Smart grid projects in Europe

This Technical Report provides an overview of the technical contents and regulatory arrangements of some 32 of the many Smart Grid projects that are currently in operation, or under construction, within Europe 1). This Technical Report is intended to provide useful information to those organisations and individuals that are currently engaged or about to become engaged in developing Smart Grids. It is also intended that this Technical Report will be used to support the development of relevant standards by presenting the key learning points from early Smart Grid projects - it is widely accepted that the publication of relevant standards will accelerate the development of Smart Grids. It is recognised that this Technical Report only covers a sample of the Smart Grid projects within Europe; it would be impractical to attempt to include every project. It is assessed that the 32 projects shown in this Technical Report are sufficiently representative to provide information and draw early conclusions. Clause 2 of this Technical Report provides a brief overview of all 32 projects, Annex A contains details of the 32 projects as supplied by the countries that participated in the drafting of this Technical Report. This Technical Report presents the situation for the 32 projects as they are at the time of writing; as time moves on, it might be necessary to update this Technical Report or to produce a second edition containing information on more recent projects and learning from existing projects, such as those documented in this Technical Report.

Smart Grid-Projekte in Europa

Projets de réseaux intelligents en Europe

Projekti za pametna omrežja (Smart grids) v Evropi

To tehnično poročilo ponuja pregled tehnične vsebine in ureditvene določbe približno 32 projektov za pametna omrežja, ki se trenutno izvajajo ali so v izdelavi v Evropi 1). To tehnično poročilo ponuja uporabne informacije tistim organizacijam in posameznikom, ki se trenutno ukvarjajo ali se bodo v kratkem začeli ukvarjati z razvojem pametnih omrežij. Poleg tega bo to tehnično poročilo s predstavitvijo ključnih ugotovitev, pridobljenih na podlagi izkušenj s prejšnjimi projekti za pametna omrežja, podpiralo razvoj ustreznih standardov - splošno sprejeto mnenje je, da bo objava ustreznih standardov pospešila razvoj pametnih omrežij. Priznava se, da to tehnično poročilo zajema zgolj del projektov za pametna omrežja v Evropi; vključitev vseh projektov bi bila nepraktična. Ocenjuje se, da je 32 projektov, predstavljenih v tem tehničnem poročilu, dovolj reprezentativnih, da se iz pridobljenih podatkov lahko oblikuje zaključke. Odstavek 2 tega tehničnega poročila ponuja kratek pregled vseh 32 projektov. Dodatek A vsebuje podrobnosti vseh 32 projektov, ki so jih posredovale države, ki so sodelovale pri pripravi tega tehničnega poročila. To tehnično poročilo predstavlja trenutno stanje 32 projektov v času pisanja; čez čas ga bo morda treba posodobiti ali sestaviti drugo izdajo, ki bo vsebovala informacije o novejših projektih in znanje, pridobljeno pri obstoječih projektih, na primer tistih, ki so dokumentirani v tem tehničnem poročilu.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Jun-2014
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Jun-2014
Due Date
09-Aug-2014
Completion Date
06-Jun-2014

Buy Standard

Technical report
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014 - natisnjeno za čitalnico
English language
56 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
01-julij-2014
Projekti za pametna omrežja (Smart grids) v Evropi
Smart grid projects in Europe
Smart Grid-Projekte in Europa
Projets de réseaux intelligents en Europe
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CLC/TR 50608:2013
ICS:
27.010 Prenos energije in toplote na Energy and heat transfer
splošno engineering in general
29.240.01 2PUHåMD]DSUHQRVLQ Power transmission and
GLVWULEXFLMRHOHNWULþQHHQHUJLMH distribution networks in
QDVSORãQR general
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
TECHNICAL REPORT
CLC/TR 50608
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
October 2013
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 27.010; 29.240.01
English version
Smart grid projects in Europe
Projets de réseaux intelligents en Europe Smart-Grid-Projekte in Europa
This Technical Report was approved by CENELEC on 2013-09-16.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2013 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. CLC/TR 50608:2013 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Project overview .................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1 Rationale for developing the Smart Grid ............................................................................................ 5

2.2 Costs and funding ................................................................................................................................. 6

2.3 Duration .................................................................................................................................................. 6

2.4 Project status ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.5 Stakeholders .......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.6 Networks and components .................................................................................................................. 7

2.7 Generation .............................................................................................................................................. 8

2.8 Customers .............................................................................................................................................. 8

2.9 Standards ............................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Smart grid project descriptions .................................................................................. 9

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 56

Table A.1 — AT 1 – 3 ........................................................................................................................................ 10

Table A.2 — AT 4 – 6 ........................................................................................................................................ 14

Table A.3 — AT 7 – 9 ........................................................................................................................................ 18

Table A.4 — Denmark 1 – 2.............................................................................................................................. 21

Table A.5 — Denmark 3 – 4.............................................................................................................................. 23

Table A.6 — France 1 – 2 ................................................................................................................................. 25

Table A.7 — France 3 – 4 ................................................................................................................................. 27

Table A.8 — Germany 1 – 2 ............................................................................................................................. 29

Table A.9 — Germany 3 – 4 ............................................................................................................................. 33

Table A.10 — Norway 1 – 2 .............................................................................................................................. 37

Table A.11 — Spain 1 – 3 ................................................................................................................................. 40

Table A.12 — United Kingdom 1 – 3 ............................................................................................................... 44

Table A.13 — United Kingdom 4 – 6 ............................................................................................................... 50

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
Foreword

This document (CLC/TR 50608:2013) has been prepared by CLC/TC 8X "System aspects of electrical energy

supply".

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission and

the European Free Trade Association.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
Introduction

Worldwide interest in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases associated with the production of electrical

energy has promoted a growth in distributed energy resources and renewable generation. A significant

proportion of the electrical distribution infrastructure in Europe is reaching an age where it warrants major

replacement or refurbishment. In considering such a major programme for asset replacement, it would seem

sensible to look at the design and operation of the distribution infrastructure to make sure that the new

networks make best use of available technology to address environmental concerns, for example minimising

network losses and encouraging the connection of distributed generation. These considerations have given

rise to the term ‘Smart Grids’. There are now a number of trial projects being conducted across Europe, and

other parts of the developed world, to investigate the potential benefits of Smart Grids. To support the

development of Smart Grids it would be advantageous if there were a suite of technical standards that

described the various components that make up the Smart Grid and how these components operate in

concert to deliver the benefits of improved network operations and reduced environmental emissions.

This Technical Report is based on the descriptions of 32 Smart Grid projects in seven countries. By collating

the experiences of these early Smart Grid projects, it is intended that Cenelec will be able to identify those

areas that would benefit from standardization.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides an overview of the technical contents and regulatory arrangements of some

32 of the many Smart Grid projects that are currently in operation, or under construction, within Europe .

This Technical Report is intended to provide useful information to those organisations and individuals that are

currently engaged or about to become engaged in developing Smart Grids. It is also intended that this

Technical Report will be used to support the development of relevant standards by presenting the key learning

points from early Smart Grid projects – it is widely accepted that the publication of relevant standards will

accelerate the development of Smart Grids. It is recognised that this Technical Report only covers a sample of

the Smart Grid projects within Europe; it would be impractical to attempt to include every project. It is

assessed that the 32 projects shown in this Technical Report are sufficiently representative to provide

information and draw early conclusions. Clause 2 of this Technical Report provides a brief overview of all

32 projects, Annex A contains details of the 32 projects as supplied by the countries that participated in the

drafting of this Technical Report.

NOTE 1 In order to avoid losing potentially useful information, the details presented in Annex A are very close to the

raw data provided by the different countries, with only minor editorial amendments made in the drafting of this Technical

Report.

One of the key objectives of this Technical Report is to identify the learning objectives for each of the Smart

Grid projects, i.e. why is the project is being carried out and how the success of the project in meeting these

objectives will be determined.

NOTE 2 It is intended that the learning contained in this Technical Report, in particular the learning around what type of

standards are required to support the development of Smart Grids, will provide useful input to the joint CEN/Cenelec/ETSI

Smart Grid Co-ordination Group (SGCG). The SGCG has been established to support the requirements set out in the

European Commission Smart Grid Mandate M/490, March 2011.

NOTE 3 In drafting this Technical Report the working group were made aware of a report with a similar scope to this

Technical Report that was being produced by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) . The JRC

report is now published and publically available. It is assessed that this Technical Report and the JRC report are

complementary documents; the JRC report provides a high-level view on 220 projects that are being conducted across

Europe whereas this Technical Report provides more detailed information on 32 projects.

This Technical Report presents the situation for the 32 projects as they are at the time of writing; as time

moves on, it might be necessary to update this Technical Report or to produce a second edition containing

information on more recent projects and learning from existing projects, such as those documented in this

Technical Report.
2 Project overview
2.1 Rationale for developing the Smart Grid

All of the projects described in this Technical Report are taking place on electricity distribution networks; these

networks are owned and operated by distribution system operators (DSO’s), sometimes referred to as

distribution network operators (DNO’s).
———————

1) All Cenelec member countries were invited to submit example projects for inclusion in this Technical Report, the

32 projects presented in this Technical Report represent the sum total of all projects that were submitted for

consideration.

2) JRC Report, June 2011: A view on Smart Grid projects in Europe: lessons learned and current developments.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013

From the 32 Smart Grid projects described in this Technical Report, it is possible to determine a number of

areas of common interest; however, there are also some significant differences. One common theme behind

all projects is the need to try new technology in order to evaluate the potential benefits. Most of the projects

are focussed on solving potential network problems rather than solving actual problems that exist on these

networks now. The capacity of the low-voltage network to accommodate increasing levels of micro-generation,

electric vehicles, heat pumps and other technologies is one of the most common potential problems that the

Smart Grid trial is looking to address. A significant number of the trials are looking at the potential for networks

operators to utilise controllable demand and network monitoring in order to accommodate more renewable

generation connected to the MV network, this inevitably means a major requirement for customer interaction.

2.2 Costs and funding

The total cost of the 32 projects is approximately 516 M€ with a range from under 1 M€ to just over 60 M€,

most projects sit in the range 2 M€ to 20 M€.

Only five of the 32 Smart Grid projects are funded entirely by the network operator i.e. there is no regulatory

allowance for this expenditure, although some have received a contribution from other businesses with an

interest in developing a Smart Grid. The remaining 27 projects receive a contribution to the overall project

funding that comes from either central government or from regulated income, which comes from the electricity

customers. The use of external funding is seen as incentivising network operators to conduct trials of new

technology that might not be the most cost effective solution to a network constraint.

2.3 Duration

The typical duration of the Smart Grid projects described in this Technical Report is 3 years to 4 years. There

is one project, NO-2 (see Table A.10), that has a duration of ten years, the reason for this is that Norway

intend to use this project as a “national laboratory” to trial different use cases over the ten-year period.

It is assessed that year one of the Smart Grid trial will be associated with planning, constructing and

commissioning. Customer engagement will take place throughout the project, most significantly at the

planning stage where customer support is essential. Once the Smart Grid is operational, performance will be

monitored and trial objectives evaluated. It is assessed that the minimum monitoring period to give robust

results is one year; a monitoring period of two years would increase the confidence in the results. Therefore, a

trial period of 3 years to 4 years would appear to be the optimum time over which to implement and robustly

evaluate a Smart Grid trial.

The majority of the projects described in this Technical Report, 27 out of 32, are designed to be permanent

installations, with the intention of taking the Smart Grid from the status of proto-type to business as usual. Of

the five non-permanent installations, for all but one it is intended to leave some of the Smart Grid

infrastructure in-situ permanently. The clear intention is for the Smart Grid trials to set the design

specifications for future networks.

Info will come out during the course of the project that can be fed into other projects and/or fed back into the

project where the learning was developed, all aimed at improving the benefits that can be derived from the

Smart Grid.
———————

3) The term “Use Case” refers to the use of a particular type of technology or system within a smart grid. The term "Use

Case" has arisen during period when this Technical Report was being drafted. There is work going on within Cenelec

and IEC to collect and catalogue generic Use Cases.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
2.4 Project status

Nine of the projects described in this Technical Report have progressed to the development stage; 22 projects

are still at the planning stage and one project is un-defined. The design and operation of electricity distribution

networks has remained largely unchanged for decades and the vision of a Smart Grid requires significant

investment in equipment and skills to make it a reality. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that it has

proved a slow process to move from planning to development.
2.5 Stakeholders

In addition to the DNO’s / DSO’s who own and operate the distribution networks there are a host of other

parties (stakeholders) who have an interest in Smart Grids, including Regulators, Customers, Government

bodies, Academia, Equipment suppliers and Consultants; all parties are having to adapt to a changing

approach to designing and operating electricity networks. A common theme from all of the projects described

in this Technical Report is the pivotal role that customers will need to play if the Smart Grid trial is to become a

success. A number of the projects are investigating the potential to influence and/or rely on customer

behaviour in order to optimise network capacity in terms of the ability to accommodate new generation and/or

demand.
2.6 Networks and components

The questionnaire sought to gain information on the types of networks that have been chosen for the Smart

Grid trials and information on the type of new technologies that are being trialled. The intention of the

questionnaire was to gain an understanding of the rationale behind the selection of a particular network and

the particular suite of Smart Grid components; and to identify if there are common areas that would benefit

from a standardized approach to design / connection / operation.

The majority of the projects described in this Technical Report are focussed on the low voltage network, with a

heavy emphasis on customer engagement via the use of smart meters. There is a mixture of area types from

urban all underground cable networks to mixed overhead line and underground cable networks in suburban

and rural areas. Network operators appear to be keen to investigate the potential viability of Smart Grids

across the full range of area and network types, although the majority of the projects are based in urban and

suburban areas in order to take advantage of the higher customer population and therefore the greater

learning opportunity for the projects.

A common theme across all projects is the desire to identify how much extra capacity can be extracted from

the existing networks by optimising the use of demand and generation. To achieve this optimisation a number

of the projects plan to employ smart meters with the associated communication infrastructure. In addition,

some projects are trialling the use of generation to support network voltage control by control the power and

reactive power of the generation.

A large number of the projects include the provision of supplies to electric vehicle (EV) charging points; at

least two of the projects are associated with major EV initiatives. Network operators are keen to understand

the impact that EV charging will have on the distribution network, what will be the daily, weekly, annual

charging regimes and what will be the diversity between users. Some projects are investigating the potential

for intelligent charging, where the charging of EV’s is aligned with the output from wind turbines connected at

HV or above.

Heat Pumps (HP’s) feature in some projects. As with EV’s the network operators are keen to understand the

impact that HP’s might have on the low voltage network, in particular the operating cycles and how customer

usage might be influenced by providing the customer with information via smart meters and the by the use of

innovative tariffs.
———————

4) There are cases where DNOs/DSOs are operators but not owners of a distribution network.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013

Battery energy storage features in ten of the projects. Some projects are planning to install standalone battery

storage units, ranging in size from kW to 2,5 MW. In all cases it appears that the intention of including storage

in the trial is to investigate the potential for batteries and other storage media (hot water heating in one project

and cold stores another project) to support network optimisation by absorbing surplus generation and/or to

reduce peaks in demand. Although some of the responses have made reference to electric vehicle (EV)

batteries in response to the question on storage, it has been confirmed that there is currently no intention for

these projects to investigate the potential for the batteries in EVs to act as an energy storage component that

can be called upon to support the network.
2.7 Generation

The questionnaire asked for information on the number, size and type of any generation installed within the

Smart Grid trial:

It has been reported that all projects include generation connected to the distributed network (distributed

generation). There is a range of generation types and sizes ranging from kW photovoltaic generation

connected at LV through to 10’s MW Wind, Hydro, Biogas, CHP connected at MV / HV. In most countries,

there are financial incentives that encourage the connection of renewable generation. These incentives have

accelerated the growth of distributed generators seeking connection. The Smart Grid trials are investigating

the opportunities for connecting more generation to existing networks by optimising the use of both demand

and generation, which is reliant upon information and communications in order to dynamically permit or

constrain operation of the demand and/or generation. Some projects are investigating the use of dynamic

thermal ratings of overhead lines in order to determine the dynamic capacity of the line, which in turn will

permit / constrain the generation connected to the network.
2.8 Customers

A major requirement for the Smart Grid is customer engagement: if customers cannot be influenced to modify

their demand, either actively or passively, it will limit the opportunities for network optimisation.

The projects described in this Technical Report are mainly concerned with customers connected at LV,

typically residential (domestic) customers. Two projects are looking at the role that can be played by larger

customers in managing their demand in response to signals from the network operator, again these projects

are aimed at optimising the operation of the network, in these cases it will be the HV and EHV networks.

2.9 Standards

As described in the Scope, it is intended that the learning contained in this Technical Report, in particular the

learning around what type of standards are required to support the development of Smart Grids, will provide

useful input to the joint CEN/Cenelec/ETSI Smart Grid Co-ordination Group (SGCG). The SGCG has a sub-

group that is tasked with identifying a “first set of standards” for Smart Grids.

A small number of project descriptions have suggested that there is a need for standards in the areas of

Interconnection, Interoperability (between smart appliances and smart network components) and the

connection of electric vehicles. Other projects have suggested that no new standards are required for the

Smart Grid trials to take place; and some project descriptions have suggested that it is too early to decide

which areas require new standards.

One country has identified the potential need for interface standards between Smart meters and external

equipment such as displays and smart house control equipment including also dynamic price/tariff information.

This suggestion comes in recognition that customers might wish to respond to changes in electricity pricing

throughout the day. Although this potential requirement has been identified and the responder is aware that

some progress is being made in this area, it is not being studied in detail within their project.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
Annex A
(informative)
Smart grid project descriptions

Annex A contains a non-exhaustive list of Smart Grid projects that are currently in planning or under

construction in Europe. The project descriptions were provided by the members of CLC/TC8 X, Working

Group 5.
Austria AT 1 – 9 (see Table A.1, Table A.2 and Table A.3);
Denmark DK 1 – 4 (see Table A.4 and Table A.5);
France FR 1 – 4 (see Table A.6 and Table A.7);
Germany DE 1 – 4 (see Table A.8 and Table A.9);
Norway NO 1 – 2 (see Table A.10);
Spain ES 1 – 3 (see Table A.11);
United Kingdom UK 1 – 6 (see Table A.12 and Table A.13).
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
Table A.1 — AT 1 – 3
Austria AT1 AT2 AT3

Title DG DemoNet - Smart LV Grid DG DemoNet Validation E-Mobile Power Austria (Lighthouse Project

of Austrian Mobile Power) Control concepts

Control concepts for active low voltage Active operation of electricity distribution

for active low voltage network operation with
network operation with a high share of networks with a high share of distributed
a high share of distributed energy resources
distributed energy resources generation – Validation of voltage control
concepts
Country Austria Austria Austria
Value (Euros) ~ 2,2 M€ ~ 1 M€ 21 M€

Funding mechanism / The project is funded by the Austrian Climate The project is funded by the Austrian Climate The project is funded by the Austrian Climate

Regulatory Arrangements and Energy Fund and Energy Fund and Energy Fund

(http://www.klimafonds.gv.at) (http://www.klimafonds.gv.at) (http://www.klimafonds.gv.at)

Scope Following this paradigm shift, the project “DG In the rural distribution network structures, Within the framework of the project, an

DemoNet – Smart LV Grid” searches for typical for Austria, the increase of voltage integrated system solution for electric

(Brief description)

solutions for an active network operation at through the feeding in of decentralised mobility will be developed and implemented

the low voltage level. The project develops energy generation plants has turned out to for the first time in close collaboration with all

and evaluates smart planning, monitoring, be the most important system limitation when partners from the automobile industry,

management and control approaches for the integrating the generation units. infrastructure technology, energy supply and

system integration of local energy production science sectors. On the one hand,
The main project target is to integrate a

and flexible loads (e.g. heat, e-mobility) in methodology will be based upon findings

maximum of decentralised generation units
low voltage networks. concerning the requirements and
based on renewable energy resources into
expectations of users from existing and new
the electric distribution network (medium
electric mobility model regions; on the other
voltage networks) without reinforcement of
hand, integrated and standardized system
the network.
architecture, as well as a road map, will be
developed in a broad, joint examination of
requirements and solution options.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50608:2014
CLC/TR 50608:2013
Austria AT1 AT2 AT3

Selection criteria and The project aims to enable an efficient and In the project DG DemoNetz-Validierung, the Following an integrated demonstration run, a

Objectives (learning cost effective use of existing grid voltage control concepts for medium voltage national implementation of the central

outcomes) infrastructures based on a three-step networks developed in the former projects infrastructure components will be established

concept: intelligent planning, on-line DG DemoNetz-Konzept and BAVIS will be
for Austria. The developed standards and

monitoring, and active LV grid management. implemented in reality in the analysed grid technologies are available for the application

Communication-based systems for automatic sections in Vorarlberg and Salzburg by using of electric mobility in the model regions.

control concepts for low voltage grids will be test platforms. This will allow validating the

developed and evaluated by putting them simulation results from the projects DG
into practice. DemoNetz-Konzept and BAVIS in a field test.
In the project, real tests of solution The detailed results of the project are:
approaches for central and distributed
• Development of a technical solution (ICT
monitoring, management and control
& ET) that complies with the
concepts will be performed.
requirements of the developed control
concepts.
• Examination of the general applicability
of the results.
• Compilation of an operational concept
• Analysis of the long-term cost savings,
compared to traditional network planning
concepts
Timetable 2011-2014 2010-2013 2010-2013
(Start and Finish)
Is this project intended to be

The equipment will be permanently installed Permanent installation because special

a permanent inst
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.