Earthworks - Part 1: Principles and general rules

This standard (Part 1) gives definitions, principles and general rules for the planning, design and specification of earthworks. It introduces the other parts of the standard, which have to be used together with Part 1.
It is applicable to all types of earth-structures, whatever their intended use is (roads, railways, airfields, waterways, buildings, landfills, tailing dams, etc.), except where listed below:
-   Some specific types of works such as the execution of trenches and small earthworks may be organized using simplified or specific rules;
-   Some structures, such as dykes and dams, need earthworks which have specific design and construction requirements: these may extend beyond the rules of this standard.

Erdarbeiten - Teil 1: Grundsätze und allgemeine Regeln

Teil 1 dieser Europäischen Norm legt Definitionen, Grundsätze und allgemeine Regeln für die Planung, Bemessung und Spezifikation von Erdarbeiten fest. Er führt die anderen Teile der Norm ein, welche gemeinsam mit Teil 1 angewendet werden.
Erdarbeiten sind Tiefbaumaßnahmen mit dem Ziel, Erdbauwerke zu schaffen, indem die Geometrie der Erdoberfläche für Bau- oder sonstige Aktivitäten geändert wird. Anwendungsgebiete von Erdarbeiten hängen mit Folgendem zusammen:
— Verkehrsinfrastrukturen (Straßen und Autobahnen, Schienenwege, Wasserwege, Flughäfen);
— Unterbauten für Industrie-, Gewerbe- und Wohngebäude;
— Wasserbau-, Hochwasserschutz- und Küstenschutzanlagen;
— Hafenanlagen und Flughafengelände, einschließlich Errichtung von Aufschüttungen im Wasser;
— Flussdeiche und Meeresdämme zur Landgewinnung;
— Erd- und Steinschüttdämme;
— Dämme auf dem Festland aus hydraulisch eingebrachtem Auffüllmaterial;
— Lärmschutzwände, Sichtbarrieren und andere nichtlasttragende Erdarbeiten;
— Aufschüttungen zur Landschaftsgestaltung;
— Verfüllung von Tagebaugruben und Steinbrüchen;
— Abgangssperren.
Erdarbeiten sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass verfügbare natürliche und wiederaufbereitete Materialien so verwendet werden müssen, dass vorgeschriebene Eigenschaften erreicht werden.
Diese Norm gilt für alle Arten von Erdbauwerken, mit Ausnahme der nachstehend aufgeführten Fälle:
— einige spezielle Arten von Arbeiten, so darf z. B. die Ausführung von Gräben und kleinen Erdbauwerken nach vereinfachten oder besonderen Regeln organisiert werden;
— für einige Bauwerke wie Deiche und Dämme sind Erdarbeiten erforderlich, bei denen spezielle Anforderungen an die Bemessung und den Bau gestellt werden: diese können über die in dieser Norm festgelegten Regeln hinausgehen.
Diese Norm deckt keine Bodenverbesserung unterhalb eines Erdbauwerks durch Verfahren wie Pfahlwerke, Düsenstrahlverfahren, tiefe Bodenvermörtelung, senkrechte Dräns oder Schottersäulen ab.
Aufgrund der schwankenden Untergrund- und Klimabedingungen innerhalb von Europa sowie der unter-schiedlichen nationalen Vertragsbedingungen, wurden nationale Regeln in mehreren Europäischen Ländern festgelegt, die innerhalb eines kurzen Zeitraums nicht durch eine Europäische Norm harmonisiert werden konnten. Diese Europäische Norm enthält daher Grundregeln zur Erreichung der vorgenannten Ziele. Die informativen Anhänge B bis H in diesem Dokument enthalten Beispiele für nationale Verfahrensweisen, die diesen Regeln folgen.

Terrassement - Partie 1 : Principes et règles générales

Cette norme européenne (Partie 1) donne les définitions, les principes et les règles générales applicables à la planification, à la conception et aux spécifications des terrassements. Elle introduit les autres parties de la norme, qui doivent être utilisées avec la Partie 1.
Les terrassements sont un processus de génie civil qui vise à créer des ouvrages en terre en modifiant la géométrie de la surface de la terre dans le cadre des projets de construction ou pour d'autres activités. Les champs d'application des terrassements sont associés :
 aux infrastructures de transport (routes et autoroutes, voies de chemin de fer, voies navigables, aéroports) ;
 aux plateformes destinées à la construction de bâtiments industriels, commerciaux ou résidentiels ;
 aux aménagements hydrauliques, aux travaux de défense contre les crues et de protection des côtes ;
 aux zones portuaires et aéroportuaires, y compris la construction de remblais dans l'eau ;
 aux digues en rivière et aux terre-pleins gagnés sur la mer ;
 aux barrages en terre et en enrochements ;
 aux remblais créés par remblaiement hydraulique ;
 aux écrans acoustiques ou visuels et autres ouvrages en terre ne portant pas de charge :
 aux remblais paysagers ;
 au remblaiement des mines à ciel ouvert et des carrières ;
 aux digues de confinement de résidus miniers.
Ils sont caractérisés par la nécessité d'utiliser les matériaux naturels disponibles ou des matériaux recyclés et de les traiter de façon appropriée pour obtenir les propriétés prescrites.
La présente norme s'applique à tous les types d'ouvrages en terre à l'exception des cas suivants :
 certains types de travaux comme l'exécution de tranchées et de petits terrassements peuvent être organisés en utilisant des règles simplifiées ou spécifiques ;
 certains ouvrages, comme les digues et les barrages, nécessitent des terrassements qui ont des exigences spécifiques de conception et de construction : ces exigences peuvent aller plus loin que les règles de cette norme.
La présente norme ne couvre pas l’amélioration du terrain sous un ouvrage en terre par des techniques telles que l’installation d’inclusions rigides, la réalisation de colonnes de sols traités en place par jet ou mélange mécanique, l'installation de drains verticaux ou de colonnes ballastées.
Compte tenu de la variabilité des conditions de sous-sol et de climat en Europe, et des différentes dispositions contractuelles nationales, des règles spécifiques ont été établies dans différents pays européens. Celles-ci n'ont pas pu être harmonisées sous forme d'une Norme européenne unique dans les délais de rédaction du présent document. Pour cette raison, cette Norme européenne définit les
FprEN 16907-1:2017(F)
7
règles de base pour atteindre les objectifs décrits ci-dessus. Les annexes informatives B à H du présent document donnent des exemples de pratiques nationales qui suivent ces règles.

Zemeljska dela - 1. del: Načela in splošna pravila

Ta standard (1. del) določa definicije, načela in splošna pravila za načrtovanje, projektiranje ter specifikacijo zemeljskih del. Vpeljuje druge dele standarda, ki se morajo uporabljati skupaj s 1. delom.
Uporablja se za vse vrste zemeljskih struktur ne glede na njihov namen uporabe (ceste, železnice, letališke steze, vodne poti, zgradbe, odlagališča, jalovinske pregrade itd.), razen kot je navedeno spodaj:
– nekatere določene vrste dela, kot so izkopavanje jarkov in manjša zemeljska dela, se lahko organizirajo z uporabo poenostavljenih ali posebnih pravil;
– nekatere strukture, kot so zadrževalni nasipi in jezovi, zahtevajo zemeljska dela s posebnimi zahtevami glede projektiranja in konstrukcije: te lahko presegajo pravila tega standarda.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Mar-2016
Publication Date
14-Mar-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Feb-2019
Due Date
04-May-2019
Completion Date
15-Mar-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16907-1:2019
01-april-2019
=HPHOMVNDGHODGHO1DþHODLQVSORãQDSUDYLOD
Earthworks - Part 1: Principles and general rules
Erdarbeiten - Teil 1: Grundsätze und allgemeine Regeln
Terrassement - Partie 1 : Principes et règles générales
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16907-1:2018
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN 16907-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16907-1:2019
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SIST EN 16907-1:2019
EN 16907-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 93.020
English Version
Earthworks - Part 1: Principles and general rules

Terrassement - Partie 1 : Principes et règles générales Erdarbeiten - Teil 1: Grundsätze und allgemeine Regeln

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 May 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16907-1:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16907-1:2019
EN 16907-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

3.1 Definitions ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Abbreviations and symbols ....................................................................................................................... 14

4 Principles of earthworks design and execution ................................................................................ 17

4.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 17

4.2 Stages of earthworks projects .................................................................................................................. 17

4.3 Instructions for the execution of works ............................................................................................... 18

4.4 Relationship between earthworks and earth-structure design .................................................. 19

4.5 Sustainable development and environmental considerations for earthworks ..................... 20

4.6 Risk management ......................................................................................................................................... 21

4.7 Types of earthwork processes ................................................................................................................. 22

5 Specific site and material investigations .............................................................................................. 22

5.1 Information needed for earthworks design ........................................................................................ 22

5.2 Coordination of ground investigations ................................................................................................. 23

5.2.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 23

5.2.2 Site investigations for geotechnical design ......................................................................................... 23

5.2.3 Specific ground investigations for earthworks .................................................................................. 23

5.2.4 Geotechnical reporting ............................................................................................................................... 24

5.3 Use of classification systems ..................................................................................................................... 24

6 Design of earthworks for fills ................................................................................................................... 25

6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.2 Design procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 26

6.2.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 26

6.2.2 Fill zones .......................................................................................................................................................... 27

6.3 Selection of the fill material properties and compaction process .............................................. 32

6.3.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 32

6.3.2 Characterization of materials ................................................................................................................... 33

6.3.3 Criteria for assessing the compacted fill material ............................................................................ 34

6.3.4 Compaction behaviour of fill materials ................................................................................................ 35

6.3.5 Relationship testing to assess fill performance ................................................................................. 37

6.3.6 Link between construction method and earthworks fill design .................................................. 38

6.3.7 Use of full-scale tests to assess a compaction process for a given fill material ...................... 38

6.3.8 Design of fill cross-section ......................................................................................................................... 39

6.4 Details of specific parts, materials and earth structures ............................................................... 39

6.4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 39

6.4.2 Capping layers ................................................................................................................................................ 39

6.4.3 Transition zones ............................................................................................................................................ 40

6.4.4 Fills on slopes ................................................................................................................................................. 42

6.4.5 Specific materials .......................................................................................................................................... 42

6.4.6 High fills ........................................................................................................................................................... 43

6.4.7 Fills on soft soils or areas prone to flooding ....................................................................................... 44

6.4.8 Fills built above cavities ............................................................................................................................. 44

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EN 16907-1:2018(E)

6.4.9 Surplus materials.......................................................................................................................................... 45

7 Design of earthworks for cuttings .......................................................................................................... 45

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 45

7.2 Materials involved ........................................................................................................................................ 45

7.3 Geometry ......................................................................................................................................................... 46

7.4 Drainage ........................................................................................................................................................... 46

7.5 Overall stability ............................................................................................................................................. 46

7.6 Relevant properties of the cutting base (subgrade) ........................................................................ 46

8 Design of earthworks formed by dredging and hydraulic placement of fills ......................... 47

9 Design of earthworks for hydraulic placement of wastes ............................................................. 47

10 Earthworks Drainage .................................................................................................................................. 48

10.1 Drainage for collecting water ................................................................................................................... 48

10.2 Protection of slopes against erosion...................................................................................................... 51

11 Optimization of earthworks project design ........................................................................................ 51

12 Technical Specifications for earthworks.............................................................................................. 52

12.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 52

12.2 End product Specification .......................................................................................................................... 54

12.3 Method Specification ................................................................................................................................... 54

12.4 Performance Specification ........................................................................................................................ 55

13 Monitoring earthworks and checking earth-structures performance ...................................... 55

13.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 55

13.2 Needs and techniques for monitoring and checking earthworks ............................................... 56

13.3 Checking earth-structure performance ................................................................................................ 57

14 Use of national experience and non-conflicting rules ..................................................................... 57

14.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 57

14.2 Informative examples of experience-based national practices ................................................... 57

Annex A (informative) Geometry definitions for earthworks and earth-structures ........................ 59

Annex B (informative) Summary of national practice - Austria ............................................................... 62

B.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 62

B.2 Soil and Rock Classification ...................................................................................................................... 63

B.2.1 Soil classification according to ÖNORM B 4400-1 ............................................................................. 63

B.2.2 Soil and rock classification according to ÖNORM B 2205 .............................................................. 63

B.3 Execution of earthworks ............................................................................................................................ 63

B.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 63

B.3.2 Soil and rock excavation ............................................................................................................................ 64

B.3.3 Preparation of formation level of subsoil (embankment foundations) ................................... 64

B.4 Construction of embankments and fills................................................................................................ 65

B.4.1 Construction materials ............................................................................................................................... 65

B.4.2 Placement and compaction ....................................................................................................................... 66

B.4.3 Construction of formation level of sub-base ....................................................................................... 68

B.4.4 Construction of embankments and cut slopes ................................................................................... 68

B.4.5 Backfilling and filling of structures ........................................................................................................ 69

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EN 16907-1:2018 (E)

B.4.6 Filling of line trenches and covering of lines (pipes, cables) ........................................................ 73

B.4.7 Measures aimed at improving subsoil and fills ................................................................................. 74

B.5 Quality Control (Tests) ............................................................................................................................... 76

B.5.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 76

B.5.2 Test types ......................................................................................................................................................... 76

B.5.3 Test procedures ............................................................................................................................................. 77

B.6 Literature ......................................................................................................................................................... 80

Annex C (informative) Summary of national practice - France ................................................................. 83

C.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 83

C.2 Classification of materials ......................................................................................................................... 83

C.3 Design of Earthworks .................................................................................................................................. 87

C.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 87

C.3.2 Specification of the mechanical properties to be obtained ........................................................... 87

C.3.3 Classification of hydric state of materials and weather conditions............................................ 89

C.3.4 Fill material ..................................................................................................................................................... 90

C.3.5 Capping layer .................................................................................................................................................. 92

C.3.6 Compaction of fill .......................................................................................................................................... 95

C.3.7 Extraction and transportation of soil and rocks ................................................................................ 98

C.3.8 Compaction of materials ............................................................................................................................ 98

C.4 Control of earthworks ................................................................................................................................. 99

C.4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 99

C.4.2 Technical processes and control methods........................................................................................... 99

C.5 References .................................................................................................................................................... 102

Annex D (informative) Summary of national practice - Germany ......................................................... 104

D.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 104

D.2 Classification of materials ...................................................................................................................... 105

D.2.1 Classification according to DIN 18196 ............................................................................................... 105

D.2.2 Classification according to DIN 18300 ............................................................................................... 110

D.2.3 Classification of frost susceptibility of soil groups according to ZTV E-StB .......................... 111

D.3 Execution of earthworks ......................................................................................................................... 112

D.3.1 General........................................................................................................................................................... 112

D.3.2 Loosening, loading and conveying ....................................................................................................... 112

D.3.3 Placing and compacting ........................................................................................................................... 112

D.3.4 Special construction methods in earthworks according to ZTV E-StB ................................... 115

D.4 Control of Earthworks .............................................................................................................................. 116

D.4.1 Types of testing ........................................................................................................................................... 116

D.4.2 Testing methods ......................................................................................................................................... 117

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EN 16907-1:2018(E)

D.5 References .................................................................................................................................................... 118

Annex E (informative) Summary of national practice - Norway ............................................................ 121

E.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 121

E.2 Classification of materials ...................................................................................................................... 121

E.3 Design of earthworks ............................................................................................................................... 122

E.3.1 Dredging........................................................................................................................................................ 122

E.3.2 Underwater blasting ................................................................................................................................. 122

E.3.3 Transportation at sea ............................................................................................................................... 123

E.3.4 Spreading and compaction of fills ....................................................................................................... 123

E.3.5 Filling under water ................................................................................................................................... 133

E.3.6 Replacement / displacement of soft soil ........................................................................................... 135

E.3.7 Influence of weather conditions........................................................................................................... 136

E.4 Quality control of earthworks ............................................................................................................... 136

E.5 References .................................................................................................................................................... 137

Annex F (informative) Summary of national practice - Spain ................................................................ 138

F.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 138

F.2 Classification of materials ...................................................................................................................... 138

F.2.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................... 138

F.2.2 Soil classes .................................................................................................................................................... 138

F.2.3 Fill classes built with rocky materials ................................................................................................ 141

F.3 Possible use of marginal materials ..................................................................................................... 141

F.3.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................... 141

F.3.2 Some marginal soils .................................................................................................................................. 141

F.3.3 Some marginal rocks ................................................................................................................................ 142

F.4 Preliminary design of earth-structure cross section .................................................................... 143

F.5 Types of earth-structures to be built .................................................................................................. 145

F.6 Basic construction rules .......................................................................................................................... 145

F.6.1 Preparation of the ground area to build the earth or rockfill ................................................... 145

F.6.2 Earthfills........................................................................................................................................................ 145

F.6.3 Rock and random fills .............................................................................................................................. 147

F.7 Control of earthworks .............................................................................................................................. 148

F.7.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................... 148

F.7.2 Earthfills........................................................................................................................................................ 148

F.7.3 Rock and Random fills ............................................................................................................................. 149

F.8 Reference ...................................................................................................................................................... 150

Annex G (informative) Summary of national practice – Sweden ........................................................... 151

G.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 151

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G.2 Classification of materials ...................................................................................................................... 151

G.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 151

G.2.2 Soil classification ........................................................................................................................................ 151

G.2.3 Rock classification ..................................................................................................................................... 153

G.3 Design of earthworks ............................................................................................................................... 153

G.4 Control of earthworks .............................................................................................................................. 153

Annex H (informative) Summary of national practice - United Kingdom .......................................... 155

H.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 155

H.2 Classification of materials ...................................................................................................................... 155

H.3 Design of earthworks ............................................................................................................................... 159

H.3.1 General........................................................................................................................................................... 159

H.3.2 BS 6031:2009, Clause 8.2: Specification of earthworks by SHW approach .......................... 159

H.3.3 SHW required documentation within project earthworks specification .............................. 160

H.3.4 Compaction requirements (classification, design and construction aspects) ..................... 160

H.3.5 Alternative specifications ....................................................................................................................... 160

H.3.6 Additional requirements for deep fill areas/buildings and structures ........

...

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