MyFunc2 ( in integer p1 ) runs on MyCompType return boolean;
EXAMPLE 3: Altstep type with a type parameter and a runs on clause.
type altstep MyAltstep1 ( in T p1 ) runs on MyCompType;

EXAMPLE 4: Testcase type without parameter, with a runs on clause and a system clause.

type testcase MyTestcase1 ( ) runs on MyCompType system MySysType;
6.2.13.2 Behaviour Values

The values of a behaviour type are the identifiers of altsteps, functions, and testcases with compatible parameters and

runs on, system, mtc and return clauses. Both predefined and user-defined, including external, functions can

be used as values. Type compatibility of behaviour types is defined in the extension to clause 6.3.5 within the present

document.
Syntactical Structure
VariableRef | FunctionInstance | FunctionRef | AltstepRef | TestcaseRef | null
Semantic Description

The literal behaviour values are the identifiers of the predefined and user-defined altsteps, (external) functions, and

testcases and the special value null. The special value null is available to indicate an undefined behaviour value,

e.g. for the initialization of variables. Behaviour values can be passed around as parameters and behaviour values can be

stored. Behaviour values can be used, together with a corresponding list of actual parameters, to invoke the behaviours

in statements and expressions. Behaviour values can also be used, again together with a corresponding list of actual

parameters, in activate, start, and execute statements, respectively.

The only operators (see clause 7.1 of the TTCN-3 core language [1]) on behaviour values that are defined are the check

for equality and inequality.
Restrictions

a) Values of a behaviour type with a runs on self clause shall not be sent to another test component.

b) Values of a behaviour type with a runs on self clause shall not be used in a start test component

operation.
c) The special value null shall not be used to invoke a behaviour.
Examples
type function MyFunc3 ( in integer p1 ) return charstring;
function blanks (in integer p1) return charstring {
// return a charstring of p1 blank characters
var MyFunc3 myVar1 := blanks;
var MyFunc3 myVar1 := int2char;
6.2.13.3 Deferred Behaviour Type Definitions

Deferred behaviour types are the set of altstep, function, and testcase behaviours with possible runs on, system and mtc

clauses paired with their actual parameter list which can be passed to the activate, start and execute operations,

respectively. They denote those instantiations of altsteps, functions, and testcases defined in the test suite that have

compatible runs on, system or mtc clauses.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
Syntactical Structure
type function BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ runs on ComponentType ]
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type altstep BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ runs on ComponentType ]
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type testcase BehaviourTypeIdentifier
runs on ComponentType
[ system ComponentType ]
Semantic Description

Deferred behaviour types define references to executable behaviours. Deferred function behaviour types define the set

of behaviours that can be started on a ptc. Deferred altstep behaviour types define the set of behaviours that can be

activated as default alternatives. Deferred testcase behaviour types define the set of behaviours that can be executed

from the control part.

The actual parameters of a deferred behaviour value are evaluated when creating the value.

Restrictions

a) The same restrictions apply for the start, activate and execute operations that apply for functions, altsteps and

testcases used directly in these statements in a non-deferred way.
Examples
EXAMPLE 1: Deferred function type with.
type function MyFunc1;
EXAMPLE 2: Deferred function type with a runs on clause.
type function MyFunc2 runs on MyCompType;
EXAMPLE 3: Deferred altstep type with a runs on clause.
type altstep MyAltstep1 runs on MyCompType;
EXAMPLE 4: Deferred testcase type with a runs on clause and a system clause.
type testcase MyTestcase1 runs on MyCompType system MySysType;
6.2.13.4 Deferred Behaviour Values

The values of a deferred behaviour type are the un-executed instantiations of altsteps, functions, and testcases together

with their compatible actual parameters which have compatible runs on, system and mtc clauses to those in the

behaviour type. Type compatibility of deferred behaviour types is defined in the extension to clause 6.3.5 within the

present document.
Syntactical Structure
VariableRef | FunctionInstance
Semantic Description

The literal deferred behaviour values are the function instance expressions of the user-defined altsteps, (external)

functions, and testcases. Deferred behaviour values can be passed around as actual parameters or stored in a variable.

Deferred altstep, function or testcase behaviour values can be used in activate, start, and execute statements,

respectively.

The only operators (see clause 7.1 of the TTCN-3 core language [1]) on deferred behaviour values that are defined are

the check for equality and inequality.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 Final draft ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-02)
Restrictions

a) Only in functions, altsteps and tescases without inout or out parameters shall be used as deferred behaviour

values.

b) For the actual parameters of a function behaviour value instance, restrictions from clause 21.3.2 of the core

language specification shall apply.

c) For the actual parameters of an alstep behaviour value instance, restrictions from clause 20.5.2 of the core

language specification shall apply.

d) For the actual parameters of a testcase behaviour value instance, restriction from clause 26.1 of the core

language specification shall apply.
Examples
EXAMPLE 1:
type function MyFunctionBehaviour;
function MyFunction (in integer p1) {
// …
}

var MyFunctionBehaviour v_myBehaviour := MyFunction(4); // does not invoke MyFunction(4)

var PtcType ptc := PtcType.create;
ptc.start(myBehaviour); // starts MyFunction(4) on component ptc
EXAMPLE 2:
type altstep MyAltstepType runs on P
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
01-julij-2020

Metode za preskušanje in specificiranje (MTS) - 3. različica zapisa preskušanja in

krmiljenja preskusov - Razširitev nabora jezikov TTCN-3: tipi obnašanja

Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS) - The Testing and Test Control Notation

version 3 - TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
ICS:
33.040.01 Telekomunikacijski sistemi na Telecommunication systems
splošno in general
35.060 Jeziki, ki se uporabljajo v Languages used in
informacijski tehniki in information technology
tehnologiji
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
ETSI STANDARD
Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS);
The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3;
TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
2 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Reference
RES/MTS-202785v171
Keywords
conformance, testing, TTCN-3
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
3 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 6

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Package conformance and compatibility .................................................................................................. 6

5 Package concepts for the core language ................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 5 (Basic language elements) .............................................................. 7

5.2 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 6 (Types and values).......................................................................... 8

5.3 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 7 (Expressions) ................................................................................ 14

5.4 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 8 (Modules) ..................................................................................... 14

5.5 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 10 (Declaring constants) .................................................................. 14

5.6 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 11 (Declaring variables) .................................................................. 14

5.7 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 15 (Declaring templates) ................................................................. 15

5.8 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 16 (Functions, altsteps and test cases) ............................................. 15

5.9 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 19 (Basic program statements) ........................................................ 16

5.10 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 20 (Statements and operations for alternative behaviours) .............. 17

5.11 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 21 (Configuration Operations) ........................................................ 17

5.12 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 26 (Module control) ........................................................................ 18

5.13 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, annex A (BNF and static semantics) .......................................................... 19

5.13.0 New keywords and TTCN-3 syntax BNF productions ............................................................................... 19

5.13.1 Changes to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause A.1.6 (TTCN-3 syntax BNF productions) ................................... 19

6 Package semantics .................................................................................................................................. 20

6.1 Replacements ................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.2 Activate statement ............................................................................................................................................ 20

6.3 Replacements in Execute statement's operational semantics ............................................................................ 21

6.3.0 Execute statement ....................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.1 Flow graph segment ....................................................................................... 22

6.4 Replacements in Function call's operational semantics .................................................................................... 23

6.4.0 Function call ............................................................................................................................................... 23

6.4.1 Flow graph segment .................................................................................................. 25

6.4.2 Flow graph segment ............................................................................................... 25

6.5 Start component operation ................................................................................................................................ 25

7 TRI extensions for the package .............................................................................................................. 28

8 TCI extensions for the package .............................................................................................................. 28

8.1 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 7 (TTCN-3 control interface and operations)................................. 28

8.2 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 8 (Java language mapping) ............................................................ 29

8.3 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 9 (ANSI C language mapping) ...................................................... 30

8.4 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 10 (C++ language mapping) .......................................................... 30

8.5 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-6, clause 11 (W3C XML mapping) .............................................................. 32

9 Extensions to TTCN-3 documentation comment specification for the package .................................... 42

9.1 Extensions to ETSI ES 201 873-10, annex A (where Tags can be used) ......................................................... 42

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 44

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
4 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Methods for Testing and Specification

(MTS).

The use of underline (additional text) highlights the differences between base document and extended

documents.

The present document relates to the multi-part standard ETSI ES 201 873 covering the Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3, as identified in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1].
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
5 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
1 Scope

The present document defines the Behaviour Types package of TTCN-3. TTCN-3 can be used for the specification of

all types of reactive system tests over a variety of communication ports. Typical areas of application are protocol testing

(including mobile and Internet protocols), service testing (including supplementary services), module testing, testing of

APIs, etc. TTCN-3 is not restricted to conformance testing and can be used for many other kinds of testing including

interoperability, robustness, regression, system and integration testing. The specification of test suites for physical layer

protocols is outside the scope of the present document.

TTCN-3 packages are intended to define additional TTCN-3 concepts, which are not mandatory as concepts in the

TTCN-3 core language, but which are optional as part of a package which is suited for dedicated applications and/or

usages of TTCN-3.
This package defines types for behaviour definitions in TTCN-3.

While the design of TTCN-3 package has taken into account the consistency of a combined usage of the core language

with a number of packages, the concrete usages of and guidelines for this package in combination with other packages

is outside the scope of the present document.
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI ES 201 873-1: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 1: TTCN-3 Core Language".

[2] ETSI ES 201 873-4: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 4: TTCN-3 Operational Semantics".

[3] ETSI ES 201 873-5: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 5: TTCN-3 Runtime Interface (TRI)".

[4] ETSI ES 201 873-6: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 6: TTCN-3 Control Interface (TCI)".

[5] ISO/IEC 9646-1: "Information technology -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Conformance

testing methodology and framework; Part 1: General concepts".

[6] ETSI ES 202 784: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Advanced Parameterization".

[7] ETSI ES 201 873-10: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test

Control Notation version 3; Part 10: TTCN-3 Documentation Comment Specification".

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
6 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI ES 201 873-7: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 7: Using ASN.1 with TTCN-3".

[i.2] ETSI ES 201 873-8: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping".

[i.3] ETSI ES 201 873-9: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 9: Using XML schema with TTCN-3".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms

For the purposes of the present document, the terms given in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1], ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2],

ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3], ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4], ISO/IEC 9646-1 [5] and the following apply:

behaviour definition: definition of an altstep, function, or testcase that can be called explicitly

NOTE: A control part is not considered a behaviour definition, because it cannot be called explicitly.

behaviour type: type of behaviour definitions
NOTE: Behaviour types are of kind altstep, function, or testcase.
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1], ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2],

ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3], ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4] and ISO/IEC 9646-1 [5] apply.
4 Package conformance and compatibility
The package presented in the present document is identified by the package tag:

"TTCN-3:2009 Behaviour Types" - to be used with modules complying with the present document

For an implementation claiming to conform to this package version, all features specified in the present document shall

be implemented consistently with the requirements given in the present document; in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] and ETSI

ES 201 873-4 [2]. All features marked [AdvancedParameterization] have to be implemented only in case that this

package is used together with the Advanced Parameterization package [6].
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
7 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
The package presented in the present document is compatible with:
• ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-4 [2] (V4.4.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-5 [3] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-6 [4] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-7 [i.1] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-8 [i.2] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-9 [i.3] (V4.5.1).
• ETSI ES 201 873-10 [7] (V4.5.1).

If later versions of those parts are available and should be used instead, the compatibility to the package presented in the

present document has to be checked individually.
The package presented in the present document is also compatible with:
• ETSI ES 202 784 [6] Package Advanced Parameterization (V1.3.1);
and can be used together with this package.

If later versions of those packages are available and should be used instead, the compatibility to the package presented

in the present document has to be checked individually.
5 Package concepts for the core language
5.1 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 5 (Basic language
elements)
Clause 5.4 Parameterization
Values of behaviour types can be passed as parameters as indicated in table 2.
Table 2: Overview of parameterizable TTCN-3 objects
Keyword Allowed kind of Allowed form of Allowed types in formal parameter lists
Parameterization Parameterization

module Value parameterization Static at start of run-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

type.

type Value parameterization Static at compile-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

(see note)
type.

template Value and template Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

parameterization
type, template, and behaviour types.

function Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

timer parameterization type, component type, port type, default,
behaviour types, template and timer.

altstep Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types, address

timer parameterization type, component type, port type, default,
behaviour types, template and timer.

testcase Value, template, port and Dynamic at run-time all basic types and of all user-defined types,

timer parameterization address type, template, and behaviour types.

signature Value and template Dynamic at run-time all basic types, all user-defined types and address

parameterization
type, component type, and behaviour types.

NOTE: Record of, set of, enumerated, port, component and sub-type definitions do not allow parameterization.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
8 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Clause 5.4.1.1 Formal parameters of kind value
Also, values of behaviour types can be passed as value parameters.
5.2 Extension to ETSI ES 201 873-1, clause 6 (Types and
values)

Behaviour types such as altstep, function, and testcase may be used to define flexible behaviour of TTCN-3

libraries.
No subtyping is defined for behaviour types.
Clause 6.2 Structured Types and Values
Extend clause 6.2 Structured types and values by the following clause 6.2.13.
6.2.13 Behaviour Types
6.2.13.1 Behaviour Type Definitions

Behaviour types are the set of identifiers of altstep, function, and testcase definitions with a specific parameter list, runs

on, system, mtc and return clauses. They denote those altsteps, functions, and testcases, respectively, defined in the test

suite that have a compatible parameter list and compatible runs on or system clauses.

Syntactical Structure
type function BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1

"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTimerPar | FormalTemplatePar | FormalPortPar ) [","] } ] ")"

[ runs on ( ComponentType | self ] NOTE 2
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
[ return [ template ] Type ]
type altstep BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1

"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTimerPar | FormalTemplatePar | FormalPortPar ) [","] } ] ")"

[ runs on ( ComponentType | self ] NOTE 2
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type testcase BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ "<" { FormalTypePar [","] } ">" ] NOTE 1
"(" [ { ( FormalValuePar | FormalTemplatePar ) [","] } ] ")"
runs on ComponentType
[ system ComponentType ]
Semantic Description
Behaviour types define prototypes of altsteps, functions, and testcases.

NOTE 1: [AdvancedParameterization] If the advanced parameterization package [6] is also supported, behaviour

types can have type parameters.

NOTE 2: runs on self indicates a specific compatibility check, see extension of clause 6.3.

Restrictions

a) The rules for formal parameter lists shall be followed as defined in the TTCN-3 Core Language [1] clause 5.4

and extended in clause 5.1 of the present document.

b) Behaviour types of kind altstep may have a runs on, system or mtc clause, behaviour types of type

function may have a runs on, system, mtc or return clause, behaviour types of kind testcase

shall have a runs on clause and may have a system clause.
c) runs on self shall not be used for test cases.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
9 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Examples
EXAMPLE 1: Function type with one parameter and a return value.
type function MyFunc1 ( in integer p1 ) return boolean;

EXAMPLE 2: Function type with one parameter, a runs on clause and a return value.

type function MyFunc2 ( in integer p1 ) runs on MyCompType return boolean;
EXAMPLE 3: Altstep type with a type parameter and a runs on clause.
type altstep MyAltstep1 ( in T p1 ) runs on MyCompType;

EXAMPLE 4: Testcase type without parameter, with a runs on clause and a system clause.

type testcase MyTestcase1 ( ) runs on MyCompType system MySysType;
6.2.13.2 Behaviour Values

The values of a behaviour type are the identifiers of altsteps, functions, and testcases with compatible parameters and

runs on, system, mtc and return clauses. Both predefined and user-defined, including external, functions can

be used as values. Type compatibility of behaviour types is defined in the extension to clause 6.3.5 within the present

document.
Syntactical Structure
VariableRef | FunctionInstance | FunctionRef | AltstepRef | TestcaseRef | null
Semantic Description

The literal behaviour values are the identifiers of the predefined and user-defined altsteps, (external) functions, and

testcases and the special value null. The special value null is available to indicate an undefined behaviour value,

e.g. for the initialization of variables. Behaviour values can be passed around as parameters and behaviour values can be

stored. Behaviour values can be used, together with a corresponding list of actual parameters, to invoke the behaviours

in statements and expressions. Behaviour values can also be used, again together with a corresponding list of actual

parameters, in activate, start, and execute statements, respectively.

The only operators (see clause 7.1 of the TTCN-3 core language [1]) on behaviour values that are defined are the check

for equality and inequality.
Restrictions

a) Values of a behaviour type with a runs on self clause shall not be sent to another test component.

b) Values of a behaviour type with a runs on self clause shall not be used in a start test component

operation.
c) The special value null shall not be used to invoke a behaviour.
Examples
type function MyFunc3 ( in integer p1 ) return charstring;
function blanks (in integer p1) return charstring {
// return a charstring of p1 blank characters
var MyFunc3 myVar1 := blanks;
var MyFunc3 myVar1 := int2char;
6.2.13.3 Deferred Behaviour Type Definitions

Deferred behaviour types are the set of altstep, function, and testcase behaviours with possible runs on, system and mtc

clauses paired with their actual parameter list which can be passed to the activate, start and execute operations,

respectively. They denote those instantiations of altsteps, functions, and testcases defined in the test suite that have

compatible runs on, system or mtc clauses.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ES 202 785 V1.7.1:2020
10 ETSI ES 202 785 V1.7.1 (2020-05)
Syntactical Structure
type function BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ runs on ComponentType ]
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type altstep BehaviourTypeIdentifier
[ runs on ComponentType ]
[ system ComponentType ]
[ mtc ComponentType ]
type testcase BehaviourTypeIdentifier
runs on ComponentType
[ system ComponentType ]
Semantic Description

Deferred behaviour types define references to executable behaviours. Deferred function behaviour types define the set

of behaviours that can be started on a ptc. Deferred altstep behaviour types define the set of behaviours that can be

activated as default alternatives. Deferred testcase behaviour types define the set of behaviours that can be executed

from the control part.

The actual parameters of a deferred behaviour value are evaluated when creating the value.

Restrictions

a) The same restrictions apply for the start, activate and execute operations that apply for functions, altsteps and

testcases used directly in these statements in a non-deferred way.
Examples
EXAMPLE 1: Deferred function type with.
type function MyFunc1;
EXAMPLE 2: Deferred function type with a runs on clause.
type function MyFunc2 runs on MyCompType;
EXAMPLE 3: Deferred altstep type with a runs on clause.
type altstep MyAltstep1 runs on MyCompType;
EXAMPLE 4: Deferred testcase type with a runs on clause and a system clause.
type testcase MyTestcase1 runs on MyCompType system MySysType;
6.2.13.4 Deferred Behaviour Values

The values of a deferred behaviour type are the un-executed instantiations of altsteps, functions, and testcases together

with their compatible actual parameters which have compatible runs on, system and mtc clauses to those in the

behaviour type. Type compatibility of deferred behaviour types is defined in the extension to clause 6.3.5 within the

present document.
Syntactical Structure
VariableRef | FunctionInstance
Semantic Description

The literal deferred behaviour values are the function instance expressions of the user-defined altsteps, (external)

functions, and testcases. Deferred behaviour values can be passed around as actual parameters or stored in a variable.

Deferred altstep, function or testcase behaviour values can be used in activate, start, and execute statements,

respectively.

The only operators (see clause 7.1 of the TTCN-3 core language [1]) on deferred behaviour values that are defined are

the check for equality and inequality.
ETSI
---------------------
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.