Energy performance of buildings - Ventilation for buildings - Part 16: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-15 - Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-7) - Storage

This Technical Report refers to the standard EN 16798-15.
It contains information to support the correct understanding, use and national adaptation of this
standard.

Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Lüftung von Gebäuden - Teil 16: Interpretation der Anforderungen der EN 16798-15 - Berechnung von Kühlsystemen (Modul M4-7) - Speicherung

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Ventilation des bâtiments - Partie 16 : Explication des exigences de l'EN 16798‐15 - Calcul des systèmes de refroidissement (Module M4‐7) - Stockage

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Prezračevanje stavb - 16. del: Razlaga in utemeljitev EN 16798-15 - Izračun za hladilne sisteme - Modul M4-7 - Shranjevanje

To tehnično poročilo se nanaša na standard EN 16798-15.
Vsebuje informacije za pomoč pri pravilnem razumevanju, uporabi in nacionalni prilagoditvi tega standarda.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Jan-2017
Publication Date
13-Jun-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
17-May-2018
Due Date
22-Jul-2018
Completion Date
14-Jun-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-16:2018
01-julij-2018

(QHUJLMVNHODVWQRVWLVWDYE3UH]UDþHYDQMHVWDYEGHO5D]ODJDLQXWHPHOMLWHY

(1,]UDþXQ]DKODGLOQHVLVWHPH0RGXO06KUDQMHYDQMH

Energy performance of buildings - Ventilation for buildings - Part 16: Interpretation of the

requirements in EN 16798-15 - Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-7) - Storage

Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Lüftung von Gebäuden - Teil 16: Interpretation der

Anforderungen der EN 16798-15 - Berechnung von Kühlsystemen (Modul M4-7) -
Speicherung
3HUIRUPDQFHpQHUJpWLTXHGHVEkWLPHQWV9HQWLODWLRQGHVEkWLPHQWV3DUWLH
([SOLFDWLRQGHVH[LJHQFHVGHO
(1"&DOFXOGHVV\VWqPHVGHUHIURLGLVVHPHQW
0RGXOH0" 6WRFNDJH
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16798-16:2017
ICS:
91.140.30 3UH]UDþHYDOQLLQNOLPDWVNL Ventilation and air-
VLVWHPL conditioning systems
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-16:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-16:2018
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-16:2018
CEN/TR 16798-16
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
June 2017
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 91.120.10; 91.140.30
English Version
Energy performance of buildings - Ventilation for buildings
- Part 16: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-
15 - Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-7) -
Storage

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Ventilation Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Lüftung von

des bâtiments - Partie 16 : Explication des exigences Gebäuden - Teil 16: Interpretation der Anforderungen

de l'EN 16798-15 - Calcul des systèmes de der EN 16798-15 - Berechnung von Kühlsystemen

refroidissement (Module M4-7) - Stockage (Modul M4-7) - Speicherung

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 27 February 2017. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

156.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16798-16:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Brief description of the method ................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 Output of the method ..................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 General description of the method ........................................................................................................ 10

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2.2 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.2.3 Number of volumes to model the storage ........................................................................................... 11

5.2.4 Calculation information ............................................................................................................................. 11

5.3 Flowchart of the calculation procedure ............................................................................................... 11

5.4 Technologies covered by the standard ................................................................................................ 11

5.5 Description of cooling systems................................................................................................................ 11

6 Calculation method ...................................................................................................................................... 11

6.1 Output data ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.2 Calculation time interval and calculation period ............................................................................. 11

6.3 Input data ........................................................................................................................................................ 12

6.3.1 Source of data ................................................................................................................................................ 12

6.3.2 Product data ................................................................................................................................................... 12

6.3.3 System design data ...................................................................................................................................... 12

6.3.4 Operating conditions .................................................................................................................................. 13

6.3.5 Constants and physical data ..................................................................................................................... 13

6.3.6 Input data from Annex A (Annex B) ...................................................................................................... 13

6.4 Calculation procedure, hourly method ................................................................................................ 13

7 Quality control .............................................................................................................................................. 13

8 Compliance check......................................................................................................................................... 13

9 Worked out examples ................................................................................................................................. 13

9.1 Storage model using water / ice ............................................................................................................. 13

9.1.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

9.1.2 Calculation details ....................................................................................................................................... 13

9.2 Storage with PCM materials ..................................................................................................................... 13

9.2.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

9.2.2 Calculation details ....................................................................................................................................... 14

9.3 Remarks and comments ............................................................................................................................ 14

Annex A (informative) Input and method selection data sheet — Template ........................................ 15

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

A.2 References ...................................................................................................................................................... 15

A.3 Hourly, monthly and annual method .................................................................................................... 15

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A.4 Additional information for monthly method ...................................................................................... 15

Annex B (informative) Input and method selection data sheet — Default choices ............................. 16

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

B.2 References ....................................................................................................................................................... 16

B.3 Hourly, bin, monthly and annual method ............................................................................................ 16

B.4 Additional information for monthly and annual method .............................................................. 16

Annex C (informative) Calculation flowchart .................................................................................................... 17

Annex D (informative) Calculation example ...................................................................................................... 18

D.1 Spreadsheet .................................................................................................................................................... 18

D.2 Example 1: water/ice as storage material ........................................................................................... 18

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 27

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16798-16:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 156

“Ventilation for buildings”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

The necessary editorial revisions were made to comply with the requirements for each EPB Technical

Report.

This document has been produced to meet the requirements of Directive 2010/31/EU 19 May 2010 on

the energy performance of buildings (recast), referred to as “recast EPDB”.

For the convenience of Standards users CEN/TC 156, together with responsible Working Group

Convenors, have prepared a simple table below relating, where appropriate, the relationship between

the ‘EPBD’ and ‘recast EPBD’ standard numbers prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 156

“Ventilation for buildings”.
EPBD EN Recast EPBD EN
Title
Number Number
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 1: Indoor environmental input parameters for design
EN 15251 EN 16798-1 and assessment of energy performance of buildings
addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting
and acoustics (Module M1-6)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 2: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-1 –
Indoor environmental input parameters for design and
N/A CEN/TR 16798-2
assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing
indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and
acoustics (Module M1-6)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 3: For non-residential buildings – Performance
requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems
EN 13779 EN 16798-3
(Modules M5-1, M5-4)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 4: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798- 3 –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-4 For non-residential buildings – Performance requirements
for ventilation and room-conditioning systems (Modules M5-
1, M5-4)
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Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 5-1: Calculation methods for energy requirements of
ventilation and air conditioning systems (Modules M5-6, M5-
EN 15241 EN 16798-5-1
8, M6-5, M6-8, M7-5, M7-8) – Method 1: Distribution and
generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 5-2: Calculation methods for energy requirements of
ventilation systems (Modules M5-6.2, M5-8.2) – Method 2:
EN 15241 EN 16798-5-2
Distribution and generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 6: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-5–1
N/A CEN/TR 16798-6 and EN 16798-5-2 – Calculation methods for energy
requirements of ventilation and air conditioning systems
(Modules M5-6, M5-8, M 6-5, M6-8 , M7-5, M7-8)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 7: Calculation methods for the determination of air flow
EN 15242 EN 16798-7
rates in buildings including infiltration (Module M5-5)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 8: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-7 –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-8
Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates in
buildings including infiltration – (Module M5-5)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
EN 15243 EN 16798-9 Part 9: Calculation methods for energy requirements of
cooling systems (Modules M4-1, M4-4, M4-9) – General
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 10: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-9 –
Calculation methods for energy requirements of cooling
N/A CEN/TR 16798-10
systems (Module M4-1,M4-4, M4-9) – General
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
EN 15243 EN 16798-13 Part 13: Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-8) –
Generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –

EN 15243 CEN/TR 16798-14 Part 14: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-13 –

Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-8) – Generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
N/A EN 16798-15 Part 15: Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-7) –
Storage
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Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-16 Part 16: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-15 –
Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-7) – Storage
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
EN 15239 and
EN 16798-17 Part 17: Guidelines for inspection of ventilation and air-
EN 15240
conditioning systems (Module M4-11, M5-11, M6-11, M7-11)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 18: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-17 –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-18
Guidelines for inspection of ventilation and air-conditioning
systems (Module M4-11, M5-11, M6-11, M7-11)
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Introduction
The set of EPB standards, Technical Reports and supporting tools

In order to facilitate the necessary overall consistency and coherence, in terminology, approach,

input/output relations and formats, for the whole set of EPB-standards, the following documents and

tools are available:

a) a document with basic principles to be followed in drafting EPB-standards: CEN/TS 16628, Energy

Performance of Buildings — Basic Principles for the set of EPB standards [1];

b) a document with detailed technical rules to be followed in drafting EPB-standards; CEN/TS 16629,

Energy Performance of Buildings — Detailed Technical Rules for the set of EPB-standards [2];

c) the detailed technical rules are the basis for the following tools:

1) a common template for each EPB-standard, including specific drafting instructions for the

relevant clauses;

2) a common template for each technical report that accompanies an EPB standard or a cluster of

EPB standards, including specific drafting instructions for the relevant clauses;

3) a common template for the spreadsheet that accompanies each EPB standard, to demonstrate

the correctness of the EPB calculation procedures.

Each EPB-standard follows the basic principles and the detailed technical rules and relates to the

overarching EPB-standard, EN ISO 52000-1 [3].

One of the main purposes of the revision of the EPB-standards is to enable that laws and regulations

directly refer to the EPB-standards and make compliance with them compulsory. This requires that the

set of EPB-standards consists of a systematic, clear, comprehensive and unambiguous set of energy

performance procedures. The number of options provided is kept as low as possible, taking into

account national and regional differences in climate, culture and building tradition, policy and legal

frameworks (subsidiarity principle). For each option, an informative default option is provided

(Annex B).
Rationale behind the EPB Technical Reports

There is a risk that the purpose and limitations of the EPB standards will be misunderstood, unless the

background and context to their contents – and the thinking behind them – is explained in some detail

to readers of the standards. Consequently, various types of informative contents are recorded and made

available for users to properly understand, apply and nationally or regionally implement the EPB

standards.

If this explanation would have been attempted in the standards themselves, the result is likely to be

confusing and cumbersome, especially if the standards are implemented or referenced in national or

regional building codes.

Therefore each EPB standard is accompanied by an informative technical report, like this one, where all

informative content is collected, to ensure a clear separation between normative and informative

contents (see CEN/TS 16629 [2]):

— to avoid flooding and confusing the actual normative part with informative content,

— to reduce the page count of the actual standard, and
— to facilitate understanding of the set of EPB standards.
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This was also one of the main recommendations from the European CENSE project [5] that laid the

foundation for the preparation of the set of EPB standards.
This Technical Report

This Technical Report accompanies the EPB standard on the calculation of the energy performance of

cooling storage systems. It relates to the standard EN 16798-15, which forms part of a set of standards

related to the evaluation of the energy performance of buildings (EPB).

The role and the positioning of the accompanied standards in the set of EPB standards is defined in the

Introduction to the standards.
Accompanying spreadsheet(s)

Concerning the accompanied standard EN 16798-15, the following spreadsheets were produced:

— on EN 16798-15 for ice storage type; and
— on EN 16798-15 for PCM storage type.

In this Technical Report, an example of one of these calculation sheets is included.

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1 Scope
This Technical Report refers to the standard EN 16798-15.

It contains information to support the correct understanding, use and national adaptation of this

standard.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE More information on the use of EPB module numbers for normative references between EPB standards

is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.

EN 12977–3, Thermal solar systems and components - Custom built systems - Part 3: Performance test

methods for solar water heater stores
EN 15332, Heating boilers - Energy assessment of hot water storage systems

EN 16798-15, Energy performance of buildings - Ventilation for buildings - Part 15: Calculation of cooling

systems (Module M4-7) - Storage

EN 60379, Methods for measuring the performance of electric storage water-heaters for household

purposes
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16798-15 apply.

NOTE More information on some key EPB terms and definitions is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.

4 Symbols and abbreviations
4.1 Symbols

For the purposes of this document, the symbols given in the accompanied EPB standard, EN 16798-15,

apply.
More information on key EPB symbols is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.
4.2 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviations given in the accompanied EPB standard,

EN 16798-15, apply.
More information on key EPB abbreviations is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.
5 Brief description of the method
5.1 Output of the method

The method calculates the thermal balance of the storage unit which stored energy produced with an

external refrigerating unit and delivers the energy stored alone or as a complement of the refrigerating

unit to the cooling distribution system.
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5.2 General description of the method
5.2.1 General

The input data are the volume of the storage unit, standby losses at reference values (ambient

temperature, set temperature) of the storage unit and information related to the type of material used

for storage (water; PCM).

The energy balance (difference between the energy delivered and energy extracted) is considered to

calculate the energy stored and potential use of the storage

NOTE As a consequence, it is not possible to calculate the operation time for the auxiliaries (pumps,

circulators) as the energy delivered and extracted are aggregated.

The operation of the storage depends on the different combinations presented in Table 1.

Table 1 — Operational combinations of the storage unit
Mode Use of cooling Refrigerating unit Storage
Direct ON ON OFF
Storage stage OFF ON ON
Storage only use ON OFF ON
Storage + Direct ON ON ON
Stand-by OFF OFF OFF

As a consequence of the energy input/output to and from the storage, the consequences (mass and

temperature of the different phases) on the material used for storage (water, phase change material-

PCM) are calculated.

The refrigerating unit is located outside of the storage unit (chiller, heat pump). The energy calculation

includes only part of the attached systems uses for the specific connection to the refrigerating and

distribution systems that are not considered in the other related standards (generation, distribution).

These attached systems are characterized with their specific thermal losses and mass flow rate.

The energy balance is:
∆Q = Q + Q ++Q Q [kWh] (1)
C;sto C;;sto in C;;sto in;ls C;;sto ls C;;sto out;ls
where
ΔQ kWh variation of energy stored in the storage unit
C;sto
Q kWh energy extracted from the distribution system
C;sto;in
Q kWh thermal losses of the storage unit
C;sto;ls
Q kWh thermal losses of the generation part of the distribution system
C;sto;in;ls
Q kWh thermal losses of the distribution system
C;sto;out;ls
5.2.2 Assumptions

It is assumed that the power of losses vary linearly with the difference between ambient temperature

and temperature of the storage unit.
Energy is withdrawn and delivered at the beginning of the step time.
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Additional assumptions are used depending on the type of material used for storage:

— If water/ice is used as material for storage, the temperature in the ice varies linearly in the ice

layer. The thickness of the ice layer is constant all along the exchanger (tube).

— For PCM material the temperature in the solid phase and liquid are homogeneous.

Dynamic effects are neglected because the temperature of the storage unit is considered as

homogenous during each time step.
5.2.3 Number of volumes to model the storage
The storage is considered as homogenous.
No stratification is considered in the storage.
5.2.4 Calculation information

The main source of error is considering a lack of energy at the output of the storage unit, due to:

— default in dimensioning the storage unit;

— default in dimensioning the characteristics of the input circuit (power, pump) and output circuit

(pump);
— default in the control for cooling input and distribution; and

— step time not adapted (the solution could be to reduce the step time in order to divide the energy

demand at the output of the storage unit or to be split (monthly calculation) to consider the non-

operating period.
5.3 Flowchart of the calculation procedure
A flowchart is given in Annex C.
5.4 Technologies covered by the standard
No further explanations.
5.5 Description of cooling systems
No further explanations.
6 Calculation method
6.1 Output data
No further explanation.
6.2 Calculation time interval and calculation period
The calculation interval is typically hourly.
This time allows checking the dimensioning of the storage unit which depends on:
— the volume of material used for energy storage;
— the pattern of operation for the refrigerating unit (see Table 1); and
— the pattern of use of the energy stored.
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Same calculation procedure can be used for monthly or annual time step.

For monthly or annual calculation intervals, the data input is based on the average value of energy used.

This assumption is offered as the thermal losses of the storage unit are constant and the other losses

and energy auxiliaries are proportional to the quantity of energy delivered to and from the storage unit.

However, for these time steps the data input should separate the operating period from the period

when the storage is not used (and powered) for better accuracy of the calculation of the thermal losses

and auxiliary energy.
6.3 Input data
6.3.1 Source of data
No further explanations.
6.3.2 Product data
6.3.2.1 Product description data (qualitative)
No further explanations.
6.3.2.2 Product technical data
The volume is the declared value by the manufacturer (unit: l – litre).
The thermal losses are those provided by the manufacturer.

The thermal losses (usually expressed in kWh/24h) are transformed into thermal power losses (Unit:

W/K)

For information, the default value of thermal losses is based on thermal losses from hot water storage

with similar type and thickness of isolating material. Default values for coefficients C1, C2 …C5 are

based on data from the different products standards representing typical values for storage unit used

for hot water in Europe (Table 2).
Table 2 — Products standards for storage
Direct Electrical (Volume greater or equal to 75 l) EN 60379
Direct Electrical (Volume lower than 75 l) EN 12977–3
Solar storage EN 15332
6.3.3 System design data
6.3.3.1 Process design

The auxiliary information (power, mass flow) are provided by the manufacturer (integrated auxiliaries)

or from the design of the storage. Mass flow rate of the circulators shall be adapted to the thermal

power (input/output).

As default, the power of the auxiliaries is equal to zero, assumed to be accounted for in the generation

or distribution parts.

Energy used by other auxiliaries are neglected compared to the energy of pumps or because the pattern

of use and control cannot be justified (e.g. pump used for homog
...

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