Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS) - The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3 - Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping

The present document defines the mapping rules for CORBA IDL (as defined in clause 3 in [4]) to TTCN-3 (as defined
in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1]) to enable testing of CORBA-based systems. The principles of mapping CORBA IDL to
TTCN-3 can be also used for the mapping of interface specification languages of other object-/component-based
technologies.
The specification of other mappings is outside the scope of the present document.

Metode za preskušanje in specificiranje (MTS) - 3. različica zapisa preskušanja in krmiljenja preskusov - 8. del: Preslikava IDL v TTCN-3

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jun-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Jun-2021
Due Date
15-Aug-2021
Completion Date
18-Jun-2021

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ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
ETSI STANDARD
Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS);
The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3;
Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
Reference
RES/MTS-201873-8T3ed481
Keywords
IDL, testing, TTCN
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - APE 7112B
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° w061004871
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

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Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

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experience to understand and interpret its content in accordance with generally accepted engineering or

other professional standard and applicable regulations.

No recommendation as to products and services or vendors is made or should be implied.

No representation or warranty is made that this deliverable is technically accurate or sufficient or conforms to any law

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for any particular purpose or against infringement of intellectual property rights.

In no event shall ETSI be held liable for loss of profits or any other incidental or consequential damages.

Any software contained in this deliverable is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, express or implied, including but not

limited to, the warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement of intellectual property

rights and ETSI shall not be held liable in any event for any damages whatsoever (including, without limitation, damages

for loss of profits, business interruption, loss of information, or any other pecuniary loss) arising out of or related to the use

of or inability to use the software.
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and

microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2021.
All rights reserved.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 6

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 7

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 General considerations ............................................................................................................................. 8

4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Approach ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Conformance and compatibility ......................................................................................................................... 9

5 Lexical Conventions ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Comments........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Identifiers ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Keywords ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Literals ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6 Pre-processing ........................................................................................................................................ 10

7 Importing from IDL specifications ......................................................................................................... 10

7.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.1 Importing module declaration .......................................................................................................................... 10

7.2 Importing interface declaration ........................................................................................................................ 11

7.3 Importing value declaration .............................................................................................................................. 12

7.4 Importing constant declaration ......................................................................................................................... 12

8 Importing type declaration ..................................................................................................................... 13

8.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.1 IDL basic types ................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 13

8.1.1 Integer and floating-point types .................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.2 Char and wide char type ............................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.3 Boolean type ............................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1.4 Octet type .................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1.5 Any type ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2 Constructed types ............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.2.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2.1 Struct ........................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2.2 Discriminated unions .................................................................................................................................. 15

8.2.3 Enumerations .............................................................................................................................................. 16

8.3 Template types ................................................................................................................................................. 16

8.3.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 16

8.3.1 Sequence ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.3.2 String and wstring ....................................................................................................................................... 16

8.3.3 Fixed types .................................................................................................................................................. 17

8.4 Complex declarator .......................................................................................................................................... 17

8.4.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 17

8.4.1 Arrays ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.4.2 Native types ................................................................................................................................................ 17

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)

9 Importing exception declaration ............................................................................................................. 17

10 Importing operation declaration ............................................................................................................. 19

11 Importing attribute declaration ............................................................................................................... 20

12 Names and scoping ................................................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (informative): Examples ......................................................................................................... 22

A.1 The example ........................................................................................................................................... 22

A.2 IDL specification .................................................................................................................................... 22

A.3 Derived TTCN-3 specification ............................................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative): Mapping lists .................................................................................................. 28

B.1 IDL keyword and concept mapping list ................................................................................................. 28

B.2 Comparison of IDL, ASN.1, TTCN-2 and TTCN-3 data types ............................................................. 29

Annex C (informative): Bibliography ................................................................................................... 30

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 31

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The declarations

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, are publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be

found in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to

ETSI in respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the

ETSI Web server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI Directives including the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation regarding the essentiality of IPRs,

including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not

referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web server) which are, or may be, or may become,

essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its

Members. 3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP

Organizational Partners. oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and of the

oneM2M Partners. GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Methods for Testing and Specification

(MTS).

The present document is part 8 of a multi-part deliverable. Full details of the entire series can be found in part 1 [1].

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
1 Scope

The present document defines the mapping rules for CORBA IDL (as defined in clause 3 in [4]) to TTCN-3 (as defined

in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1]) to enable testing of CORBA-based systems. The principles of mapping CORBA IDL to

TTCN-3 can be also used for the mapping of interface specification languages of other object-/component-based

technologies.

The specification of other mappings is outside the scope of the present document.

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI ES 201 873-1: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 1: TTCN-3 Core Language".

[2] Recommendation ITU-T T.50: "International Reference Alphabet (IRA) (Formerly International

Alphabet No. 5 or IA5) - Information technology - 7-bit coded character set for information

interchange".

[3] ISO/IEC 10646:2017: "Information technology -- Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)".

[4] CORBA 3.0: "The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and Specification".

NOTE: Available at http://www.omg.org/spec/CORBA/.
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI ES 201 873-7: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 7: Using ASN.1 with TTCN-3".
[i.2] Void.
[i.3] Void.
[i.4] Void.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)

[i.5] ETSI ES 202 781: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Configuration and Deployment Support".

[i.6] ETSI ES 202 782: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: TTCN-3 Performance and Real Time Testing".

[i.7] ETSI ES 202 784: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Advanced Parameterization".

[i.8] ETSI ES 202 785: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types".

[i.9] ETSI ES 202 786: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Support of interfaces with continuous signals".

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
Void.
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One
CCM CORBA Component Model
NOTE: By OMG .
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
NOTE: By OMG .
DCE Distributed Computing Environment
NOTE: By OSF.
EJB Enterprise JavaBeans
NOTE: By Sun .
IDL Interface Definition Language
NET XML-based component technology
NOTE: By Microsoft .
OMG Object Management Group
OSF Open Software Foundation
SUT System Under Test
TTCN Testing and Test Control Notation
XML eXtended Markup Language
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
4 General considerations
4.1 Introduction

Object-based technologies (such as CORBA, DCOM, DCE) and component-based technologies (such as CCM, EJB,

Microsoft , NET) use interface specifications to describe the structure of an object-/component-based system and its

operations and capabilities to interact with the environment. These interface specifications support interoperability and

reusability of objects/components.

The techniques used for interface specifications are often called Interface Definition Language (IDL), for example

CORBA IDL, Microsoft IDL or DCE IDL. These languages are comparable in their abilities to define system

interfaces, operations at system interfaces and system structures to various extends. They differ in details of the

object/component model.

When considering the testing of object-/component-based systems with TTCN-3, one is faced with the problem of

accessing the systems to be tested via the system interfaces as described in an IDL specification. In particular, for

TTCN-3 based test systems a direct import of IDL specifications into the test specifications for the use of e.g. system's

interface, operation and exception definitions is prevalent to any manual transformation into TTCN-3.

The present document discusses the mapping of CORBA IDL specifications into TTCN-3. This mapping rules out the

principles not only for CORBA IDL, but also for other interface specification languages. The mapping can be adapted

to the details of other interface specification languages.

The Interface Definition Language (IDL) (clause 3 in [4]) is a base of the whole Common Object Request Broker

Architecture (CORBA) [4] and an important point in developing distributed systems with CORBA. It allows the reuse

and interoperability of objects in a system. A mapping between IDL and a programming language is defined in the

CORBA standard. IDL is very similar to C++ containing pre-processor directives (include, comments, etc.), grammar as

well as constant, type and operation declarations. There are no programming language features like, e.g. if-

statements.

The core language of TTCN-3 is defined in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] and provides a full text-based syntax, static

semantics and operational semantics. The IDL mapping provides a definition for the use of the core language with IDL

(figure 1).
Configuration Advanced OO
Advanced Behavior Performance Continuous TTCN-3
and deploy- Matching Features
Parameteri- Types and Real signals Packages
ment support
zation Time Testing
ASN.1 types
and values
IDL types
TTCN-3
XML types
Core
TTCN-3 User
Language
JSON types
& values
The shaded boxes are not
defined in the present
Other types &
document
values
Figure 1: User's view of the core language and its packages

It makes no difference for the mapping if requested or provided interfaces are required by the test system and SUT.

Hence, TTCN can be used on client and server side without modifications to the mapping rules.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)

The present document is structured similar to the IDL specification document to provide easy access to the mapping of

each IDL element.
4.2 Approach

Two different approaches can be identified: the use of either implicit or explicit mapping. The implicit mapping makes

use of the import mechanism of TTCN-3, denoted by the keywords language and import. It facilitates the immediate use

of data specified in other languages. Therefore, the definition of a specific data interface for each of these languages is

required. Currently, ASN.1 data can be used besides the native TTCN-3 types (see ETSI ES 201 873-7 [i.1]).

The present document follows the approach of explicit mapping, i.e. IDL data are translated into appropriate TTCN-3

data. And only those TTCN-3 data are further used in the test specification.
4.3 Conformance and compatibility

For an implementation claiming to support the IDL to TTCN-3 mapping, all features specified in the present document

shall be implemented consistently with the requirements given in the present document and in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1].

5 Lexical Conventions
5.0 General

The lexical conventions of IDL define the comments, identifiers, keywords and literals conventions which are described

in the following clauses.
5.1 Comments

Comment definitions in TTCN-3 and IDL are the same and therefore, no conversion of comments is necessary.

5.2 Identifiers

IDL identifier rules define a subset of the TTCN-3 rules in which no conversion is necessary.

5.3 Keywords

When IDL is used with TTCN-3 the keywords of TTCN-3 shall not be used as identifiers in an IDL module.

5.4 Literals

The definition of literals differs slightly between IDL and TTCN-3 why some modifications have to be made. Table B.1

gives the mapping for each literal type.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
Table 1: Literal mapping
Literal IDL TTCN
Integer no "0" as first digit no "0" as first digit
Octet "0" as first digit 'FF96'O
Hex "0X" or "0x" as first digits 'AB01D'H
Floating 1222.44E5 (Base 10) 1222.44E5 (Base 10)
Char 'A' "A"
Wide char L"A" "A"
Boolean TRUE, FALSE true, false
String "text" "text"
Wide string L"text" "text"
Fixed point 33.33D (see useful type IDLfixed)

IDL uses the ISO Latin-1 character set for string and wide string literals and TTCN-3 uses Recommendation

ITU-T T.50 [2] for string literals and ISO/IEC 10646 [3] for wide string literals.

6 Pre-processing

Pre-processor statements are not matched to TTCN-3 because the IDL specification shall be used after pre-processing it.

7 Importing from IDL specifications
7.0 General

The import of module, interface, value and constant declaration are described in this clause. The type and exception

declaration as well as the bodies of interfaces are described later.

All imported IDL declarations are in TTCN-3 public by default (see clause 8.2.5 of ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1]).

7.1 Importing module declaration

IDL modules are mapped to TTCN-3 modules. Nested IDL modules shall be flattened accordingly to TTCN-3 modules.

As one IDL module can contain many nested IDL modules where several nested modules can have equal names in

different scopes, these names can clash. Hence, module names identifiers are to be used which are composed of the

identifiers of the upper level IDL modules (from hierarchical point of view) and the nested IDL module name, separated

one from each other by two underscores.

According to the IDL scoping rules nested modules have access to the scope of upper level modules. As there are no

nested modules in TTCN-3, TTCN-3 modules have to import upper level modules. For avoiding name clashes, a prefix

for the imported definitions composed of the identifier of the module from which it is imported shall be used. The prefix

and the identifier are separated by a dot (.) as defined in TTCN-3.
IDL EXAMPLE:
module identifier1 {
typedef long mylong1;
module identifier2 {
typedef string mystring2;
typedef mylong1 mylong2;
module identifier3 {
typedef mylong1 long_from_module_1;
typedef mystring2 string_from_module_2;
typedef mylong2 long_from_module_1_2;
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
TTCN EXAMPLE:
module identifier1 {
type long mylong1;
module identifier1__identifier2 {
import from identifier1 all;
type iso8859string mystring2;
type identifier1.mylong1 mylong2;
module identifier1__identifier2__identifier3 {
import from identifier1 all;
import from identifier1__identifier2 all;
type identifier1.mylong1 long_from_module_1;
type identifier1__identifier2.mystring2 string_from_module_2;
type identifier1__identifier2.mylong2 long_from_module_1_2;
7.2 Importing interface declaration

Interfaces are flattened and all interface definitions are stored in one group. In contrast to interfaces in IDL, groups in

TTCN-3 do not create a scope. Therefore, prefixes for all identifiers of type definitions inside of the interface shall be

used, which are a combination of the interface name and two underscores as the prefix.

Import of single interface definitions from other modules via the importing group statement is possible. This can be

used if inheritance is used in the IDL specification.

For each interface, a procedure-based port type is defined for the test specification. It is associated with signatures

translated from attributes and operations of the interface.

An IDL attribute is mapped to two signatures: one for the setting of a value and one for getting it. These signatures have

names composed of the prefix (interface name and two underscores), attribute name and the word "Set" (except for

"readonly") or "Get" correspondingl
...

Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
ETSI STANDARD
Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS);
The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3;
Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
Reference
RES/MTS-201873-8T3ed481
Keywords
IDL, testing, TTCN
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2021.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 6

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 7

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 General considerations ............................................................................................................................. 8

4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Approach ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Conformance and compatibility ......................................................................................................................... 9

5 Lexical Conventions ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Comments........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Identifiers ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Keywords ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Literals ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6 Pre-processing ........................................................................................................................................ 10

7 Importing from IDL specifications ......................................................................................................... 10

7.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.1 Importing module declaration .......................................................................................................................... 10

7.2 Importing interface declaration ........................................................................................................................ 11

7.3 Importing value declaration .............................................................................................................................. 12

7.4 Importing constant declaration ......................................................................................................................... 12

8 Importing type declaration ..................................................................................................................... 13

8.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.1 IDL basic types ................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 13

8.1.1 Integer and floating-point types .................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.2 Char and wide char type ............................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.3 Boolean type ............................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1.4 Octet type .................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1.5 Any type ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2 Constructed types ............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.2.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2.1 Struct ........................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2.2 Discriminated unions .................................................................................................................................. 15

8.2.3 Enumerations .............................................................................................................................................. 16

8.3 Template types ................................................................................................................................................. 16

8.3.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 16

8.3.1 Sequence ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.3.2 String and wstring ....................................................................................................................................... 16

8.3.3 Fixed types .................................................................................................................................................. 17

8.4 Complex declarator .......................................................................................................................................... 17

8.4.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 17

8.4.1 Arrays ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.4.2 Native types ................................................................................................................................................ 17

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)

9 Importing exception declaration ............................................................................................................. 17

10 Importing operation declaration ............................................................................................................. 19

11 Importing attribute declaration ............................................................................................................... 20

12 Names and scoping ................................................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (informative): Examples ......................................................................................................... 22

A.1 The example ........................................................................................................................................... 22

A.2 IDL specification .................................................................................................................................... 22

A.3 Derived TTCN-3 specification ............................................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative): Mapping lists .................................................................................................. 28

B.1 IDL keyword and concept mapping list ................................................................................................. 28

B.2 Comparison of IDL, ASN.1, TTCN-2 and TTCN-3 data types ............................................................. 29

Annex C (informative): Bibliography ................................................................................................... 30

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 31

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This final draft ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Methods for Testing and

Specification (MTS), and is now submitted for the ETSI standards Membership Approval Procedure.

The present document is part 8 of a multi-part deliverable. Full details of the entire series can be found in part 1 [1].

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
1 Scope

The present document defines the mapping rules for CORBA IDL (as defined in clause 3 in [4]) to TTCN-3 (as defined

in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1]) to enable testing of CORBA-based systems. The principles of mapping CORBA IDL to

TTCN-3 can be also used for the mapping of interface specification languages of other object-/component-based

technologies.

The specification of other mappings is outside the scope of the present document.

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI ES 201 873-1: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 1: TTCN-3 Core Language".

[2] Recommendation ITU-T T.50: "International Reference Alphabet (IRA) (Formerly International

Alphabet No. 5 or IA5) - Information technology - 7-bit coded character set for information

interchange".

[3] ISO/IEC 10646:2017: "Information technology -- Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)".

[4] CORBA 3.0: "The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and Specification".

NOTE: Available at http://www.omg.org/spec/CORBA/.
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI ES 201 873-7: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 7: Using ASN.1 with TTCN-3".
[i.2] Void.
[i.3] Void.
[i.4] Void.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)

[i.5] ETSI ES 202 781: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Configuration and Deployment Support".

[i.6] ETSI ES 202 782: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: TTCN-3 Performance and Real Time Testing".

[i.7] ETSI ES 202 784: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Advanced Parameterization".

[i.8] ETSI ES 202 785: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types".

[i.9] ETSI ES 202 786: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Support of interfaces with continuous signals".

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
Void.
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One
CCM CORBA Component Model
NOTE: By OMG .
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
NOTE: By OMG .
DCE Distributed Computing Environment
NOTE: By OSF.
EJB Enterprise JavaBeans
NOTE: By Sun .
IDL Interface Definition Language
NET XML-based component technology
NOTE: By Microsoft .
OMG Object Management Group
OSF Open Software Foundation
SUT System Under Test
TTCN Testing and Test Control Notation
XML eXtended Markup Language
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
4 General considerations
4.1 Introduction

Object-based technologies (such as CORBA, DCOM, DCE) and component-based technologies (such as CCM, EJB,

Microsoft , NET) use interface specifications to describe the structure of an object-/component-based system and its

operations and capabilities to interact with the environment. These interface specifications support interoperability and

reusability of objects/components.

The techniques used for interface specifications are often called Interface Definition Language (IDL), for example

CORBA IDL, Microsoft IDL or DCE IDL. These languages are comparable in their abilities to define system

interfaces, operations at system interfaces and system structures to various extends. They differ in details of the

object/component model.

When considering the testing of object-/component-based systems with TTCN-3, one is faced with the problem of

accessing the systems to be tested via the system interfaces as described in an IDL specification. In particular, for

TTCN-3 based test systems a direct import of IDL specifications into the test specifications for the use of e.g. system's

interface, operation and exception definitions is prevalent to any manual transformation into TTCN-3.

The present document discusses the mapping of CORBA IDL specifications into TTCN-3. This mapping rules out the

principles not only for CORBA IDL, but also for other interface specification languages. The mapping can be adapted

to the details of other interface specification languages.

The Interface Definition Language (IDL) (clause 3 in [4]) is a base of the whole Common Object Request Broker

Architecture (CORBA) [4] and an important point in developing distributed systems with CORBA. It allows the reuse

and interoperability of objects in a system. A mapping between IDL and a programming language is defined in the

CORBA standard. IDL is very similar to C++ containing pre-processor directives (include, comments, etc.), grammar as

well as constant, type and operation declarations. There are no programming language features like, e.g. if-

statements.

The core language of TTCN-3 is defined in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] and provides a full text-based syntax, static

semantics and operational semantics. The IDL mapping provides a definition for the use of the core language with IDL

(figure 1).
Configuration Advanced OO
Advanced Behavior Performance Continuous TTCN-3
and deploy- Matching Features
Parameteri- Types and Real signals Packages
ment support
zation Time Testing
ASN.1 types
and values
IDL types
TTCN-3
XML types
Core
TTCN-3 User
Language
JSON types
& values
The shaded boxes are not
defined in the present
Other types &
document
values
Figure 1: User's view of the core language and its packages

It makes no difference for the mapping if requested or provided interfaces are required by the test system and SUT.

Hence, TTCN can be used on client and server side without modifications to the mapping rules.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)

The present document is structured similar to the IDL specification document to provide easy access to the mapping of

each IDL element.
4.2 Approach

Two different approaches can be identified: the use of either implicit or explicit mapping. The implicit mapping makes

use of the import mechanism of TTCN-3, denoted by the keywords language and import. It facilitates the immediate use

of data specified in other languages. Therefore, the definition of a specific data interface for each of these languages is

required. Currently, ASN.1 data can be used besides the native TTCN-3 types (see ETSI ES 201 873-7 [i.1]).

The present document follows the approach of explicit mapping, i.e. IDL data are translated into appropriate TTCN-3

data. And only those TTCN-3 data are further used in the test specification.
4.3 Conformance and compatibility

For an implementation claiming to support the IDL to TTCN-3 mapping, all features specified in the present document

shall be implemented consistently with the requirements given in the present document and in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1].

5 Lexical Conventions
5.0 General

The lexical conventions of IDL define the comments, identifiers, keywords and literals conventions which are described

in the following clauses.
5.1 Comments

Comment definitions in TTCN-3 and IDL are the same and therefore, no conversion of comments is necessary.

5.2 Identifiers

IDL identifier rules define a subset of the TTCN-3 rules in which no conversion is necessary.

5.3 Keywords

When IDL is used with TTCN-3 the keywords of TTCN-3 shall not be used as identifiers in an IDL module.

5.4 Literals

The definition of literals differs slightly between IDL and TTCN-3 why some modifications have to be made. Table B.1

gives the mapping for each literal type.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
Table 1: Literal mapping
Literal IDL TTCN
Integer no "0" as first digit no "0" as first digit
Octet "0" as first digit 'FF96'O
Hex "0X" or "0x" as first digits 'AB01D'H
Floating 1222.44E5 (Base 10) 1222.44E5 (Base 10)
Char 'A' "A"
Wide char L"A" "A"
Boolean TRUE, FALSE true, false
String "text" "text"
Wide string L"text" "text"
Fixed point 33.33D (see useful type IDLfixed)

IDL uses the ISO Latin-1 character set for string and wide string literals and TTCN-3 uses Recommendation

ITU-T T.50 [2] for string literals and ISO/IEC 10646 [3] for wide string literals.

6 Pre-processing

Pre-processor statements are not matched to TTCN-3 because the IDL specification shall be used after pre-processing it.

7 Importing from IDL specifications
7.0 General

The import of module, interface, value and constant declaration are described in this clause. The type and exception

declaration as well as the bodies of interfaces are described later.

All imported IDL declarations are in TTCN-3 public by default (see clause 8.2.5 of ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1]).

7.1 Importing module declaration

IDL modules are mapped to TTCN-3 modules. Nested IDL modules shall be flattened accordingly to TTCN-3 modules.

As one IDL module can contain many nested IDL modules where several nested modules can have equal names in

different scopes, these names can clash. Hence, module names identifiers are to be used which are composed of the

identifiers of the upper level IDL modules (from hierarchical point of view) and the nested IDL module name, separated

one from each other by two underscores.

According to the IDL scoping rules nested modules have access to the scope of upper level modules. As there are no

nested modules in TTCN-3, TTCN-3 modules have to import upper level modules. For avoiding name clashes, a prefix

for the imported definitions composed of the identifier of the module from which it is imported shall be used. The prefix

and the identifier are separated by a dot (.) as defined in TTCN-3.
IDL EXAMPLE:
module identifier1 {
typedef long mylong1;
module identifier2 {
typedef string mystring2;
typedef mylong1 mylong2;
module identifier3 {
typedef mylong1 long_from_module_1;
typedef mystring2 string_from_module_2;
typedef mylong2 long_from_module_1_2;
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 Final draft ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-03)
TTCN EXAMPLE:
module identifier1 {
type long mylong1;
module identifier1__identifier2 {
import from identifier1 all;
type iso8859string mystring2;
type identifier1.mylong1 mylong2;
module identifier1__identifier2__identifier3 {
import from identifier1 all;
import from identifier1__identifier2 all;
type identifier1.mylong1 long_from_module_1;
type identifier1__identifier2.mystring2 string_from_module_2;
type identifier1__identifier2.mylong2 long_from_module_1_2;
7.2 Importing interface declaration

Interfaces are flattened and all interface definitions are stored in one group. In contrast to interfaces in IDL, groups in

TTCN-3 do not create a scope. Therefore, prefixes for all identifiers of type definitions inside of the interface shall be

used, which are a combination of the interface name and two underscores as the prefix.

Import of single interface definitions from other modules via the importing group statement is possible. This can be

used if inheritance is used in the IDL specification.

For each interface, a procedure-based port type is defined for the test specification. It is associated with signatures

translated from attributes and operations of the interface.

An IDL attribute is mapped to two signatures: one for the setting of a value and one for getting it. These signatures have

names composed of the prefix (interface name and two underscores), attribute name and the word "Set" (except for

"readonly") or "Get" correspondingly.

Since an interface can be used in operation parameters to pass object references, an address type is also declared in the

data part - the concrete implementation is left to the user. Components are used as collection of interfaces or objects.

IDL EXAMPLE:
interface identifier {
attribute long attributeId ;
void operationname ( in string param_value ) raises ( ExceptionType ) ;
... other body definitions ...
TTCN EXAMPLE:
group identifierInterface {
signature identifier__attributeIdGet () return long
exception ( ... /* and all system exceptions defined in clause 9 */ );
signature identifier__attributeIdSet (in long identifier__attributeId)
exception ( ... /* and all system exceptions defined in clause 9 */ );

signature identifier__operationname ( in iso8859string identifier__param_value )

exception ( ExceptionType, ... /* and all system exceptions defined in clause 9 */ ) ;

...other body definitions ...
type port identifier procedure { ... }

type charstring identifierObject; /* a possible definition for the address type */

type identifierObject address;

Interface inheritance is executed by rolling out all inherited elements. Thus, they have to be handled as defined in the

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
01-september-2021

Metode za preskušanje in specificiranje (MTS) - 3. različica zapisa preskušanja in

krmiljenja preskusov - 8. del: Preslikava IDL v TTCN-3

Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS) - The Testing and Test Control Notation

version 3 - Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
ICS:
33.040.01 Telekomunikacijski sistemi na Telecommunication systems
splošno in general
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
ETSI STANDARD
Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS);
The Testing and Test Control Notation version 3;
Part 8: The IDL to TTCN-3 Mapping
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
2 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
Reference
RES/MTS-201873-8T3ed481
Keywords
IDL, testing, TTCN
ETSI
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© ETSI 2021.
All rights reserved.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
3 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 6

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 7

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 General considerations ............................................................................................................................. 8

4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Approach ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Conformance and compatibility ......................................................................................................................... 9

5 Lexical Conventions ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Comments........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Identifiers ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Keywords ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Literals ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6 Pre-processing ........................................................................................................................................ 10

7 Importing from IDL specifications ......................................................................................................... 10

7.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.1 Importing module declaration .......................................................................................................................... 10

7.2 Importing interface declaration ........................................................................................................................ 11

7.3 Importing value declaration .............................................................................................................................. 12

7.4 Importing constant declaration ......................................................................................................................... 12

8 Importing type declaration ..................................................................................................................... 13

8.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.1 IDL basic types ................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 13

8.1.1 Integer and floating-point types .................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.2 Char and wide char type ............................................................................................................................. 13

8.1.3 Boolean type ............................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1.4 Octet type .................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1.5 Any type ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2 Constructed types ............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.2.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2.1 Struct ........................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.2.2 Discriminated unions .................................................................................................................................. 15

8.2.3 Enumerations .............................................................................................................................................. 16

8.3 Template types ................................................................................................................................................. 16

8.3.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 16

8.3.1 Sequence ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.3.2 String and wstring ....................................................................................................................................... 16

8.3.3 Fixed types .................................................................................................................................................. 17

8.4 Complex declarator .......................................................................................................................................... 17

8.4.0 General approach ........................................................................................................................................ 17

8.4.1 Arrays ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.4.2 Native types ................................................................................................................................................ 17

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
4 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)

9 Importing exception declaration ............................................................................................................. 17

10 Importing operation declaration ............................................................................................................. 19

11 Importing attribute declaration ............................................................................................................... 20

12 Names and scoping ................................................................................................................................. 20

Annex A (informative): Examples ......................................................................................................... 22

A.1 The example ........................................................................................................................................... 22

A.2 IDL specification .................................................................................................................................... 22

A.3 Derived TTCN-3 specification ............................................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative): Mapping lists .................................................................................................. 28

B.1 IDL keyword and concept mapping list ................................................................................................. 28

B.2 Comparison of IDL, ASN.1, TTCN-2 and TTCN-3 data types ............................................................. 29

Annex C (informative): Bibliography ................................................................................................... 30

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 31

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
5 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The declarations

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, are publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be

found in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to

ETSI in respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the

ETSI Web server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI Directives including the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation regarding the essentiality of IPRs,

including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not

referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web server) which are, or may be, or may become,

essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its

Members. 3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and of the 3GPP

Organizational Partners. oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and of the

oneM2M Partners. GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Methods for Testing and Specification

(MTS).

The present document is part 8 of a multi-part deliverable. Full details of the entire series can be found in part 1 [1].

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1:2021
6 ETSI ES 201 873-8 V4.8.1 (2021-06)
1 Scope

The present document defines the mapping rules for CORBA IDL (as defined in clause 3 in [4]) to TTCN-3 (as defined

in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1]) to enable testing of CORBA-based systems. The principles of mapping CORBA IDL to

TTCN-3 can be also used for the mapping of interface specification languages of other object-/component-based

technologies.

The specification of other mappings is outside the scope of the present document.

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI ES 201 873-1: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 1: TTCN-3 Core Language".

[2] Recommendation ITU-T T.50: "International Reference Alphabet (IRA) (Formerly International

Alphabet No. 5 or IA5) - Information technology - 7-bit coded character set for information

interchange".

[3] ISO/IEC 10646:2017: "Information technology -- Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)".

[4] CORBA 3.0: "The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and Specification".

NOTE: Available at http://www.omg.org/spec/CORBA/.
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI ES 201 873-7: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; Part 7: Using ASN.1 with TTCN-3".
[i.2] Void.
[i.3] Void.
[i.4] Void.
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[i.5] ETSI ES 202 781: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Configuration and Deployment Support".

[i.6] ETSI ES 202 782: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: TTCN-3 Performance and Real Time Testing".

[i.7] ETSI ES 202 784: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Advanced Parameterization".

[i.8] ETSI ES 202 785: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Behaviour Types".

[i.9] ETSI ES 202 786: "Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); The Testing and Test Control

Notation version 3; TTCN-3 Language Extensions: Support of interfaces with continuous signals".

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
Void.
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One
CCM CORBA Component Model
NOTE: By OMG .
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
NOTE: By OMG .
DCE Distributed Computing Environment
NOTE: By OSF.
EJB Enterprise JavaBeans
NOTE: By Sun .
IDL Interface Definition Language
NET XML-based component technology
NOTE: By Microsoft .
OMG Object Management Group
OSF Open Software Foundation
SUT System Under Test
TTCN Testing and Test Control Notation
XML eXtended Markup Language
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4 General considerations
4.1 Introduction

Object-based technologies (such as CORBA, DCOM, DCE) and component-based technologies (such as CCM, EJB,

Microsoft , NET) use interface specifications to describe the structure of an object-/component-based system and its

operations and capabilities to interact with the environment. These interface specifications support interoperability and

reusability of objects/components.

The techniques used for interface specifications are often called Interface Definition Language (IDL), for example

CORBA IDL, Microsoft IDL or DCE IDL. These languages are comparable in their abilities to define system

interfaces, operations at system interfaces and system structures to various extends. They differ in details of the

object/component model.

When considering the testing of object-/component-based systems with TTCN-3, one is faced with the problem of

accessing the systems to be tested via the system interfaces as described in an IDL specification. In particular, for

TTCN-3 based test systems a direct import of IDL specifications into the test specifications for the use of e.g. system's

interface, operation and exception definitions is prevalent to any manual transformation into TTCN-3.

The present document discusses the mapping of CORBA IDL specifications into TTCN-3. This mapping rules out the

principles not only for CORBA IDL, but also for other interface specification languages. The mapping can be adapted

to the details of other interface specification languages.

The Interface Definition Language (IDL) (clause 3 in [4]) is a base of the whole Common Object Request Broker

Architecture (CORBA) [4] and an important point in developing distributed systems with CORBA. It allows the reuse

and interoperability of objects in a system. A mapping between IDL and a programming language is defined in the

CORBA standard. IDL is very similar to C++ containing pre-processor directives (include, comments, etc.), grammar as

well as constant, type and operation declarations. There are no programming language features like, e.g. if-

statements.

The core language of TTCN-3 is defined in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1] and provides a full text-based syntax, static

semantics and operational semantics. The IDL mapping provides a definition for the use of the core language with IDL

(figure 1).
Configuration Advanced OO
Advanced Behavior Performance Continuous TTCN-3
and deploy- Matching Features
Parameteri- Types and Real signals Packages
ment support
zation Time Testing
ASN.1 types
and values
IDL types
TTCN-3
XML types
Core
TTCN-3 User
Language
JSON types
& values
The shaded boxes are not
defined in the present
Other types &
document
values
Figure 1: User's view of the core language and its packages

It makes no difference for the mapping if requested or provided interfaces are required by the test system and SUT.

Hence, TTCN can be used on client and server side without modifications to the mapping rules.

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The present document is structured similar to the IDL specification document to provide easy access to the mapping of

each IDL element.
4.2 Approach

Two different approaches can be identified: the use of either implicit or explicit mapping. The implicit mapping makes

use of the import mechanism of TTCN-3, denoted by the keywords language and import. It facilitates the immediate use

of data specified in other languages. Therefore, the definition of a specific data interface for each of these languages is

required. Currently, ASN.1 data can be used besides the native TTCN-3 types (see ETSI ES 201 873-7 [i.1]).

The present document follows the approach of explicit mapping, i.e. IDL data are translated into appropriate TTCN-3

data. And only those TTCN-3 data are further used in the test specification.
4.3 Conformance and compatibility

For an implementation claiming to support the IDL to TTCN-3 mapping, all features specified in the present document

shall be implemented consistently with the requirements given in the present document and in ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1].

5 Lexical Conventions
5.0 General

The lexical conventions of IDL define the comments, identifiers, keywords and literals conventions which are described

in the following clauses.
5.1 Comments

Comment definitions in TTCN-3 and IDL are the same and therefore, no conversion of comments is necessary.

5.2 Identifiers

IDL identifier rules define a subset of the TTCN-3 rules in which no conversion is necessary.

5.3 Keywords

When IDL is used with TTCN-3 the keywords of TTCN-3 shall not be used as identifiers in an IDL module.

5.4 Literals

The definition of literals differs slightly between IDL and TTCN-3 why some modifications have to be made. Table B.1

gives the mapping for each literal type.
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Table 1: Literal mapping
Literal IDL TTCN
Integer no "0" as first digit no "0" as first digit
Octet "0" as first digit 'FF96'O
Hex "0X" or "0x" as first digits 'AB01D'H
Floating 1222.44E5 (Base 10) 1222.44E5 (Base 10)
Char 'A' "A"
Wide char L"A" "A"
Boolean TRUE, FALSE true, false
String "text" "text"
Wide string L"text" "text"
Fixed point 33.33D (see useful type IDLfixed)

IDL uses the ISO Latin-1 character set for string and wide string literals and TTCN-3 uses Recommendation

ITU-T T.50 [2] for string literals and ISO/IEC 10646 [3] for wide string literals.

6 Pre-processing

Pre-processor statements are not matched to TTCN-3 because the IDL specification shall be used after pre-processing it.

7 Importing from IDL specifications
7.0 General

The import of module, interface, value and constant declaration are described in this clause. The type and exception

declaration as well as the bodies of interfaces are described later.

All imported IDL declarations are in TTCN-3 public by default (see clause 8.2.5 of ETSI ES 201 873-1 [1]).

7.1 Importing module declaration

IDL modules are mapped to TTCN-3 modules. Nested IDL modules shall be flattened accordingly to TTCN-3 modules.

As one IDL module can contain many nested IDL modules where several nested modules can have equal names in

different scopes, these names can clash. Hence, module names identifiers are to be used which are composed of the

identifiers of the upper level IDL modules (from hierarchical point of view) and the nested IDL module name, separated

one from each other by two underscores.

According to the IDL scoping rules nested modules have access to the scope of upper level modules. As there are no

nested modules in TTCN-3, TTCN-3 modules have to import upper level modules. For avoiding name clashes, a prefix

for the imported definitions composed of the identifier of the module from which it is imported shall be used. The prefix

and the identifier are separated by a dot (.) as defined in TTCN-3.
IDL EXAMPLE:
module identifier1 {
typedef long mylong1;
module identifier2 {
typedef string mystring2;
typedef mylong1 mylong2;
module identifier3 {
typedef mylong1 long_from_module_1;
typedef mystring2 string_from_module_2;
typedef mylong2 long_from_module_1_2;
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TTCN EXAMPLE:
module identifier1 {
type long mylong1;
module identifier1__identifier2 {
import from identifier1 all;
type iso8859string mystring2;
type identifier1.mylong1 mylong2;
module identifier1__identifier2__identifier3 {
import from identifier1 all;
import from identifier1__identifier2 all;
type identifier1.mylong1 long_from_module_
...

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