General rules for the design and installation of ceramic tiling

The aim of this European Prestandard is to give general rules to be followed in the design and installation of ceramic tiling. Therefore this prestandard shall not be considered as a substitute for existing national codes of practice containing more detailed rules specific to the respective countries. This prestandard deals with the design and installation of internal and external wall and floor tiling.

Konstruktion und Aufbringung von Belägen aus keramischen Fliesen und Platten - Fugenmörtel für Fliesen und Platten

Splošna pravila za oblikovanje in vgradnjo keramičnih ploščic

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Apr-2004
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-May-2004
Due Date
01-May-2004
Completion Date
01-May-2004

Buy Standard

Technical report
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
English language
25 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
01-maj-2004
6SORãQDSUDYLOD]DREOLNRYDQMHLQYJUDGQMRNHUDPLþQLKSORãþLF
General rules for the design and installation of ceramic tiling
Konstruktion und Aufbringung von Belägen aus keramischen Fliesen und Platten -
Fugenmörtel für Fliesen und Platten
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 13548:2004
ICS:
91.100.23 .HUDPLþQHSORãþLFH Ceramic tiles
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 13548
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
February 2004
ICS 91.100.25
English version
General rules for the design and installation of ceramic tiling
Konstruktion und Aufbringung von Belägen aus
keramischen Fliesen und Platten – Fugenmörtel für Fliesen
und Platten

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 12 October 2003. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 67.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 13548:2004 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
Contents
Page

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions....................................................................................................................................6

3.1 General............................................................................................................................................................6

3.2 Components of a ceramic tiling ...................................................................................................................6

3.3 Tiling techniques and operations.................................................................................................................7

3.4 Characteristics/aspects of ceramic tiling....................................................................................................8

4 Exchange of information...............................................................................................................................9

5 Materials..........................................................................................................................................................9

5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................9

5.2 Materials to be considered..........................................................................................................................10

5.3 Basic information.........................................................................................................................................10

5.3.1 General..........................................................................................................................................................10

5.3.2 Classification................................................................................................................................................10

5.3.3 Safety requirements (CE Marking, etc.).....................................................................................................10

5.3.4 Specification for transport, storage, use...................................................................................................10

5.3.5 Technical specification ...............................................................................................................................10

6 Design ...........................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 The project data ...........................................................................................................................................11

6.2.1 Destination environment and working conditions ...................................................................................11

6.2.2 The backgrounds .........................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Selection and specification of the materials.............................................................................................13

6.3.1 Criterion of performance.............................................................................................................................14

6.3.2 Criterion of compatibility ............................................................................................................................14

6.3.3 Criterion of safety ........................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Specification of the tiling ............................................................................................................................14

6.4.1 Tiling system ................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.2 Tile joints ......................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.3 Movement joints...........................................................................................................................................15

7 Installation ....................................................................................................................................................16

7.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................16

7.2 Analysis of the specification and planning of the work ..........................................................................16

7.3 Control of environmental conditions.........................................................................................................16

7.4 Storage and control of the materials .........................................................................................................17

7.5 Control and preparation of the background, preparation of the bedding material, application of

bedding and tiles..........................................................................................................................................17

7.6 Installation of movement joints.................................................................................................................18

7.7 Cleaning and protection..............................................................................................................................18

8 Quality of ceramic tiling: characterisics and requirements ....................................................................18

8.1 General requirements of ceramic tiling .....................................................................................................18

8.2 Guidelines for the specification of the rerquirements and their allowable tolerances ........................18

8.2.1 General..........................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.2 Regularity......................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.3 Durability.......................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.4 Safety ............................................................................................................................................................21

9 Initial cleaning, protection and maintenance............................................................................................22

9.1 General..........................................................................................................................................................22

9.2 Initial cleaning ..............................................................................................................................................22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)

9.3 Protection .....................................................................................................................................................22

9.4 Treatment......................................................................................................................................................22

9.4.1 Surface waterproofing treatments .............................................................................................................22

9.4.2 Temporary tile sealers.................................................................................................................................22

9.5 Maintenance .................................................................................................................................................23

Annex A (informative) Informative references.......................................................................................................24

A.1 Classification of Destination Environments .............................................................................................24

A.2 Backgrounds................................................................................................................................................24

A.3 Selection criteria for materials ...................................................................................................................25

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 13548:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 67 “Ceramic tiles”, the

secretariat of which is held by UNI.
Annex A is informative.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
Introduction
There are now current European Standards available for:
- ceramic tiles
- adhesives and grouts for tiles

For these products to give satisfactory service, it is necessary for them to be selected and installed competently,

and to receive appropriate initial treatment, protection and maintenance.

Certain CEN member countries have issued standards and/or guides that define the practice for design and

installation of ceramic tiling.

This Technical Report is not intended to replace these national standards or guides, neither prevent the

development of national standards or guides in those member countries that do not currently have them. It's

purpose is to foster good design and installation standards for ceramic tiling across Europe, especially in countries

where there is no national standard or guide on this subject.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Report applies to internal and external floor and wall ceramic tiling, installed by both cement mortar

and adhesive methods.

The aim of this Technical Report is to define the quality of ceramic tiling and the main general rules associated with

materials selection, design, installation and use that should be followed to ensure that the required levels of quality

and performance are achieved.

Note: The quality of ceramic tiling depends on compliance with the following general requirements:

- regularity
- durability
- safety

Compliance with these requirements shall be achieved with the simultaneous and indispensable contribution of all the

"functions" involved in the design and installation of the tiling. These functions are:

- manufacture and distribution of the materials (ceramic tiles, adhesives, grouts, etc.);

- design of the tiling;
- installation of the tiling (tile fixing operations).
The durability of the tiling can also depend on it's use and management.
2 Normative references

This Technical Report incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These

normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For

dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this Technical

Report only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the

publication referred to applies.

ISO 7976-1:1989, Tolerances for building -- Methods of measurement of buildings and building products -- Part 1:

Methods and instruments

EN 14411, Ceramic tiles - Definitions, classification, characteristics and marking (ISO 13006:1998, modified)

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this Technical Report, the terms and definitions relevant to ceramic floor and wall tiles,

adhesive, mortars, screeds, etc. given in the existing standards and the following apply.

3.1 General
3.1.1
ceramic tiling
ceramic tiles installed, together with it's associated bedding and jointing
3.1.2
design or specification (of ceramic tiling)

selection of ceramic tiles, backgrounds, fixing methods and fixing and jointing materials as appropriate for the

structure and intended use
3.1.3
installation (of ceramic tiling) or tile fixing
application of ceramic tiling in accordance with the specification
3.2 Components of a ceramic tiling
3.2.1
background
any material system used as a base over which the ceramic tile is to be fixed
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
3.2.2
filling out layer

separate application of material to achieve the required vertical flatness (walls)

3.2.3
fixing surface
plane rigid surface upon which the tile is fixed
3.2.4
insulating layer
layer included to obtain sound or thermal insulation
3.2.5
intermediate joint
movement joint to divide large tiling into smaller, approximately square areas
3.2.6
levelling layer

layer applied to compensate for unevenness and differences in height of the base or to accommodate services

(floors)
3.2.7
movement joint

joint in tiles, backgrounds or substrates, designed to accommodate movement. Types of movement joints:

structural joint, perimeter joint, intermediate joint
3.2.8
perimeter joint
movement joint to isolate the ceramic tiling from adjacent building elements
3.2.9
primer

fluid material, used separately or mixed with binder to form a slurry, applied as a thin layer to improve adhesion of

the bedding to the background, or to isolate the bedding material from the background surface

3.2.10
separating layer

material which separates layers within the tiling system. Example: anti-fracture membrane

3.2.11
structural joint

movement joint in ceramic tiling to correspond with structural movement joint in the background

3.2.12
tile bed or bedding

layer of specified materials in which the tile is set and which bonds the tiles to the fixing surface

3.2.13
tile joint
space between adjacent tiles
3.2.14
waterproofing membrane
continuous layer of impervious material to resist the passage of water
3.3 Tiling techniques and operations
3.3.1
bonded method

floor tiling laid with a system which ensures that the bedding is bonded to the background

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
3.3.2
buttering method

adhesive or mortar applied on the reverse of the tiles, just before the tile is placed

3.3.3
contact area

proportion of the tile back and/or background support that is in contact with the bedding after the tile has been set

into position
3.3.4
direct bedding
tile fixing directly onto a structural background
3.3.5
floating method
adhesive or mortar applied to the fixing surface, just before the tile is placed
3.3.6
floating and buttering method

adhesive or mortar applied to the fixing surface and to the reverse of the tile, just before the tile is placed

3.3.7
grouting

operation of filling the joint cavities between tiles other than at movement joints

3.3.8
maintenance (of ceramic tiling)

all aspects of the cleaning, treatment and periodic repair of damage to the ceramic tiling

3.3.9
plastering
application of a gypsum plaster to a vertical background
3.3.10
rendering
application of a cement mortar to a vertical background
3.3.11
screeding
application of a screed on a floor background
3.3.12
tanking

application of an impermeable layer beneath tile and bedding to prevent water penetration into the background

3.3.13
unbonded method

any method of laying floors which provides separation of the tiling system from the background

3.4 Characteristics/aspects of ceramic tiling
3.4.1
durability
the quality of tiling which maintains its characteristics over time
3.4.2
flatness

conformity of the surface of the tiling to a theoretical plane within an allowable tolerance

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
3.4.3
levelness

conformity of the surface of floor tiling to a fixed horizontal datum plane within an allowable tolerance

3.4.4
lipping

deviation between tile surfaces either side of a joint (including movement joints)

3.4.5
plumbness

conformity of the surface of wall tiling, designed to be vertical, to a fixed plane within an allowable tolerance

3.4.6
slip resistance
ability of a floor tiling to provide friction to resist slipping by pedestrians
4 Exchange of information

In order for the correct floor/wall covering to be installed in appropriate conditions, at the right time, etc, it is

essential that all parties have a clear understanding of the requirements of the project. To ensure that this is

achieved, it is essential that there is wide consultation between all the parties involved in the project, including sub-

contractors and materials suppliers.

As each project will be unique, it is impossible to give a definitive list of the information to be exchanged, but the

following are common examples.
a) Design: the information required (see 6).

b) Special attendances: access, unloading, hoisting and storage facilities, heat, light and power and any

additional items considered necessary to expedite the work.

c) Materials: technical specification and instructions for transport, storage, use.

d) Backgrounds: type and age of construction; location within the building; type, characteristics (mechanical

strength, deformation, etc.); and regularity of background (see 6); and any need for an intermediate substrate

or for movement joints.

e) Associated work: services embedded in or passing through the backgrounds and junctions with other adjacent

finishes
f) Finishes: type, size and colour of tiles and layout requirements.
g) Installation: type and technique (see 7).

h) Programme: a time schedule for the progress of the work taking into consideration drying and curing periods of

backgrounds and tiling until completion
5 Materials
5.1 Introduction

This section aims to identify and list the materials that are involved in a ceramic tiling, and to define the main

information and rules that apply to these materials.

The identification and selection of materials suitable for any given application are a design operation. The relative

criteria are therefore reported in 6.3.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
5.2 Materials to be considered
The basic materials for tiling are:
- finishing layer
- ceramic tiles
- grouts
- cement grouts
- pre-prepared or proprietary grouts
- bedding
- mortar
- cement
- other binders
- sand and aggregates (gravel, crushed stone, etc.)
- water
- admixtures
- adhesives
- primers
- movement joints
- sealants
- back-up materials
- special components (profiles, etc.)
Additional layers:
- separating layer
- filling out layer
- levelling layer
- waterproofing membrane
- insulating layers (sound, thermal)
- reinforced screed
- etc.
5.3 Basic information
5.3.1 General
For each material, the following basic information should be reported:
5.3.2 Classification
with reference to the existing standards (see 2)
5.3.3 Safety requirements (CE Marking, etc.)
5.3.4 Specification for transport, storage, use
5.3.5 Technical specification

The technical specification of a given material is a document, supplied by the manufacturer, containing the list of

the technical characteristics specified in the standards (where available, see 2; otherwise, in other technical

documents) and the results of the respective measurements, carried out according to the standardised test

methods.

The technical specification represents a basic document for the correct and knowledgeable selection, application

and use of all the materials used for tiling.
Examples of specifications for transport, storage, use:
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
- All the materials:
- The delivery of materials should be so arranged as to minimise handling.

- Adequate precautions should be taken to prevent damage. Products should be stored in clean, dry,

frost free (if necessary) lockable storage to avoid theft and damage.

- The materials should be transported, stored, prepared and used strictly in accordance with the

manufacturer’s instructions (when applicable).
- Cement and cement-base materials
- Cement should be stored under dry conditions, and used in order of delivery.
- Cement that contains air set lumps should not be used.
- Grouts

- In order to avoid colour differences, sand and cement for grouts should be from the same lot.

- Sand and aggregates
- Sand and aggregates should be protected from contamination.
- Any contaminated sand or aggregates should not be used.
- Water
- Water should be clean. Seawater is not suitable.

- All containers used for storing or carrying water or for soaking tiles should be clean.

6 Design
6.1 Introduction

The design or specification of ceramic tiling aims to identify and define, in any specific situation, one or more

correct constructive solutions, suitable to achieve an acceptable compliance with the general requirements of

regularity, durability and safety (see 8).
Design is considered to be a duty of the designer or specifier.
6.2 The project data
The project data constitute the base line for the tiling specification
6.2.1 Destination environment and working conditions

The following aspects shall be considered in the design phase as a basis for the specification of the materials and

the tiling system.
Information on destination environment:

- the position of the tiling: horizontal (floors), vertical (walls), other (for example, inclined, vault, ceiling, etc.);

- the location of the tiling: outdoor/external or indoor/internal
- the access or nature of the environment: private/residential or public
- the destined use of the environment: civil or industrial
- the specific activity which will be carried out in the tiled area
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
Information on working conditions:
- climate (for external tiling)
- area (for example, urban, industrial, etc.) for external tiling

- expected traffic type (for example, pedestrian, wheels, etc.) and intensity (for floors)

- expected static and dynamic loads
- presence of water or other fluids on the surface
- presence of chemicals on the surface.
The information above should be used to foresee:

- the expected level of mechanical (surface and mass), chemical and hygro-thermal loads acting on the tiling;

- specific needs as regards safety (for example, slip resistance, hygiene, etc.) or other additional performances.

Some classification schemes for destination environments and working conditions of tiling have been published.

(see A.1).
6.2.2 The backgrounds

The nature of the background is a prime consideration in deciding, the fixing method (specification of materials - in

particular, adhesives - and of the tiling system, as well as of any intermediate substrate or other preparatory

treatment necessary before tiling). The characteristics of the background that influence the choice of fixing method

are summarised in Table 1.

Lists of backgrounds (for definition see 3.2) for tiling used in different European countries are reported in national

norms or technical reports (see A.2). The characteristics listed in Table 1 can be used as a framework, in order to

evaluate backgrounds in the tiling design phase, as well as to provide indications for the specification of the tiling

system (6.4).
The following general rules should be adopted:
- Backgrounds for tiling should be sound and free from contamination.

- Cementitious backgrounds are subject to shrinkage over time. The associated risks can be prevented through

a suitable choice of time schedule and materials.

- Levelling and/or filling out layers should be used (especially in the case of adhesive tiling) to assure regularity,

to improve the background flatness or finish, or to compensate for floors out of level.

- Special layers can be used to provide waterproof tiling, or for sound or thermal insulation.

- Separating layers should be used to prevent the effects of excessive flexibility or dimensional instability of the

background

- In the case of very deformable backgrounds, the application of a suitable layer (for example, a reinforced

screed) should be considered.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)
Table 1 — Background characteristics
Characteristics Description
Mechanical Mechanical strength • Compressive • Resistance to
strength rupture or damage
under working
• Bending strength
loads
• Pull strength
• Ability to support
the permanent load
of the tiling (tiles,
mortar bed, etc.)
Deformation under • Compression • Tendency of the
load
support to deform
• Deflection
under static and
• Creep
dynamic load
Deformation without • Shrinkage • Movements due to
load
non-load factors
• Plastic deformation
• Chemical shrinkage
• Thermal &
Hygrometric
movements
Surface soundness
• Ability to support
the stresses of the
fixing system
Regularity Flatness
• Departure from
planarity
(depressions,
protuberances,
bumps)
Surface finish • Texture of surface
Chemical/Physical Water absorption
• The amount and
rate at which the
background
absorbs water,
removing it from
Water resistance • The behaviour of
the background
exposed to contact
with water (both
during tile
installation and in
working conditions
Chemical • Compatibility
between the
background
surface and the
material or layers
laid on it
6.3 Selection and specification of the materials

The selection of the materials (ceramic tiles, adhesives or mortars, grouts) is a basic step in the design of ceramic

tiling, since it can significantly influence the achievement of a satisfactory compliance with the general

requirements of regularity, durability and safety, which define the quality of ceramic tiling (see 8).

A very wide range of products is available on the market: products with different appearance (for example, tiles

having different format, different colour, surface texture, decorations, etc.), different technical characteristics, and

---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 13548:2004
CEN/TR 13548:2004 (E)

associated different expected performance levels (for example, in terms of resistance to mechanical loads, or to

frost and other heavy thermo-hygrometric conditions, or to chemical attack). The technical characteristics of

ceramic tiles, adhesives and grouts are documented in the respective technical specification, which therefore

represents a basic document for the selection of materials. Technical specification includes also specific

instructions and advice by the manufacturer.
Three general criteria for the selection of the materials should be adopted.
6.3.1 Criterion of performance
This criterion is based on the comparison of:

- the expected loads and needs associated with the destination environment and expected working conditions of

the tiling (6.2.1), as well as to the characteristics of the background (6.2.2)
with:

- the technical characteristics and performance level of the material, as documented in its technical specification

(5).
The Criterion of performance is the following:

"the performance level of the material selected shall be not lower than the expected stress level of the destination

environment".
Some tile selection schemes based on this concept have been publ
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.