Indoor air - Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilation conditions

This part of ISO 16000 describes the use of single tracer gas for determining the local mean age of air as an indicator of ventilation conditions in a building. The procedures include concentration decay and homogeneous constant emission. The described methods are intended for air quality studies and can be used for
a) checking whether the building ventilation requirements are met,
b) estimating the adequacy of ventilation in buildings with indoor air quality problems, and
c) characterizing the strength and distribution of indoor emission sources.
In principle, the methods can be applied to all indoor spaces, regardless of the type of ventilation used and the state of mixing of air between zones. The prevailing ventilation conditions need not be disturbed by the measurement. This part of ISO 16000 does not address the details of the analytical methods for tracer gases. The availability of such analysis services should be checked before planning actual field measurements.

Air intérieur - Partie 8: Détermination des âges moyens locaux de l'air dans des bâtiments pour caractériser les conditions de ventilation

L'ISO 16000-8:2007 d�crit l'utilisation d'un seul gaz traceur en vue de d�terminer l'�ge local moyen de l'air comme indicateur des conditions de ventilation � l'int�rieur d'un b�timent. Les proc�dures sp�cifi�es incluent la d�croissance de la concentration et l'�mission homog�ne constante.
Les m�thodes d�crites sont con�ues pour les �tudes sur la qualit� de l'air et peuvent �tre utilis�es pour v�rifier la conformit� aux exigences en mati�re de ventilation des b�timents, �valuer l'ad�quation de la ventilation dans des b�timents ayant des probl�mes de qualit� de l'air int�rieur; et caract�riser l'intensit� et la r�partition des sources internes d'�mission.
En principe, ces m�thodes sont applicables pour tous les espaces int�rieurs, quel que soit le type de ventilation utilis� et l'�tat du m�lange de l'air interzones. Il n'est pas n�cessaire de perturber les conditions de ventilation dominantes pour les besoins du mesurage.
L'ISO 16000-8:2007 ne d�taille pas les m�thodes d'analyse des gaz traceurs.

Notranji zrak - 8. del: Določevanje lokalne srednje starosti zraka v stavbah za karakterizacijo prezračevalnih pogojev

Ta del standarda ISO 16000 opisuje uporabo posameznega sledilnega plina za določevanje lokalne srednje starosti zraka kot kazalnika prezračevalnih pogojev v stavbi. Postopki zajemajo razgradnjo koncentracije in homogeno konstantno emisijo. Opisane metode so namenjene za študije kakovosti zraka in jih je mogoče uporabljati za
a) preverjanje izpolnjevanja zahtev glede prezračevanja stavb,
b) ocenjevanje ustreznosti prezračevanja v stavbah s težavami s kakovostjo notranjega zraka in
c) karakterizacijo moči in razporeditve notranjih virov emisij.
Metode je načeloma mogoče uporabiti za vse notranje prostore, ne glede na vrsto uporabljenega prezračevanja in stanje mešanja zraka med območji. Ni nujno, da merjenje vpliva na prevladujoče prezračevalne pogoje. Ta del standarda ISO 16000 ne obravnava podrobnosti analiznih metod za sledilne pline. Razpoložljivost takih analiznih storitev naj bi se preverila pred načrtovanjem dejanskih terenskih meritev.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Feb-2013
Publication Date
17-Mar-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Mar-2013
Due Date
13-May-2013
Completion Date
18-Mar-2013

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16000-8
First edition
2007-06-15
Corrected version
2007-10-15
Indoor air —
Part 8:
Determination of local mean ages of air
in buildings for characterizing ventilation
conditions
Air intérieur —
Partie 8: Détermination des âges moyens locaux de l'air dans des
bâtiments pour caractériser les conditions de ventilation
Reference number
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
ISO 2007
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
PDF disclaimer

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shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2007

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles of tracer gas measurements for determining of ventilation conditions ....................... 2

4.1 General principles................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Selected tracer gas methods............................................................................................................... 3

5 Measurement planning......................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Identification of the ventilated system ............................................................................................... 4

5.3 Identification of zones.......................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Choice of measurement method......................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Determination of measurement points............................................................................................... 5

6 Tracer gases and equipment for determining ventilation conditions ............................................. 6

6.1 Choice of tracer gas ............................................................................................................................. 6

6.2 Tracer gas concentration standard..................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Equipment for feeding the tracer gas................................................................................................. 6

6.4 Sampling the tracer gas ....................................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Determination of tracer gas concentration ........................................................................................ 8

7 Measurement methods......................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Decay method ....................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Active homogeneous emission method........................................................................................... 10

7.3 Passive homogeneous emission method ........................................................................................ 11

8 Application of results ......................................................................................................................... 12

9 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 12

Annex A (informative) Explanation of some terms and definitions ............................................................ 13

Annex B (informative) General requirements of tracer gases, background contents and methods

of detection of the most important ones.......................................................................................... 14

Annex C (informative) Estimation of uncertainty of measured local mean ages of air............................. 17

Annex D (informative) Examples of measurement procedure, calculation and estimation of

uncertainty........................................................................................................................................... 20

Annex E (informative) Air quality relevance of local mean age of air and expression of results............ 37

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 41

© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16000-8 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Indoor air.

ISO 16000 consists of the following parts, under the general title Indoor air :
⎯ Part 1: General aspects of sampling strategy
⎯ Part 2: Sampling strategy for formaldehyde

⎯ Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds — Active sampling method

⎯ Part 4: Determination of formaldehyde — Diffusive sampling method
⎯ Part 5: Sampling strategy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

⎯ Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test chamber air by active sampling on

Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID

⎯ Part 7: Sampling strategy for determination of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations

⎯ Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilation conditions

⎯ Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and furnishing —

Emission test chamber method

⎯ Part 10: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and

furnishing — Emission test cell method

⎯ Part 11: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and

furnishing — Sampling, storage of samples and preparation of test specimens

⎯ Part 12: Sampling strategy for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

(PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

⎯ Part 13: Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polychlorinated dioxin-like biphenyls (PCBs) and

polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) — Collection on sorbent-backed filters

iv © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)

⎯ Part 14: Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polychlorinated dioxin-like biphenyls (PCBs) and

polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) — Extraction, clean-up and analysis by

high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
⎯ Part 15: Sampling strategy for nitrogen dioxide (NO )
⎯ Part 16: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Sampling by filtration
⎯ Part 17: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Culture-based method

⎯ Part 23: Performance test for evaluating the reduction of formaldehyde concentrations by sorptive

building materials
The following parts are under preparation:
⎯ Part 18: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Sampling of moulds by impaction

⎯ Part 24: Performance test for evaluating the reduction of the concentrations of volatile organic

compounds and carbonyl compounds (except formaldehyde) by sorptive building materials

⎯ Part 25: Determination of the emission of semi-volatile organic compounds by building products —

Micro-chamber method

Furthermore, the two International Standards, ISO 16017-1 on pumped sampling and ISO 16017-2 on

diffusive sampling, focus on volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements.

This corrected version of ISO 16000-8:2007 incorporates the following corrections:

⎯ Equation (D.2) (and the line of text immediately preceding this equation), Equation (D.5) and

Equation (D.11) have been corrected.

⎯ In Clause 2, the reference to the ISO/IEC Guide 98 was changed and footnote 1) was added.

⎯ In 7.1.5, 7.2.5, 7.3.4, C.1.1 and D.1, the reference to ISO/IEC Guide 98:1995 was changed to GUM:1995.

⎯ In B.3, footnote 1) was renumbered as footnote 2).
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
Introduction

An adequate air change is of fundamental importance for indoor air quality. Proper ventilation of all buildings is

necessary for the health and comfort of the occupants as well as to protect against damage (e.g. due to

excessive atmospheric humidity). However, the present-day use of tightly sealed windows, for example in

residential and office buildings, can lead to insufficient ventilation. This situation in turn may lead to an

increase in the concentration of substances emitted indoors. Manual ventilation by the occupants or the use of

mechanical ventilation systems is thus required. However, excessive ventilation can lead to discomfort and

increased energy consumption.

Building regulations make provision for ventilation to control moisture and other pollutants. Measurements of

the ventilation conditions allow confirmation of whether these requirements are met in practice. Knowledge of

the ventilation conditions is important in order to be able to analyse the possible causes of poor indoor air

quality. Thus, ideally, sampling and analysis of contaminants indoors should be accompanied by ventilation

measurement, making it possible to estimate the strengths of contaminant sources.

This part of ISO 16000 describes the use of single tracer gas for determining the age of air in a building which

is naturally or mechanically ventilated. The age of air is an important factor in assessing the adequacy of

ventilation. The concept local mean age of air (and its inverse the local effective air change rate) is used for

assessing the ventilation conditions in the building. The mean age of air in a building zone indicates the

average time the air in a zone has spent in the building accumulating contaminants. It is closely connected to

the time it takes to exchange the air within a zone. The concentration of a contaminant released from

continuous indoor sources increases with the length of time the air has spent indoors. The lower the age of air

in a space, the lower the concentration. Normally, the ventilation air is supplied at selected parts of the

building envelope, and seeks its way to the different building spaces. Thus, before the ventilation air reaches a

specific room, a significant portion of the air may have spent time in other rooms, accumulating contaminants.

Therefore, the local mean age of air, which describes how long the air in a particular space has spent indoors,

needs to be considered in relation to air quality.

The purpose of this part of ISO 16000 is to describe the use of ventilation measurement techniques suitable

for air quality studies. For this purpose, the ventilation rate and the air distribution patterns in the building

should be measured for representative conditions of interest.

ISO 12569 describes the use of tracer gas dilution for determining the air change rate in a single zone. The

procedures for tracer gas dilution include concentration decay, constant injection and constant concentration.

ISO 12569 should be used when studying the thermal performance of buildings.

In the case where a zone exchanges air only with the outside (i.e. has no inflow of air from other parts of the

building), the tracer gas concentration within the zone can be characterized with a single value, and the

ventilation conditions are constant over the measurement period; this part of ISO 16000 and ISO 12569

should, in theory, provide identical results. The methods described in this part of ISO 16000 can, however, be

used beyond these conditions, for example in spaces with several zones, which may exchange air with each

other, and in cases where the ventilation conditions vary during the measurement period.

vi © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
Indoor air —
Part 8:
Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings
for characterizing ventilation conditions
1 Scope

This part of ISO 16000 describes the use of single tracer gas for determining the local mean age of air as an

indicator of ventilation conditions in a building. The procedures include concentration decay and

homogeneous constant emission.
The described methods are intended for air quality studies and can be used for
a) checking whether the building ventilation requirements are met,

b) estimating the adequacy of ventilation in buildings with indoor air quality problems, and

c) characterizing the strength and distribution of indoor emission sources.

In principle, the methods can be applied to all indoor spaces, regardless of the type of ventilation used and the

state of mixing of air between zones. The prevailing ventilation conditions need not be disturbed by the

measurement.

This part of ISO 16000 does not address the details of the analytical methods for tracer gases. The availability

of such analysis services should be checked before planning actual field measurements.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12569, Thermal performance of buildings — Determination of air change in buildings — Tracer gas

dilution method

Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM), BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML,

1993
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12569 and the following apply.

1) Corrected and reprinted in 1995. To be republished as ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
3.1
homogeneous emission

strategy to inject tracer gas in such a way that the injection rate per unit volume is equal in all parts of

ventilated system
3.2
local mean age of air

ventilation parameter, which describes the length of time the air at a specific location has on average spent

within the building
NOTE See A.1 for a further explanation of this term.
3.3
ventilated system

the building space, which can exchange air directly or indirectly with the space of interest

NOTE At the border of the ventilated system, there is no other inflow of air than outdoor air.

3.4
zone

space within the building where air mixing is sufficient to create an essentially uniform concentration of a

tracer gas released anywhere within that space

NOTE 1 To be considered a zone, the space should not exhibit concentration differences larger than 20 % of the mean.

NOTE 2 A zone can be part of a room, an entire room or even include several rooms.

3.5
zone mean age of air

ventilation parameter, which describes the length of time the air in a zone has on average spent within the

building

NOTE In the case of complete mixing within a zone, this is equal to the local mean age of air at any point within the

zone.

4 Principles of tracer gas measurements for determining of ventilation conditions

4.1 General principles

Tracer gas techniques for measuring ventilation rely on the possibility of differentiating between air that is

already within a space of interest and new air coming into that space. This means that it shall be able either to

mark the air already in the space and follow how the marked air is replaced by new ventilation air or,

alternatively, to mark the incoming air and measure how this marked ventilation air is distributed through the

space.

It should be observed that air flowing into a specified zone from other zones that have a lower or higher

concentration of tracer gas would influence the result of the measurement. Therefore, it is important to keep to

the prescribed boundary conditions that are different for different tracer gas methods.

If the ventilation condition is to be determined in a zone, which has no inflow of air from other parts of the

building (single isolated zone), it is not necessary to inject tracer gas or mark the air in other parts of the

building in order to obtain correct results. However, if the zone can exchange air with other parts of the

building, which is usually the case, special strategies for tracer gas injection in those connected zones shall be

followed in order to avoid ambiguous results. It should also be noted that the closing of doors to a room does

not necessarily lead to zero inflow of air from other parts of the building. Such means of restricting a normally

occurring airflow will also change the ventilation of a room from that which would otherwise prevail.

2 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
4.2 Selected tracer gas methods
4.2.1 General

This part of ISO 16000 describes the strategies for tracer gas injection and measurement in spaces that

cannot be regarded as single isolated zones. ISO 12569 presents the tracer gas dilution methods for spaces

that can be characterized as a single zone. If the ventilation conditions are constant over the measurement

period, and the space of interest can be regarded as a single isolated zone, the methods presented in this part

of ISO 16000 and ISO 12569 are, in theory, identical. Under these conditions, the local mean age of air would

be the same as the inverse of the air change rate determined using ISO 12569.
4.2.2 Decay method

The principle of the decay method is to mark the air in the ventilated system with tracer gas and determine the

rate at which the marked air is replaced with unmarked air.

The zone to be measured and all other zones in the building with which the zone of interest can exchange air

directly or indirectly shall be marked with a common initial tracer gas concentration. Such a strategy will

prevent air coming from other parts of the building from being regarded as “clean ventilation air” to a greater

extent than its actual delivered ventilation power.

The concentration history is recorded as a function of time. The local mean age of air is obtained from the

quotient of the integral of the concentration versus time and the initial concentration.

The decay method can generally be used without problems up to air change rate n = 10 h .

4.2.3 Active homogeneous emission method

In the active homogeneous emission method, tracer gas is fed at measured constant rates into the zones by a

suitable adjustable flow injection device. The injection rates shall be proportional to the zone volumes. The

steady state tracer gas concentration of room air is measured using a suitable gas analyser. The local mean

age of air is obtained from the quotient of the steady state concentration and the injection rate per unit volume.

The zone to be measured and all other zones in the building with which the pertinent zone can exchange air

directly or indirectly shall be equipped with constant homogenous emission of tracer gas.

4.2.4 Passive homogeneous emission method

In the passive homogeneous emission method, tracer gas is emitted at known constant rates into the zones

using diffusion sources. The emission rates shall be proportional to the zone volumes. The steady state tracer

gas concentration of room air is measured by collecting an integrating sample in a sorbent tube (actively using

an air sampling pump or passively using diffusion sampling) and analysing this sample afterwards in an

especially equipped laboratory. The local mean age of air is obtained from the quotient of the steady state

concentration and the emission rate per unit volume.

The zone to be measured and all other zones in the building with which the zone of interest can exchange air

directly or indirectly shall be equipped with constant homogenous emission of tracer gas.

The use of this method requires a special analysis service able to analyse the sample from the sorbent tube in

order to determine the amount of the tracer gas in the sample.
5 Measurement planning
5.1 General

Before measurement of the local mean ages of air in a building space, the purpose of the measurement shall

be clearly defined. Also, knowledge of the type of building and the particular characteristics of that part of the

© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)

building that is to be investigated are essential for the choice of tracer gas technique and the detailed planning

of the test.

The ventilation rate and the air distribution patterns in the building should be measured at representative

conditions of interest. These conditions should not be disturbed by the measurement, unless it is the purpose

of experiment to test the effect of different conditions, of for example door opening, window opening, etc.

The homogenous emission method using sampling on adsorbent tubes is especially suitable for determining

the ventilation conditions in the context of air quality studies. Depending on the requirement, short-term

(pumped sampling of a few litres of air) or long-term measurements (passive sampling during days to several

weeks) can be carried out. In the investigation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, the ventilation

measurements usually accompany the actual measurement of pollutant. An advantage of this measurement

method is the possibility to simultaneously determine the local mean ages of air and the pollutant

concentration.

In determination of “air change” (“airflow rate” or “air change rate”), for example using the methods described

in ISO 12569, only the total airflow rate to the ventilated system is of concern. Such measurements are

therefore restricted to buildings or other enclosures that can be treated as a single zone. In those methods, it

shall therefore be ensured that there is complete mixing of air between all spaces within the ventilated system

during the measurement.
5.2 Identification of the ventilated system

In planning the test, the “ventilated system” to which the space of interest belongs shall first be identified,

because all spaces within the ventilated system shall be tagged with tracer gas. The ventilated system is

defined as the building space, which can exchange air directly or indirectly with the space of interest. At the

border of the ventilated system, there shall not be any inflow of air other than outdoor air. Thus, a part of a

building should only be considered a ventilated system if it has negligible inflow of air from other parts of the

building (for example via doorways, air leakage or return air ducts). The location of pollutant sources should

also be taken into account to ensure that polluted air is not misinterpreted as outdoor air. In practice, this

means, for example that

⎯ for a single family house, all rooms including the cellar (unless there is an airtight door) should be

included in the ventilated system, and

⎯ for a flat in an apartment building, all rooms in the studied apartment (and in some cases also the

staircase) should be included in the ventilated system.
5.3 Identification of zones

A zone is a space within the ventilated system where it can be assumed that the air mixing is sufficient to

ensure a uniform concentration of air tracer gas. Within the ventilated system, there may be several spaces

that can be regarded as zones. All such zones should be identified and their volumes measured. The zone-

volumes are needed in order to calculate the amount of tracer gas to be injected in the different zones. Small

closed spaces with only extract air (e.g. bathrooms), or without any supply of outdoor air (e.g. closets) do not

need any tracer gas injection. The volume of small closed spaces, which may receive some supply of outside

air should be added to the volume of any connected zone. Large rooms and long corridors may be subdivided

into two or more zones.
5.4 Choice of measurement method
5.4.1 General

The choice of the measurement method depends on the type and size of the building, the intended

measurement time, the purpose of the measurement, and the availability of equipment and analysis service.

4 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(E)
5.4.2 Type of building

5.4.2.1 Simple buildings (e.g. small to moderate-sized dwellings that can be characterized with one

to four zones)

When the number of zones is small, it is relatively easy to achieve an initial homogeneous tracer gas

concentration within the whole ventilated system. For short-term measurements, the decay method is

therefore best suited.

5.4.2.2 Complex buildings (e.g. office buildings and other structures in which the ventilated system

comprises several zones)

In this case, it may be very difficult to achieve the necessary condition for the decay method of equal initial

tracer gas concentration in all zones. The homogeneous emission method may therefore be better suited than

the decay method in this case.
5.4.3 Measurement period
5.4.3.1 Short-term conditions of interest

The decay method is the most practical method to monitor short-term ventilation conditions in simple buildings,

while the passive homogeneous emission method with pumped sampling is better suited for complex buildings.

5.4.3.2 Long-term time variation of interest

Though repeated use of the decay method is feasible in buildings with few zones, the most appropriate choice

for long-term measurement in all types of buildings is the homogeneous emission method. The purpose may

be to monitor the change of ventilation conditions as a function of time, for example in order to investigate the

effect of weather conditions or to test the effect of different ventilation strategies. This requires active air

sampling using continuous monitoring of tracer gas concentration or repeated sampling using syringes, bags,

evacuated gas tubes or pumped collec
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Air intérieur - Partie 8: Détermination des âges moyens locaux de l'air dans des bâtiments pour caractériser les conditions de ventilationIndoor air - Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilation conditions13.040.20Kakovost okoljskega zrakaAmbient atmospheresICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:ISO 16000-8:2007SIST ISO 16000-8:2013en01-april-2013SIST ISO 16000-8:2013SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST ISO 16000-8:2013
Reference numberISO 16000-8:2007(E)© ISO 2007

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO16000-8First edition2007-06-15Corrected version2007-10-15Indoor air — Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilation conditions Air intérieur — Partie 8: Détermination des âges moyens locaux de l'air dans des bâtiments pour caractériser les conditions de ventilation SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

ISO 2007 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

+ 41 22 749 01 11 Fax
+ 41 22 749 09 47 E-mail
copyright@iso.org Web
www.iso.org Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved iiiContents Page Foreword............................................................................................................................................................iv Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................vi 1 Scope.....................................................................................................................................................1 2 Normative references...........................................................................................................................1 3 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................1 4 Principles of tracer gas measurements for determining of ventilation conditions.......................2 4.1 General principles.................................................................................................................................2 4.2 Selected tracer gas methods...............................................................................................................3 5 Measurement planning.........................................................................................................................3 5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................3 5.2 Identification of the ventilated system...............................................................................................4 5.3 Identification of zones..........................................................................................................................4 5.4 Choice of measurement method.........................................................................................................4 5.5 Determination of measurement points...............................................................................................5 6 Tracer gases and equipment for determining ventilation conditions.............................................6 6.1 Choice of tracer gas.............................................................................................................................6 6.2 Tracer gas concentration standard.....................................................................................................6 6.3 Equipment for feeding the tracer gas.................................................................................................6 6.4 Sampling the tracer gas.......................................................................................................................7 6.5 Determination of tracer gas concentration........................................................................................8 7 Measurement methods.........................................................................................................................8 7.1 Decay method.......................................................................................................................................8 7.2 Active homogeneous emission method...........................................................................................10 7.3 Passive homogeneous emission method........................................................................................11 8 Application of results.........................................................................................................................12 9 Test report...........................................................................................................................................12 Annex A (informative)

Explanation of some terms and definitions............................................................13 Annex B (informative)

General requirements of tracer gases, background contents and methods of detection of the most important ones..........................................................................................14 Annex C (informative)

Estimation of uncertainty of measured local mean ages of air.............................17 Annex D (informative)

Examples of measurement procedure, calculation and estimation of uncertainty...........................................................................................................................................20 Annex E (informative)

Air quality relevance of local mean age of air and expression of results............37 Bibliography.....................................................................................................................................................41

SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) iv © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 16000-8 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Indoor air. ISO 16000 consists of the following parts, under the general title Indoor air : ⎯ Part 1: General aspects of sampling strategy ⎯ Part 2: Sampling strategy for formaldehyde ⎯ Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds — Active sampling method ⎯ Part 4: Determination of formaldehyde — Diffusive sampling method ⎯ Part 5: Sampling strategy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ⎯ Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA® sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID ⎯ Part 7: Sampling strategy for determination of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations ⎯ Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilation conditions ⎯ Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and furnishing — Emission test chamber method ⎯ Part 10: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and furnishing — Emission test cell method ⎯ Part 11: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and furnishing — Sampling, storage of samples and preparation of test specimens ⎯ Part 12: Sampling strategy for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ⎯ Part 13: Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polychlorinated dioxin-like biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) — Collection on sorbent-backed filters SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved v⎯ Part 14: Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polychlorinated dioxin-like biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) — Extraction, clean-up and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ⎯ Part 15: Sampling strategy for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) ⎯ Part 16: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Sampling by filtration ⎯ Part 17: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Culture-based method ⎯ Part 23: Performance test for evaluating the reduction of formaldehyde concentrations by sorptive building materials The following parts are under preparation: ⎯ Part 18: Detection and enumeration of moulds — Sampling of moulds by impaction ⎯ Part 24: Performance test for evaluating the reduction of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds and carbonyl compounds (except formaldehyde) by sorptive building materials ⎯ Part 25: Determination of the emission of semi-volatile organic compounds by building products — Micro-chamber method Furthermore, the two International Standards, ISO 16017-1 on pumped sampling and ISO 16017-2 on diffusive sampling, focus on volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements. This corrected version of ISO 16000-8:2007 incorporates the following corrections: ⎯ Equation (D.2) (and the line of text immediately preceding this equation), Equation (D.5) and Equation (D.11) have been corrected. ⎯ In Clause 2, the reference to the ISO/IEC Guide 98 was changed and footnote 1) was added. ⎯ In 7.1.5, 7.2.5, 7.3.4, C.1.1 and D.1, the reference to ISO/IEC Guide 98:1995 was changed to GUM:1995. ⎯ In B.3, footnote 1) was renumbered as footnote 2). SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) vi © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved Introduction An adequate air change is of fundamental importance for indoor air quality. Proper ventilation of all buildings is necessary for the health and comfort of the occupants as well as to protect against damage (e.g. due to excessive atmospheric humidity). However, the present-day use of tightly sealed windows, for example in residential and office buildings, can lead to insufficient ventilation. This situation in turn may lead to an increase in the concentration of substances emitted indoors. Manual ventilation by the occupants or the use of mechanical ventilation systems is thus required. However, excessive ventilation can lead to discomfort and increased energy consumption. Building regulations make provision for ventilation to control moisture and other pollutants. Measurements of the ventilation conditions allow confirmation of whether these requirements are met in practice. Knowledge of the ventilation conditions is important in order to be able to analyse the possible causes of poor indoor air quality. Thus, ideally, sampling and analysis of contaminants indoors should be accompanied by ventilation measurement, making it possible to estimate the strengths of contaminant sources. This part of ISO 16000 describes the use of single tracer gas for determining the age of air in a building which is naturally or mechanically ventilated. The age of air is an important factor in assessing the adequacy of ventilation. The concept local mean age of air (and its inverse the local effective air change rate) is used for assessing the ventilation conditions in the building. The mean age of air in a building zone indicates the average time the air in a zone has spent in the building accumulating contaminants. It is closely connected to the time it takes to exchange the air within a zone. The concentration of a contaminant released from continuous indoor sources increases with the length of time the air has spent indoors. The lower the age of air in a space, the lower the concentration. Normally, the ventilation air is supplied at selected parts of the building envelope, and seeks its way to the different building spaces. Thus, before the ventilation air reaches a specific room, a significant portion of the air may have spent time in other rooms, accumulating contaminants. Therefore, the local mean age of air, which describes how long the air in a particular space has spent indoors, needs to be considered in relation to air quality. The purpose of this part of ISO 16000 is to describe the use of ventilation measurement techniques suitable for air quality studies. For this purpose, the ventilation rate and the air distribution patterns in the building should be measured for representative conditions of interest. ISO 12569 describes the use of tracer gas dilution for determining the air change rate in a single zone. The procedures for tracer gas dilution include concentration decay, constant injection and constant concentration. ISO 12569 should be used when studying the thermal performance of buildings. In the case where a zone exchanges air only with the outside (i.e. has no inflow of air from other parts of the building), the tracer gas concentration within the zone can be characterized with a single value, and the ventilation conditions are constant over the measurement period; this part of ISO 16000 and ISO 12569 should, in theory, provide identical results. The methods described in this part of ISO 16000 can, however, be used beyond these conditions, for example in spaces with several zones, which may exchange air with each other, and in cases where the ventilation conditions vary during the measurement period.

SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16000-8:2007(E) © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 1Indoor air — Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilation conditions 1 Scope This part of ISO 16000 describes the use of single tracer gas for determining the local mean age of air as an indicator of ventilation conditions in a building. The procedures include concentration decay and homogeneous constant emission. The described methods are intended for air quality studies and can be used for a) checking whether the building ventilation requirements are met, b) estimating the adequacy of ventilation in buildings with indoor air quality problems, and c) characterizing the strength and distribution of indoor emission sources. In principle, the methods can be applied to all indoor spaces, regardless of the type of ventilation used and the state of mixing of air between zones. The prevailing ventilation conditions need not be disturbed by the measurement. This part of ISO 16000 does not address the details of the analytical methods for tracer gases. The availability of such analysis services should be checked before planning actual field measurements. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 12569, Thermal performance of buildings — Determination of air change in buildings — Tracer gas dilution method Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM), BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML, 1993 1) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12569 and the following apply.

1) Corrected and reprinted in 1995. To be republished as ISO/IEC Guide 98-3. SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) 2 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 3.1 homogeneous emission strategy to inject tracer gas in such a way that the injection rate per unit volume is equal in all parts of ventilated system 3.2 local mean age of air

ventilation parameter, which describes the length of time the air at a specific location has on average spent within the building NOTE See A.1 for a further explanation of this term. 3.3 ventilated system the building space, which can exchange air directly or indirectly with the space of interest NOTE At the border of the ventilated system, there is no other inflow of air than outdoor air. 3.4 zone space within the building where air mixing is sufficient to create an essentially uniform concentration of a tracer gas released anywhere within that space NOTE 1 To be considered a zone, the space should not exhibit concentration differences larger than 20 % of the mean. NOTE 2 A zone can be part of a room, an entire room or even include several rooms. 3.5 zone mean age of air ventilation parameter, which describes the length of time the air in a zone has on average spent within the building NOTE In the case of complete mixing within a zone, this is equal to the local mean age of air at any point within the zone. 4 Principles of tracer gas measurements for determining of ventilation conditions 4.1 General principles Tracer gas techniques for measuring ventilation rely on the possibility of differentiating between air that is already within a space of interest and new air coming into that space. This means that it shall be able either to mark the air already in the space and follow how the marked air is replaced by new ventilation air or, alternatively, to mark the incoming air and measure how this marked ventilation air is distributed through the space. It should be observed that air flowing into a specified zone from other zones that have a lower or higher concentration of tracer gas would influence the result of the measurement. Therefore, it is important to keep to the prescribed boundary conditions that are different for different tracer gas methods. If the ventilation condition is to be determined in a zone, which has no inflow of air from other parts of the building (single isolated zone), it is not necessary to inject tracer gas or mark the air in other parts of the building in order to obtain correct results. However, if the zone can exchange air with other parts of the building, which is usually the case, special strategies for tracer gas injection in those connected zones shall be followed in order to avoid ambiguous results. It should also be noted that the closing of doors to a room does not necessarily lead to zero inflow of air from other parts of the building. Such means of restricting a normally occurring airflow will also change the ventilation of a room from that which would otherwise prevail. SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 34.2 Selected tracer gas methods 4.2.1 General This part of ISO 16000 describes the strategies for tracer gas injection and measurement in spaces that cannot be regarded as single isolated zones. ISO 12569 presents the tracer gas dilution methods for spaces that can be characterized as a single zone. If the ventilation conditions are constant over the measurement period, and the space of interest can be regarded as a single isolated zone, the methods presented in this part of ISO 16000 and ISO 12569 are, in theory, identical. Under these conditions, the local mean age of air would be the same as the inverse of the air change rate determined using ISO 12569. 4.2.2 Decay method The principle of the decay method is to mark the air in the ventilated system with tracer gas and determine the rate at which the marked air is replaced with unmarked air. The zone to be measured and all other zones in the building with which the zone of interest can exchange air directly or indirectly shall be marked with a common initial tracer gas concentration. Such a strategy will prevent air coming from other parts of the building from being regarded as “clean ventilation air” to a greater extent than its actual delivered ventilation power. The concentration history is recorded as a function of time. The local mean age of air is obtained from the quotient of the integral of the concentration versus time and the initial concentration. The decay method can generally be used without problems up to air change rate n = 10 h−1. 4.2.3 Active homogeneous emission method In the active homogeneous emission method, tracer gas is fed at measured constant rates into the zones by a suitable adjustable flow injection device. The injection rates shall be proportional to the zone volumes. The steady state tracer gas concentration of room air is measured using a suitable gas analyser. The local mean age of air is obtained from the quotient of the steady state concentration and the injection rate per unit volume. The zone to be measured and all other zones in the building with which the pertinent zone can exchange air directly or indirectly shall be equipped with constant homogenous emission of tracer gas. 4.2.4 Passive homogeneous emission method In the passive homogeneous emission method, tracer gas is emitted at known constant rates into the zones using diffusion sources. The emission rates shall be proportional to the zone volumes. The steady state tracer gas concentration of room air is measured by collecting an integrating sample in a sorbent tube (actively using an air sampling pump or passively using diffusion sampling) and analysing this sample afterwards in an especially equipped laboratory. The local mean age of air is obtained from the quotient of the steady state concentration and the emission rate per unit volume. The zone to be measured and all other zones in the building with which the zone of interest can exchange air directly or indirectly shall be equipped with constant homogenous emission of tracer gas. The use of this method requires a special analysis service able to analyse the sample from the sorbent tube in order to determine the amount of the tracer gas in the sample. 5 Measurement planning 5.1 General Before measurement of the local mean ages of air in a building space, the purpose of the measurement shall be clearly defined. Also, knowledge of the type of building and the particular characteristics of that part of the SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) 4 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved building that is to be investigated are essential for the choice of tracer gas technique and the detailed planning of the test. The ventilation rate and the air distribution patterns in the building should be measured at representative conditions of interest. These conditions should not be disturbed by the measurement, unless it is the purpose of experiment to test the effect of different conditions, of for example door opening, window opening, etc. The homogenous emission method using sampling on adsorbent tubes is especially suitable for determining the ventilation conditions in the context of air quality studies. Depending on the requirement, short-term (pumped sampling of a few litres of air) or long-term measurements (passive sampling during days to several weeks) can be carried out. In the investigation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, the ventilation measurements usually accompany the actual measurement of pollutant. An advantage of this measurement method is the possibility to simultaneously determine the local mean ages of air and the pollutant concentration. In determination of “air change” (“airflow rate” or “air change rate”), for example using the methods described in ISO 12569, only the total airflow rate to the ventilated system is of concern. Such measurements are therefore restricted to buildings or other enclosures that can be treated as a single zone. In those methods, it shall therefore be ensured that there is complete mixing of air between all spaces within the ventilated system during the measurement. 5.2 Identification of the ventilated system In planning the test, the “ventilated system” to which the space of interest belongs shall first be identified, because all spaces within the ventilated system shall be tagged with tracer gas. The ventilated system is defined as the building space, which can exchange air directly or indirectly with the space of interest. At the border of the ventilated system, there shall not be any inflow of air other than outdoor air. Thus, a part of a building should only be considered a ventilated system if it has negligible inflow of air from other parts of the building (for example via doorways, air leakage or return air ducts). The location of pollutant sources should also be taken into account to ensure that polluted air is not misinterpreted as outdoor air. In practice, this means, for example that ⎯ for a single family house, all rooms including the cellar (unless there is an airtight door) should be included in the ventilated system, and ⎯ for a flat in an apartment building, all rooms in the studied apartment (and in some cases also the staircase) should be included in the ventilated system. 5.3 Identification of zones A zone is a space within the ventilated system where it can be assumed that the air mixing is sufficient to ensure a uniform concentration of air tracer gas. Within the ventilated system, there may be several spaces that can be regarded as zones. All such zones should be identified and their volumes measured. The zone-volumes are needed in order to calculate the amount of tracer gas to be injected in the different zones. Small closed spaces with only extract air (e.g. bathrooms), or without any supply of outdoor air (e.g. closets) do not need any tracer gas injection. The volume of small closed spaces, which may receive some supply of outside air should be added to the volume of any connected zone. Large rooms and long corridors may be subdivided into two or more zones. 5.4 Choice of measurement method 5.4.1 General The choice of the measurement method depends on the type and size of the building, the intended measurement time, the purpose of the measurement, and the availability of equipment and analysis service. SIST ISO 16000-8:2013

ISO 16000-8:2007(E) © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 55.4.2 Type of building 5.4.2.1 Simple buildings (e.g. small to moderate-sized dwellings that can be characterized with one to four zones) When the number of zones is small, it is relatively easy to achieve an initial homogeneous tracer gas concentration within the whole ventilated system. For short-term measurements, the decay method is therefore best suited. 5.4.2.2 Complex buildings (e.g. office buildings and other structures in which the ventilated system comprises several zones) In this case, it may be very difficult to achieve the necessary condition for the decay method of equal initial tracer gas concentration in all zones. The homogeneous emission method may therefore be better suited than the decay method in this case. 5.4.3 Measurement period 5.4.3.1 Short-term conditions of interest The decay method is the most practical method to monitor short-term ventilation conditions in simple buildings, while the passive homogeneous emission method with pumped sampling is better suited for complex buildings. 5.4.3.2 Long-term time variation of interest Though repeated use of the decay method is feasible in buildings with few zones, the most appropriate choice for long-term measurement in all types of buildings is the homogeneous emission method. The purpose may be to monitor the change of ventilation conditions as a function of time, for example in order to investigate the effect of weather conditions or to test the effect of different ventilation strategies. This requires active air sampling using continuous monitoring of tracer gas concentration or repeated sampling using syringes, bags, evacuated gas tubes or pumped collection tubes. The active homogeneous emission method is suitable for measuring time-varying conditions in simple buildings, while passive homogeneous emission with active sampling is better suit

...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 16000-8
Première édition
2007-06-15
Air intérieur —
Partie 8:
Détermination des âges moyens
locaux de l’air dans des bâtiments pour
caractériser les conditions de ventilation
Indoor air —
Part 8: Determination of local mean ages of air in buildings for
characterizing ventilation conditions
Numéro de référence
ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
ISO 2007
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ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2007

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf prescription différente, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous

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Version française parue en 2012
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos .....................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ....................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ...................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions .......................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principes des mesurages utilisant un gaz traceur pour déterminer les conditions

de ventilation ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Principes généraux ............................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Méthodes d’injection du gaz traceur .............................................................................................................. 3

5 Programme de mesurage .................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2 Identification du système ventilé .................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Identification des zones ..................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Choix de la méthode de mesurage ................................................................................................................. 5

5.5 Détermination des points de mesure ............................................................................................................. 5

6 Gaz traceurs et équipements permettant de déterminer les conditions de ventilation ................... 6

6.1 Choix du gaz traceur .......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Étalon de gaz traceur ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Équipement d’alimentation en gaz traceur ................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Échantillonnage du gaz traceur ....................................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Détermination de la concentration en gaz traceur ..................................................................................... 8

7 Méthodes de mesurage ..................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 Méthode de décroissance ................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2 Méthode d’émission homogène active ........................................................................................................10

7.3 Méthode d’émission homogène passive .................................................................................................... 11

8 Application des résultats ................................................................................................................................12

9 Rapport d’essai ..................................................................................................................................................13

Annexe A (informative) Explication de certains termes et définitions ...............................................................14

Annexe B (informative) Exigences générales, teneurs de fond et méthodes de détection des principaux

gaz traceurs ........................................................................................................................................................15

Annexe C (informative) Estimation de l’incertitude de mesure de l’âge local moyen de l’air .....................18

Annexe D (informative) Exemples de procédures de mesurage, de calcul et d’estimation

de l’incertitude ...................................................................................................................................................21

Annexe E (informative) Pertinence de l’âge local moyen de l’air dans le cadre de la qualité de l’air et

expression des résultats .................................................................................................................................39

Bibliographie ....................................................................................................................................................................43

© ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée aux

comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du comité

technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non gouvernementales,

en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux. L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission

électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d’élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur publication

comme Normes internationales requiert l’approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres votants.

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de droits

de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne pas avoir

identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L’ISO 16000-8 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 146, Qualité de l’air, sous-comité SC 6, Air intérieur.

L’ISO 16000 comprend les parties suivantes, présentées sous le titre général Air intérieur:

— Partie 1: Aspects généraux de la stratégie d’échantillonnage
— Partie 2: Stratégie d’échantillonnage du formaldéhyde

— Partie 3: Dosage du formaldéhyde et d’autres composés carbonylés — Méthode par échantillonnage actif

— Partie 4: Dosage du formaldéhyde — Méthode par échantillonnage diffusif

— Partie 5: Stratégie d’échantillonnage pour les composés organiques volatils (COV)

— Partie 6: Dosage des composés organiques volatils dans l’air intérieur des locaux et enceintes d’essai

par échantillonnage actif sur le sorbant Tenax TA®, désorption thermique et chromatographie en phase

gazeuse utilisant MS ou MS/FID

— Partie 7: Stratégie d’échantillonnage pour la détermination des concentrations en fibres d’amiante en

suspension dans l’air

— Partie 8: Détermination des âges moyens locaux de l’air dans des bâtiments pour caractériser les conditions

de ventilation

— Partie 9: Dosage de l’émission de composés organiques volatils de produits de construction et d’objets

d’équipement — Méthode de la chambre d’essai d’émission

— Partie 10: Dosage de l’émission de composés organiques volatils de produits de construction et d’objets

d’équipement — Méthode de la cellule d’essai d’émission

— Partie 11: Dosage de l’émission de composés organiques volatils de produits de construction et d’objets

d’équipement — Échantillonnage, conservation des échantillons et préparation d’échantillons pour essai

— Partie 12: Stratégie d’échantillonnage des polychlorobiphényles (PCB), des polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines

(PCDD), des polychlorodibenzofuranes (PCDF) et des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP)

— Partie 13: Dosage des polychlorobiphényles (PCB) de type dioxine et des polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines

(PCDD)/polychlorodibenzofuranes (PCDF) totaux (en phase gazeuse et en phase particulaire) — Collecte

sur des filtres adsorbants

— Partie 14: Dosage des polychlorobiphényles (PCB) de type dioxine et des polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines

(PCDD)/polychlorodibenzofuranes (PCDF) totaux (en phase gazeuse et en phase particulaire) — Extraction,

purification et analyse par chromatographie en phase gazeuse haute résolution et spectrométrie de masse

iv © ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
— Partie 15: Stratégie d’échantillonnage du dioxyde d’azote (NO )

— Partie 16: Détection et dénombrement des moisissures — Échantillonnage par filtration

— Partie 17: Détection et dénombrement des moisissures — Méthode par culture

— Partie 23: Essai de performance pour l’évaluation de la réduction des concentrations en formaldéhyde par

des matériaux de construction sorptifs
Les parties suivantes sont en cours d’élaboration:

— Partie 18: Détection et dénombrement des moisissures — Échantillonnage par impaction

— Partie 24: Essai de performance pour l’évaluation de la réduction des concentrations en composés

organiques volatils (sauf formaldéhyde) par des matériaux de construction sorptifs

— Partie 25: Dosage de l’émission de composés organiques semi-volatils des produits de construction —

Méthode de la micro-chambre

En outre, les deux Normes internationales, ISO 16017-1 concernant l’échantillonnage par pompage et

ISO 16017-2 concernant l’échantillonnage par diffusion, traitent plus particulièrement des mesurages des

composés organiques volatils (COV).

La présente édition en français correspond à la version corrigée de l’ISO 16000-8, publiée en anglais en date

du 2007-10-15.
© ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
Introduction

Un renouvellement adéquat de l’air est fondamental pour la qualité de l’air intérieur. Une bonne ventilation de

tous les bâtiments est nécessaire pour la santé et le confort des occupants ainsi que pour la protection contre

les dommages (dus à une humidité atmosphérique excessive, par exemple). À l’heure actuelle, toutefois, du

fait d’un niveau d’isolation élevé des fenêtres, par exemple dans les habitations et les bureaux, la ventilation

peut s’avérer insuffisante. Cela peut conduire à une augmentation des concentrations en substances émises à

l’intérieur des bâtiments. Une ventilation manuelle par les occupants ou l’utilisation de systèmes de ventilation

mécanique est de ce fait requise. Cependant, une ventilation excessive peut induire un inconfort et une hausse

de la consommation d’énergie.

La réglementation relative aux bâtiments spécifie des exigences de ventilation visant à assurer la maîtrise de

l’humidité et des polluants. Le mesurage des conditions de ventilation permet de confirmer le respect de ces

exigences dans la pratique. Il est important de connaître les conditions de ventilation pour pouvoir analyser les

causes d’une éventuelle mauvaise qualité de l’air intérieur. Idéalement, il convient donc que l’échantillonnage

et l’analyse des contaminants présents dans l’air intérieur soient accompagnés de mesurages de la ventilation,

afin d’estimer l’intensité des sources de contaminants.

La présente partie de l’ISO 16000 décrit l’utilisation d’un seul gaz traceur en vue de déterminer l’âge de l’air

dans un bâtiment dont la ventilation est naturelle ou mécanique. L’âge de l’air est un facteur important dans

l’évaluation de la qualité de la ventilation. Le concept d’âge local moyen de l’air (et son complémentaire, le taux

effectif de renouvellement d’air local) est utilisé pour évaluer les conditions de ventilation dans le bâtiment. L’âge

moyen de l’air d’une zone d’un bâtiment désigne la durée moyenne de séjour de l’air dans une zone, à l’intérieur

d’un bâtiment, accumulant ainsi des contaminants. Cette durée est étroitement liée au temps nécessaire à

l’échange de l’air dans une zone donnée. La concentration d’un contaminant libéré par des sources internes

au bâtiment augmente parallèlement au temps de séjour de cet air à l’intérieur des bâtiments. Plus l’âge local

moyen de l’air d’un espace est petit, plus la concentration est faible. En principe, l’air de ventilation alimente les

parties spécifiques du bâtiment et il est acheminé dans les différents espaces du bâtiment. Par conséquent,

avant d’atteindre la pièce prévue, une part importante de l’air ventilé peut avoir séjourné dans d’autres pièces,

accumulant ainsi des contaminants. Il est donc nécessaire de considérer l’âge local moyen de l’air (soit la

durée moyenne de séjour de l’air mesuré en un point spécifique, à l’intérieur d’un bâtiment) en relation avec la

qualité de l’air.

La présente partie de l’ISO 16000 vise à décrire l’utilisation de techniques de mesurage de la ventilation

adaptées aux études de la qualité de l’air. À cet effet, il convient de mesurer le débit de ventilation et les modèles

de distribution de l’air à l’intérieur du bâtiment dans des conditions représentatives des conditions étudiées.

L’ISO 12569 décrit l’utilisation de la dilution du gaz traceur en vue de la détermination du taux de renouvellement

de l’air à l’intérieur d’une seule zone. Parmi les procédures de dilution du gaz traceur, citons les méthodes de

décroissance de la concentration, d’injection constante et de concentration constante. Il convient d’utiliser

l’ISO 12569 pour étudier les performances thermiques des bâtiments.

Lorsque l’échange de l’air se fait uniquement entre une zone et l’extérieur (c’est-à-dire absence d’entrée d’air

provenant d’autres parties du bâtiment), la concentration en gaz traceur à l’intérieur de la zone peut être

caractérisée par une valeur unique, et les conditions de ventilation sont constantes tout au long de la période

de mesurage; la présente partie de l’ISO 16000 et l’ISO 12569 devraient, en principe, fournir des résultats

identiques. Les méthodes décrites dans la présente partie de l’ISO 16000 peuvent toutefois être utilisées au-

delà de ces conditions, par exemple dans des espaces comportant plusieurs zones pouvant échanger entre

elles de l’air et lorsque les conditions de ventilation varient pendant la période de mesurage.

vi © ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
Air intérieur —
Partie 8:
Détermination des âges moyens locaux de l’air dans des
bâtiments pour caractériser les conditions de ventilation
1 Domaine d’application

La présente partie de l’ISO 16000 décrit l’utilisation d’un seul gaz traceur en vue de déterminer l’âge local

moyen de l’air comme indicateur des conditions de ventilation à l’intérieur d’un bâtiment. Les procédures

spécifiées incluent la décroissance de la concentration et l’émission homogène constante.

Les méthodes décrites sont conçues pour les études sur la qualité de l’air et peuvent être utilisées pour:

a) vérifier la conformité aux exigences en matière de ventilation des bâtiments;

b) évaluer l’adéquation de la ventilation dans des bâtiments ayant des problèmes de qualité de l’air intérieur; et

c) caractériser l’intensité et la répartition des sources internes d’émission.

En principe, ces méthodes sont applicables pour tous les espaces intérieurs, quel que soit le type de ventilation

utilisé et l’état du mélange de l’air interzones. Il n’est pas nécessaire de perturber les conditions de ventilation

dominantes pour les besoins du mesurage.

La présente partie de l’ISO 16000 ne détaille pas les méthodes d’analyse des gaz traceurs. Il convient de

vérifier la disponibilité de moyens d’analyse avant de programmer des mesurages sur site.

2 Références normatives

Les documents de référence suivants sont indispensables pour l’application du présent document. Pour les

références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du

document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 12569, Performances thermiques des bâtiments — Détermination du renouvellement d’air dans les

bâtiments — Méthode de dilution de gaz traceurs

Guide pour l’expression de l’incertitude de mesure (GUM), BIPM, CEI, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML, 1993

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 12569 ainsi que les suivants

s’appliquent.
3.1
émission homogène

mode d’injection du gaz traceur tel que le débit d’injection par unité de volume est identique dans toutes les

parties du système ventilé
1) Corrigé et réimprimé en 1995. À republier en tant que Guide ISO/CEI 98-3.
© ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
3.2
âge local moyen de l’air

paramètre de ventilation décrivant la durée moyenne de séjour de l’air mesuré en un point spécifique, à

l’intérieur d’un bâtiment
NOTE Voir A.1 pour une explication plus détaillée de ce terme.
3.3
système ventilé

à l’intérieur d’un bâtiment, espace ayant la capacité d’échanger de l’air, directement ou indirectement, avec

l’espace soumis à essai

NOTE L’environnement immédiat du système ventilé n’est exposé à aucune entrée d’air autre que l’air extérieur.

3.4
zone

à l’intérieur d’un bâtiment, espace dans lequel le mélange d’air est suffisant pour créer une concentration

essentiellement uniforme d’un gaz traceur libéré n’importe où dans cet espace

NOTE 1 Pour que l’espace soit considéré comme une zone, il convient qu’il ne présente pas de différences de

concentration supérieures à 20 % de la moyenne.

NOTE 2 Une zone peut être une subdivision d’une pièce ou constituer une pièce entière, voire être composée de

plusieurs pièces.
3.5
âge moyen de l’air de la zone

paramètre de ventilation décrivant la durée moyenne de séjour de l’air mesuré dans une zone, à l’intérieur

d’un bâtiment

NOTE Lorsque le mélange de l’air d’une zone est homogène, l’âge moyen de l’air de la zone est égal à l’âge local

moyen de l’air en tout point de la zone.

4 Principes des mesurages utilisant un gaz traceur pour déterminer les conditions

de ventilation
4.1 Principes généraux

Les techniques utilisant un gaz traceur pour mesurer la ventilation reposent sur la possibilité de différencier l’air

se trouvant déjà dans un espace donné et l’air entrant dans cet espace. Cela signifie que les techniques doivent

permettre soit de marquer l’air se trouvant déjà dans l’espace étudié et évaluer le débit de remplacement de

l’air existant par l’air entrant, soit de marquer l’air entrant et de mesurer la distribution de cet air de ventilation

au sein de cet espace.

Il convient de noter que l’air entrant dans une zone donnée, provenant de zones qui présentent des concentrations

en gaz traceur plus faibles ou plus élevées, est susceptible d’avoir une incidence sur le résultat du mesurage. Il est

par conséquent important de respecter les conditions limites spécifiées, qui varient suivant la méthode de mesurage.

Si les conditions de ventilation doivent être déterminées dans une zone qui n’est pas exposée à une entrée

d’air provenant d’autres parties du bâtiment (zone isolée), il n’est pas nécessaire d’injecter un gaz traceur ou

de marquer l’air des autres parties du bâtiment pour obtenir des résultats corrects. Toutefois, si un échange

d’air est possible entre la zone étudiée et les autres parties du bâtiment, ce qui est généralement le cas, des

procédures spéciales doivent être mises en œuvre pour l’injection du gaz traceur dans ces zones liées afin

d’éviter l’obtention de résultats ambigus. Il convient également de noter que la fermeture des portes d’une

pièce n’empêche pas totalement l’entrée de l’air provenant des autres parties du bâtiment. De tels moyens de

restreindre un flux d’air naturel modifient également la ventilation normale d’une pièce par rapport à celle qui

prévaudrait autrement.
2 © ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
4.2 Méthodes d’injection du gaz traceur
4.2.1 Généralités

La présente partie de l’ISO 16000 décrit les stratégies d’injection et de mesurage du gaz traceur dans les

espaces qui ne peuvent pas être considérés comme zone unique isolée. L’ISO 12569 présente les méthodes

de dilution du gaz traceur pour les espaces qui peuvent être qualifiés de zone unique. Si les conditions de

ventilation sont constantes tout au long du mesurage et si l’espace étudié peut être considéré comme une

zone unique isolée, les méthodes décrites dans la présente partie de l’ISO 16000 et dans l’ISO 12569 sont

théoriquement identiques. Dans de telles conditions, l’âge local moyen de l’air serait égal à l’inverse du taux de

renouvellement de l’air déterminé selon l’ISO 12569.
4.2.2 Méthode de décroissance

La méthode de décroissance consiste à marquer l’air du système ventilé à l’aide du gaz traceur et à déterminer

la vitesse à laquelle l’air marqué est remplacé par de l’air non marqué.

La zone à mesurer ainsi que toutes les autres zones du bâtiment avec lesquelles la zone étudiée peut avoir

des échanges d’air, directement ou indirectement, doivent être marquées à l’aide d’un gaz traceur de même

concentration initiale. Cette méthode permet d’éviter que l’air ventilé issu d’autres parties du bâtiment ne soit

considéré comme plus propre qu’il ne l’est en réalité, compte tenu de la puissance de ventilation réelle.

L’évolution de la concentration est enregistrée en fonction du temps. L’âge local moyen de l’air est obtenu en

calculant le quotient de l’intégrale de la concentration en fonction du temps sur la concentration initiale.

La méthode de décroissance peut généralement être utilisée, sans difficultés, jusqu’à un taux de renouvellement

de l’air de n = 10 h .
4.2.3 Méthode d’émission homogène active

Dans le cas de la méthode d’émission homogène active, le gaz traceur est injecté dans les zones à un débit

constant mesuré via un dispositif d’injection à débit réglable approprié. Le débit d’injection doit être proportionnel

au volume de la zone. En régime permanent, la concentration moyenne du gaz traceur dans le local étudié

est mesurée à l’aide d’un analyseur de gaz. L’âge local moyen de l’air est obtenu en calculant le quotient de la

concentration de l’air ambiant à l’équilibre sur le débit d’injection par unité de volume.

La zone à mesurer ainsi que toutes les autres zones du bâtiment avec lesquelles la zone étudiée peut avoir

des échanges d’air, directement ou indirectement, doivent être dotées d’un dispositif d’émission homogène

du gaz traceur.
4.2.4 Méthode d’émission homogène passive

Dans le cas de la méthode d’émission homogène passive, le gaz traceur est émis à un débit constant connu

dans les zones à l’aide de sources de diffusion. Le débit d’émission doit être proportionnel au volume de la

zone. La concentration du gaz traceur à l’équilibre dans l’air ambiant est mesurée en prélevant un échantillon

intégrateur d’air sur un tube à adsorption (de manière active au moyen d’une pompe d’échantillonnage d’air ou

de manière passive par échantillonnage par diffusion) et en analysant ultérieurement cet échantillon dans un

laboratoire spécialisé équipé en conséquence. L’âge local moyen de l’air est obtenu en calculant le quotient de

la concentration de l’air ambiant à l’équilibre sur le débit d’émission par unité de volume.

La zone à mesurer ainsi que toutes les autres zones du bâtiment avec lesquelles la zone étudiée peut avoir

des échanges d’air, directement ou indirectement, doivent être dotées d’un dispositif d’émission homogène

du gaz traceur.

La mise en œuvre de cette méthode nécessite une analyse spéciale de l’échantillon prélevé dans le tube à

adsorption afin de déterminer la quantité de gaz traceur dans l’échantillon.
© ISO 2007 – Tous droits réservés 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 16000-8:2007(F)
5 Programme de mesurage
5.1 Généralités

Préalablement au mesurage de l’âge local moyen de l’air d’un bâtiment, l’objectif du mesurage doit être

clairement défini. Il est essentiel de connaître le type de bâtiment et les spécificités de la partie du bâtiment

soumise à essai pour choisir la technique d’émission du gaz traceur et le détail du déroulement de l’essai.

Il convient de mesurer la vitesse de ventilation et les modèles de distribution de l’air à l’intérieur du bâtiment

dans des conditions représentatives des conditions étudiées. Il convient que ces conditions ne soient pas

perturbées par le mesurage, sauf si l’essai a pour objectif d’étudier différentes conditions (par exemple

l’ouverture d’une porte, d’une fenêtre, etc.).

La méthode d’émission homogène utilisant l’échantillonnage sur tubes à adsorption est particulièrement

adaptée à la détermination des conditions de ventilation dans le cadre d’études de la qualité de l’air. Suivant

le cas, il est possible de réaliser des mesurages à court terme (échantillonnage par pompage de quelques

litres d’air) ou à long terme (échantillonnage passif allant de plusieurs jours à plusieurs semaines). Lors de la

recherche de problèmes liés à la qualité de l’air intérieur, les mesurages de la ventilation accompagnent les

mesurages réalisés sur le polluant à proprement parler. L’un des avantages de cette méthode de mesure est la

possibilité de déterminer simultanément l’âge local moyen de l’air et la concentration en polluant.

Lors de la détermination du «renouvellement de l’air» («débit d’entrée» ou «taux de renouvellement de l’air»),

par exemple à l’aide des méthodes décrites dans l’ISO 12569, seul le débit total d’entrée dans le système

ventilé est pris en compte. Ces mesurages sont par conséquent limités aux bâtiments ou autres enceintes

pouvant être considérés comme une zone indépendante. Par conséquent, dans le cadre de ces méthodes, il

faut veiller à ce que le mélange de l’air soit distribué de manière homogène entre tous les espaces du système

ventilé pendant le mesurage.
5.2 Identification du système ventilé

Lors de la programmation de l’essai, le «système ventilé» auquel appartient l’espace étudié doit dans un

premier temps être identifié, car tous les espaces composant le système ventilé doivent être marqués à l’aide

du gaz traceur. À l’intérieur d’un bâtiment, le système ventilé est l’espace ayant la capacité d’échanger de l’air,

directement ou indirectement, avec l’espace soumis à essai. L’environnement immédiat du système ventilé

ne doit être exposé à aucune entrée d’air autre que l’air extérieur. Par conséquent, il convient qu’une partie

du bâtiment soit considérée comme un système ventilé seulement si elle n’est que faiblement exposée aux

entrées d’air provenant d’autres parties du bâtiment (par exemple via les portes, une fuite d’air ou les conduits

d’air de reprise). Il convient également que l’emplacement des sources de polluants soit pris en compte afin

d’éviter la confusion entre l’air contaminé et l’air extérieur. En pratique, cela signifie par exemple que:

— pour une maison, il convient d’inclure dans le système ventilé toutes les pièces, y compris la cave (sauf si

la porte de celle-ci est hermétique); et

— pour un appartement, il convient d’inclure dans le système ventilé toutes les pièces de l’appartement (et

dans certains cas, l’escalier).
5.3 Identification des zones

Une zone est un espace au sein du système ventilé dans lequel il est possible d’obtenir un mélange de

l’air suffisant pour assurer une concentration homogène de gaz traceur. Le système ventilé peut comporter

plusieurs espaces qui peuvent être considérés comme des zones. Il convient d’identifier toutes ces zones

et de mesurer leurs volumes respectifs. Il est nécessaire de connaître les volumes de zone pour calculer la

quantité de gaz traceur à injecter dans les différentes zones. Il n’est pas nécessaire d’injecter un gaz traceur

...

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