Energy performance of buildings - Ventilation for buildings - Part 8: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-7 - Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates in buildings including infiltration - (Module M5-5)

This Technical Report refers to the standard EN 16798-7.
It contains information to support the correct understanding and use of this standard.

Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Lüftung von Gebäuden - Teil 8: Interpretation der Anforderungen der EN 16798-7 - Berechnungsmethoden zur Bestimmung der Luftvolumenströme in Gebäuden einschließlich Infiltration (Modul M5-5)

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Ventilation des bâtiments - Partie 8 : Interprétation des exigences de l’EN 16798-7 - Méthodes de calcul pour la détermination des débits d'air dans les bâtiments y compris les infiltrations (Module M5-5)

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Prezračevanje stavb - 8. del: Razlaga in utemeljitev EN 16798-7 - Metode za izračun in določanje količine zraka v stavbah, vključno z infiltracijo - Modul M5-5

To tehnično poročilo se nanaša na standard EN 16798-7.
Vsebuje informacije za pomoč pri pravilnem razumevanju in uporabi tega standarda.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Jan-2017
Publication Date
13-Jun-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
17-May-2018
Due Date
22-Jul-2018
Completion Date
14-Jun-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-8:2018
01-julij-2018

(QHUJLMVNHODVWQRVWLVWDYE3UH]UDþHYDQMHVWDYEGHO5D]ODJDLQXWHPHOMLWHY(1

0HWRGH]DL]UDþXQLQGRORþDQMHNROLþLQH]UDNDYVWDYEDKYNOMXþQR]
LQILOWUDFLMR0RGXO0

Energy performance of buildings - Ventilation for buildings - Part 8: Interpretation of the

requirements in EN 16798-7 - Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates

in buildings including infiltration - (Module M5-5)

Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Lüftung von Gebäuden - Teil 8: Interpretation der

Anforderungen der EN 16798-7 - Berechnungsmethoden zur Bestimmung der
Luftvolumenströme in Gebäuden einschließlich Infiltration (Modul M5-5)
Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Ventilation des bâtiments - Partie 8 :

Interprétation des exigences de l’EN 16798-7 - Méthodes de calcul pour la détermination

des débits d'air dans les bâtiments y compris les infiltrations (Module M5-5)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16798-8:2017
ICS:
91.140.30 3UH]UDþHYDOQLLQNOLPDWVNL Ventilation and air-
VLVWHPL conditioning systems
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-8:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-8:2018
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16798-8:2018
CEN/TR 16798-8
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
June 2017
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 91.120.10; 91.140.30
English Version
Energy performance of buildings - Ventilation for buildings
- Part 8: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-7
- Calculation methods for the determination of air flow
rates in buildings including infiltration - (Module M5-5)

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Ventilation Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Lüftung von

des bâtiments - Partie 8 : Interprétation des exigences Gebäuden - Teil 8: Interpretation der Anforderungen

de l'EN 16798-7 - Méthodes de calcul pour la der EN 16798-7 - Berechnungsmethoden zur

détermination des débits d'air dans les bâtiments y Bestimmung der Luftvolumenströme in Gebäuden

compris les infiltrations (Module M5-5) einschließlich Infiltration (Modul M5-5)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 27 February 2017. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

156.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16798-8:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Symbols, subscripts and abbreviations................................................................................................... 9

4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Subscripts ........................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 11

5 Brief description of the methods ............................................................................................................ 11

5.1 Output of the method .................................................................................................................................. 11

5.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.1.2 Energy use outputs ...................................................................................................................................... 11

5.1.3 Indoor air quality outputs ......................................................................................................................... 11

5.1.4 Summer comfort using ventilative cooling ......................................................................................... 11

5.2 General description of the methods ...................................................................................................... 12

5.2.1 Multiple ventilation zones ........................................................................................................................ 12

5.2.2 Airflows within a ventilation zone ......................................................................................................... 12

5.2.3 Separation of the ventilation zones into elementary spaces........................................................ 12

5.3 Selection criteria between the methods .............................................................................................. 13

6 Calculation method, method 1 — Determination of air flow rates based on detailed

building characteristics ............................................................................................................................. 14

6.1 Output data ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.2 Calculation intervals ................................................................................................................................... 14

6.3 Input data ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

6.4 Calculation procedure, method 1 ........................................................................................................... 14

6.4.1 Applicable time intervals and states of operation ........................................................................... 14

6.4.2 Operating conditions calculation ........................................................................................................... 15

6.4.3 Calculation of air flow rates...................................................................................................................... 17

7 Method 2 – Determination of air flow rates based on statistical approach ............................ 21

8 Quality control .............................................................................................................................................. 21

9 Compliance check......................................................................................................................................... 21

10 Worked out examples, method 1 — Example 1................................................................................. 22

10.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 22

10.2 Calculation details ....................................................................................................................................... 22

10.3 Observations .................................................................................................................................................. 22

Annex A (informative) Input and method selection data sheet — Template ........................................ 23

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

A.2 References ...................................................................................................................................................... 23

A.3 Input data method 1 .................................................................................................................................... 23

A.4 Input data method 2 .................................................................................................................................... 23

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Annex B (informative) Input and method selection data sheet — Default choices ............................. 24

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 24

B.2 References ....................................................................................................................................................... 24

B.3 Input data method 1 .................................................................................................................................... 24

B.4 Input data method 2 .................................................................................................................................... 24

Annex C (informative) Extract and supply air volume flow rate from a ventilation zone

(q , q ) — Calculation flowchart ........................................................................... 25

V;ETA;dis V;SUP;dis

Annex D (informative) Calculation examples — Example 1 ......................................................................... 26

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 41

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16798-8:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 156

“Ventilation for buildings”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

This document has been produced to meet the requirements of Directive 2010/31/EU 19 May 2010 on

the energy performance of buildings (recast), referred to as “recast EPDB”.

For the convenience of Standards users CEN/TC 156, together with responsible Working Group

Convenors, have prepared a simple table below relating, where appropriate, the relationship between

the ‘EPBD’ and ‘recast EPBD’ standard numbers prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 156

“Ventilation for buildings”.
EPBD EN Recast EPBD EN
Title
Number Number
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 1: Indoor environmental input parameters for design
EN 15251 EN 16798-1 and assessment of energy performance of buildings
addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting
and acoustics (Module M1-6)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 2: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-1 –
Indoor environmental input parameters for design and
N/A CEN/TR 16798-2
assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing
indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and
acoustics (Module M1-6)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 3: For non-residential buildings – Performance
EN 16798-3
requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems
EN 13779
(Modules M5-1, M5-4)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 4: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798- 3 –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-4 For non-residential buildings – Performance requirements
for ventilation and room-conditioning systems (Modules M5-
1, M5-4)
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Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 5-1: Calculation methods for energy requirements of
ventilation and air conditioning systems (Modules M5-6, M5-
EN 15241 EN 16798-5-1
8, M6-5, M6-8, M7-5, M7-8) – Method 1: Distribution and
generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 5-2: Calculation methods for energy requirements of
ventilation systems (Modules M5-6.2, M5-8.2) – Method 2:
EN 15241 EN 16798-5-2
Distribution and generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 6: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-5–1
N/A CEN/TR 16798-6 and EN 16798-5-2 – Calculation methods for energy
requirements of ventilation and air conditioning systems
(Modules M5-6, M5-8, M 6-5, M6-8 , M7-5, M7-8)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 7: Calculation methods for the determination of air flow
EN 15242 EN 16798-7
rates in buildings including infiltration (Module M5-5)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 8: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-7 –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-8
Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates in
buildings including infiltration – (Module M5-5)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
EN 15243 EN 16798-9 Part 9: Calculation methods for energy requirements of
cooling systems (Modules M4-1, M4-4, M4-9) – General
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 10: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-9 –
Calculation methods for energy requirements of cooling
N/A CEN/TR 16798-10
systems (Module M4-1,M4-4, M4-9) – General
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
EN 15243 EN 16798-13 Part 13: Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-8) –
Generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –

EN 15243 CEN/TR 16798-14 Part 14: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-13 –

Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-8) – Generation
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
N/A EN 16798-15 Part 15: Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-7) –
Storage
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Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-16 Part 16: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-15 –
Calculation of cooling systems (Module M4-7) – Storage
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
EN 15239 and
EN 16798-17 Part 17: Guidelines for inspection of ventilation and air-
EN 15240
conditioning systems (Module M4-11, M5-11, M6-11, M7-11)
Energy performance of buildings – Ventilation for buildings –
Part 18: Interpretation of the requirements in EN 16798-17 –
N/A CEN/TR 16798-18
Guidelines for inspection of ventilation and air-conditioning
systems (Module M4-11, M5-11, M6-11, M7-11)
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Introduction
The set of EPB standards, Technical Reports and supporting tools

In order to facilitate the necessary overall consistency and coherence, in terminology, approach,

input/output relations and formats, for the whole set of EPB-standards, the following documents and

tools are available:

a) a document with basic principles to be followed in drafting EPB-standards: CEN/TS 16628, Energy

Performance of Buildings — Basic Principles for the set of EPB standards [1];

b) a document with detailed technical rules to be followed in drafting EPB-standards; CEN/TS 16629,

Energy Performance of Buildings — Detailed Technical Rules for the set of EPB-standards [2]; and

c) the detailed technical rules are the basis for the following tools:

1) a common template for each EPB standard, including specific drafting instructions for the

relevant clauses,

2) a common template for each Technical Report that accompanies an EPB standard or a cluster of

EPB standards, including specific drafting instructions for the relevant clauses, and

3) a common template for the spreadsheet that accompanies each EPB standard, to demonstrate

the correctness of the EPB calculation procedures.

Each EPB standard follows the basic principles and the detailed technical rules and relates to the

overarching EPB-standard, EN ISO 52000-1 [3].

One of the main purposes of the revision of the EPB-standards is to enable that laws and regulations

directly refer to the EPB-standards and make compliance with them compulsory. This requires that the

set of EPB-standards consists of a systematic, clear, comprehensive and unambiguous set of energy

performance procedures. The number of options provided is kept as low as possible, taking into

account national and regional differences in climate, culture and building tradition, policy and legal

frameworks (subsidiarity principle). For each option, an informative default option is provided

(Annex B).
Rationale behind the EPB technical reports

There is a risk that the purpose and limitations of the EPB standards will be misunderstood, unless the

background and context to their contents – and the thinking behind them – is explained in some detail

to readers of the standards. Consequently, various types of informative contents are recorded and made

available for users to properly understand, apply and nationally or regionally implement the EPB

standards.

If this explanation would have been attempted in the standards themselves, the result is likely to be

confusing and cumbersome, especially if the standards are implemented or referenced in national or

regional building codes.

Therefore, each EPB standard is accompanied by an informative Technical Report, like this one, where

all informative content is collected, to ensure a clear separation between normative and informative

contents (see CEN/TS 16629 [2]):

— to avoid flooding and confusing the actual normative part with informative content;

— to reduce the page count of the actual standard; and
— to facilitate understanding of the set of EPB standards.
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This was also one of the main recommendations from the European CENSE project [5] that laid the

foundation for the preparation of the set of EPB standards.
This Technical Report

This Technical Report accompanies the suite of EPB standards on thermal transmission properties of

building elements. It relates to the international standard EN 16798-7, which forms part of a set of

standards related to the evaluation of the energy performance of buildings (EPB).

The role and the positioning of the accompanied standard in the set of EPB standards is defined in the

Introduction to the standard.
Accompanying spreadsheet(s)

Concerning the accompanied standard EN 16798-7, the following spreadsheets were produced:

— on EN 16798-7.

In this Technical Report, examples of each of these calculation sheets are included.

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1 Scope
This Technical Report refers to the standard EN 16798-7.

It contains information to support the correct understanding and use of this standard.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE More information on the use of EPB module numbers for normative references between EPB standards

is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.

EN 16798-5-1, Energy performance of buildings — Ventilation for buildings — Part 5-1: Calculation

methods for energy requirements of ventilation and air conditioning systems (Modules M5-6, M5-8, M6-5,

M6-8, M7-5, M7-8) — Method 1: Distribution and generation

EN 16798-5-2, Energy performance of buildings — Ventilation for buildings — Part 5-2: Calculation

methods for energy requirements of ventilation and air conditioning systems (Modules M5-6, M5-8, M6-5,

M6-8, M7-5, M7-8) — Method 2: Distribution and generation

EN 16798-7:2017, Energy performance of buildings — Ventilation for buildings — Part 7: Calculation

methods for the determination of air flow rates in buildings including infiltration (Module M5-5)

EN ISO 15927-1:2003, Hygrothermal performance of buildings — Calculation and presentation of

climatic data — Part 1: Monthly means of single meteorological elements (ISO 15927-1:2003)

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16798-7 apply.

NOTE More information on some key EPB terms and definitions is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.

4 Symbols, subscripts and abbreviations
4.1 Symbols

For the purposes of this document, the symbols given in the accompanied EPB standard, EN 16798-7,

apply.
More information on key EPB symbols is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.
Additional symbols are given in Table 1.
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Table 1 — Symbols and units
Symbol Quantity Unit
b width of the building m
b width of the nearest obstacle m
obst
C wind pressure coefficient of the last flow —
p;end;l
element of the loop l
C —
wind pressure coefficient of the first flow
p;start;l
element of the loop l
C roughness coefficient —
rgh
d distance between the nearest obstacle and m
obst
the building
h height of the building m
h height of loop node m
loop_n,i
h height of the nearest obstacle (upstream) m
obst
K terrain factor —
N number of flow elements in loop l —
loop_e;l
N number of nodes in loop l —
loop_n;l
u wind speed at the reference regional m/s
ref
location
z height at which wind velocity is estimated m
z roughness height m
z minimum height m
min
Δp pressure drop through a flow element of the Pa
loop_e
loop
ρ air density between pressure node i and kg/m
i,i+1
pressure note i+1
4.2 Subscripts

For the purposes of this document, the subscripts given in the accompanied EPB standard, EN 16798-7,

apply.
More information on key EPB subscripts is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.
Additional subscripts are given in Table 2.
Table 2 —Subscripts
Subscript Term Subscript Term Subscript Term
B Building loop_n node of a loop Pint At intermediate load
loop_e element of a loop obst obstacle
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4.3 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviations given in the accompanied EPB standards,

EN 16798-5-1 and EN 16798-5-2, apply.
More information on key EPB abbreviations is given in CEN ISO/TR 52000-2.
5 Brief description of the methods
5.1 Output of the method
5.1.1 General

The outputs can be used as the basis for calculations related to the following issues:

— energy use;
— indoor air quality; and
— summer comfort using ventilative cooling.
5.1.2 Energy use outputs

Regarding energy use, EN 16798-7:2017, Table 4 gives the intended destination of the outputs in an

overall building energy calculation.
5.1.3 Indoor air quality outputs

Regarding indoor air quality, the calculation method can be adapted depending on the parameters of

interest for the user, which may depend on national context. These parameters may include one of the

following items:
— overall air change for a given zone;
— fresh air for habitable rooms;
— exhaust air for service rooms;
— transfer air for circulation; and

— threshold limit for pollutant(s) (in this case, the source(s) should be specified).

5.1.4 Summer comfort using ventilative cooling

The ventilation can be used for cooling purposes by increasing the fresh flow rates (compared to

hygienic values) when outdoor temperature is lower than indoor temperature.
This can be done using the different kind of ventilation and airing systems.

For mechanical systems, it is important to also consider the fan energy as the results can be inefficient,

especially for low indoor outdoor temperatures differences. Risks of overcooling should be also taken

into account.

For manually operated windows, it will rely on the occupant behaviour for which some assumptions

shall be made at national level. For night ventilation in residential building, outdoor noise should be

taken into account.

For windows opening at night, hazards, e.g. security, rain, etc. should be considered.

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5.2 General description of the methods
5.2.1 Multiple ventilation zones

The formulae given in EN 16798-7 can be used to calculate the air flow rates pertaining to several

ventilation zones in an overall simulation programme. The limitation of EN 16798-7 is, however, that

these are ventilation zones, i.e. the leakages between two adjacent zones are sufficiently low to be

neglected, and there is no possibility of air transfer between two zones.
5.2.2 Airflows within a ventilation zone

EN 16798-7 does not give formulae that can be readily used to describe airflows within a ventilation

zone. It assumes that the internal pressure is homogeneous within the zone.

The relevance of this assumption depends on the characteristics of the spaces identified with the overall

partitioning of the building, in particular the significance of internal resistances compared to the

resistance to the flow through the zone boundary.
5.2.3 Separation of the ventilation zones into elementary spaces
5.2.3.1 General

If one wishes to divide ventilation zone(s) into elementary spaces, assumptions shall be made regarding

the flow pattern between those elementary spaces.
5.2.3.2 N+1 approach

The so-called n+1 approach assumes that each elementary space is connected to a common hall space

(in general it will be actual hallways of the building) and no other internal space (Figure 1).

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Key
1 plan view

Figure 1 — General scheme for air flow pattern description. Building with 3 ventilation zones,

each divided into elementary spaces connected by a hall space. Section and plan view

Once a hall space is defined, the calculation procedure is as follows:

— calculate the internal pressure for the ventilation zone assuming no partitions;

— for all elementary spaces, calculate the air flow rates entering and leaving each elementary space

separately (therefore, mass balance is not necessarily true when summing all the mass air flow

rates pertaining to a single elementary space); and

— for the hall space, assign the air flow rate ensuring mass balance for each elementary space to the

hall space.

This approach is convenient for thermal simulation models because it does not require the time-

consuming calculation of the internal reference pressure for each elementary space.

5.2.3.3 Elaborated network airflow models

More elaborated airflow patterns can be modelled including e.g. use of physical characteristics of the

elementary spaces or the air flow rates between elementary spaces. For this, the reader is referred to

computer programmes such as CONTAM [6] or COMIS [7].
5.3 Selection criteria between the methods

Method 1 should provide better accuracy than Method 2 with correct input values. Method 1 allows the

user to describe the building with some flexibility in the details, including the possibility to use default

values for several inputs. Leakage and vent distributions can have a significant impact on the resulting

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airflow rates in method 1. Using default values for these distributions is an effective way to reduce data

collection time and variations in the results.

On the other hand, Method 2 requires less time and expertise. The quantity of inputs can be

substantially limited compared to Method 1. Method 2 can be useful in particular for existing buildings.

The geographical scope of such statistical
...

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