Sawn timber - Appearance grading of hardwoods - Part 1: Oak and beech

This European Standard specifies the rules determining the quality of appearance graded sawn timber. It describes various grades of temperate hardwood rough sawn timber and regularized timber for which it lays down denominations and definitions. It also gives rules for composition and acceptance of batches.
This standard gives minimum requirements for each grade classification. Sawn timber not included within limits given in this standard may be defined, if necessary, by contract specifications established on the basis of this standard.
This standard applies to grading of green and dried timber. Characteristics apply at the time of grading.
This standard does not apply to the strength grading of structural timber or to sawn timber for pallets.
This standard is applicable to the following products:
a)   Oak sawn timber, in the following categories:
      1)   Un-edged boards: individual selected pieces and boules;
      2)   Square edged timber and strips (not exceeding 41 mm thickness);
      3)   Baulks (sum of thickness + width greater than or equal to 200 mm and thickness greater than or equal to 80 mm).
b)   Beech sawn timber, in the following categories:
      1)   Un-edged boards: individual selected pieces and boules;
      2)   Square edged timber and strips;
      3)   Prepared timber (dried timber).

Schnittholz - Sortierung nach dem Aussehen von Laubholz - Teil 1: Eiche und Buche

Dieses Dokument legt die Regeln zur Qualitätsbestimmung von Schnittholz nach dem Aussehen fest. Sie beschreibt verschiedene Qualitätsklassen von sägerauen und egalisierten Laubhölzern und legt deren Benennungen und Definitionen fest. Außerdem werden die Regeln über die Zusammensetzung und Abnahme von Losen angegeben.
Die vorliegende Norm legt Mindestanforderungen jeder Qualitätsklasse fest. Schnittholz, das nicht innerhalb der in der vorliegenden Norm festgelegten Grenzwerte liegt, darf, falls erforderlich, durch vertragliche Vereinbarungen definiert werden, die auf der Grundlage dieser Norm festgelegt wurden.
Die vorliegende Norm gilt für frisches und getrocknetes Holz. Die Merkmale gelten zum Zeitpunkt der Sortierung.
Die vorliegende Norm gilt weder für die Festigkeitssortierung von tragendem Holz noch für Schnittholz für Paletten.
Die vorliegende Norm gilt für die folgenden Produkte:
a)   Eichenschnittholz der folgenden Kategorien:
1)   unbesäumtes Schnittholz: individuell ausgesuchte Stücke und Blockware;
2)   besäumtes Schnittholz und Friese (Dicke nicht größer als 41 mm);
3)   Kantholz (Dicke + Breite mehr als oder egal 200 mm und Dicke mehr als oder egal 80 mm).
b)   Buchenschnittholz der folgenden Kategorien:
1)   unbesäumtes Schnittholz: individuell ausgesuchte Stücke und Blockware;
2)   besäumtes Schnittholz und Friese;
3)   Kanteln (getrocknetes Holz).

Bois sciés - Classement d'aspect des bois feuillus - Partie 1: Chêne et hêtre

La présente Norme européenne définit les modes de détermination de la qualité selon l’aspect des sciages.
Elle décrit les différents choix des produits de feuillus durs tempérés, bruts de sciage et surfacés et en fixe les
appellations et les définitions. Elle fixe également les règles de composition et d’acceptation des lots.
La présente norme fixe les exigences minimales de chaque choix. Les bois sciés ne satisfaisant pas à ces
exigences peuvent, si besoin est, être définis par des spécifications contractuelles établies sur les bases de la
présente norme.
La présente norme s’applique au classement des bois verts et des bois secs. Les caractéristiques
s’appliquent au moment du classement.
La présente norme ne s’applique pas aux classes de résistance des bois de structure, ni aux bois sciés pour
palettes.
La présente norme s’applique aux produits suivants :
a) Bois sciés de chêne, dans les catégories suivantes :
1) plateaux non délignés : plateaux sélectionnés et plots ;
2) frises et avivés (n’excédant pas 41 mm d’épaisseur) ;
3) pièces équarries (épaisseur + largeur ³ 200 mm et épaisseur ³ 80 mm).
b) Bois sciés de hêtre, dans les catégories suivantes :
1) plateaux non délignés : plateaux sélectionnés et plots ;
2) frises et avivés ;
3) prédébits (bois sec).

Žagani les - Razvrščanje listavcev po videzu - 1. del: Hrast in bukev

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Mar-2009
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
25-Jun-2019

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 975-1:2009
01-julij-2009
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 975-1:2003
SIST EN 975-1:2003/A1:2003
äDJDQLOHV5D]YUãþDQMHOLVWDYFHYSRYLGH]XGHO+UDVWLQEXNHY
Sawn timber - Appearance grading of hardwoods - Part 1: Oak and beech

Schnittholz - Sortierung nach dem Aussehen von Laubholz - Teil 1: Eiche und Buche

Bois sciés - Classement d'aspect des bois feuillus - Partie 1: Chene et hetre
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 975-1:2009
ICS:
79.040 Les, hlodovina in žagan les Wood, sawlogs and sawn
timber
SIST EN 975-1:2009 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 975-1:2009
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 975-1:2009
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 975-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2009
ICS 79.040 Supersedes EN 975-1:1995
English Version
Sawn timber - Appearance grading of hardwoods - Part 1: Oak
and beech

Bois sciés - Classement d'aspect des bois feuillus - Partie Schnittholz - Sortierung nach dem Aussehen von Laubholz

1: Chêne et hêtre - Teil 1: Eiche und Buche
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 January 2009.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 975-1:2009: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................4

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................4

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5

4 Method of determination of sawn timber quality ................................................................................5

4.1 Rules for grading ...................................................................................................................................5

4.2 Grading principles .................................................................................................................................6

4.2.1 Assessment of the quality ....................................................................................................................6

4.2.2 Cases of un-edged boards ....................................................................................................................6

4.3 Criteria to be taken into account ..........................................................................................................6

4.3.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................6

4.3.2 Criteria linked to the structure of the timber ......................................................................................7

4.3.3 Sawing characteristics ..........................................................................................................................7

4.3.4 Warp ........................................................................................................................................................7

4.3.5 Fungal and insect attacks .....................................................................................................................7

4.3.6 Stains ......................................................................................................................................................7

4.3.7 Other characteristics .............................................................................................................................8

5 Denomination of grades ........................................................................................................................8

5.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................8

5.2 Oak (Q) ....................................................................................................................................................8

5.3 Beech (F) .................................................................................................................................................9

6 Acceptance of batches ..........................................................................................................................9

6.1 Un-edged boards ...................................................................................................................................9

6.2 Square edged timber .............................................................................................................................9

7 Grading rules ..........................................................................................................................................9

7.1 Grading face ...........................................................................................................................................9

7.2 Un-edged boards ...................................................................................................................................9

7.2.1 Grading area ...........................................................................................................................................9

7.2.2 Presence of a solitary feature (only one) ......................................................................................... 10

7.3 Strips and square edged timber ........................................................................................................ 10

7.3.1 Knots .................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.3.2 Other features ..................................................................................................................................... 10

7.4 Baulks .................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.5 Appearance grading Tables ............................................................................................................... 11

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 35

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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 975-1:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 175 “Round and sawn

timber”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by September 2009.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 975-1:1995.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the rules determining the quality of appearance graded sawn timber. It

describes various grades of temperate hardwood rough sawn timber and regularized timber for which it lays

down denominations and definitions. It also gives rules for composition and acceptance of batches.

This standard gives minimum requirements for each grade classification. Sawn timber not included within

limits given in this standard may be defined, if necessary, by contract specifications established on the basis

of this standard.

This standard applies to grading of green and dried timber. Characteristics apply at the time of grading.

This standard does not apply to the strength grading of structural timber or to sawn timber for pallets.

This standard is applicable to the following products:
a) Oak sawn timber, in the following categories:
1) Un-edged boards: individual selected pieces and boules;
2) Square edged timber and strips (not exceeding 41 mm thickness);
3) Baulks (sum of thickness + width ≥ 200 mm and thickness ≥ 80 mm).
b) Beech sawn timber, in the following categories:
1) Un-edged boards: individual selected pieces and boules;
2) Square edged timber and strips;
3) Prepared timber (dried timber).
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 844-1:1995, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 1: General terms common to round timber and

sawn timber

EN 844-3:1995, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 3: General terms relating to sawn timber

EN 844-4:1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 4: Terms relating to moisture content

EN 844-6:1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 6: Terms relating to dimensions of sawn timber

EN 844-7:1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 7: Terms relating to anatomical structure of

timber

EN 844-9:1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 9: Terms relating to features of sawn timber

EN 844-10:1998, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 10: Terms relating to stain and fungal attack

EN 844-11:1998, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 11: Terms relating to degrade by insects

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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)

EN 844-12:2000, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 12: Additional terms and general index

EN 1310, Round and sawn timber – Method of measurement of features
EN 1311, Round and sawn timber – Method of measurement of biological degrade

EN 1313-2, Round and sawn timber – Permitted deviations and preferred sizes – Part 2: Hardwood sawn

timber
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 844-1:1995, EN 844-3:1995,

EN 844-4:1997, EN 844-6:1997, EN 844-7:1997, EN 844-9:1997, EN 844-10:1998, EN 844-11:1998 and

EN 844-12:2000 and the following apply.
3.1
dried timber
timber with a stipulated reduced moisture content
3.2
green timber
timber that has not been dried to or below the fibre saturation point
NOTE Green timber has a moisture content normally above 30 %.
[EN 844-4:1997]
3.3
width or length reduction

notional decrease in the actual dimensions of a board to exclude features that may subsequently be removed

4 Method of determination of sawn timber quality
4.1 Rules for grading

Hardwood (oak and beech) can be put into grades using the principles laid down in 4.2, the criteria defined in

4.3 and the following tables:
 Table 2 gives rules for grading oak un-edged boards;
 Table 3 gives rules for grading oak strips and square edged timber;
 Table 4 gives rules for grading oak baulks;
 Table 5 gives rules for grading beech un-edged boards;
 Table 6 gives rules for grading beech strips and square edged timber;
 Table 7 gives rules for grading beech prepared timber.
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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
4.2 Grading principles
4.2.1 Assessment of the quality

For individual selected boards and boules grading is made on the faces. For other pieces grading is made on

faces and edges. The size, position and frequency of features, sawing defects and deteriorations are taken

into account. Non-conformity with the conditions applicable to any one of these elements is sufficient to

downgrade the piece.

Dimensional variation is not taken into account for quality grading of the pieces. It is already covered by

EN 1313-2 or by any specific requirements defined contractually.
Only the following categories can be reduced in width and/or length:
 Individual selected boards,
 boules.
4.2.2 Cases of un-edged boards
4.2.2.1 Individual selected boards

No more than 10% of pieces one grade lower than the lowest one stated for the batch is allowed. For mixed

grade batches the minimum proportion of each grade shall be identified.
4.2.2.2 Boules

Recognising the characteristics inherent in a growing tree, a boule may comprise a number of un-edged

boards of different grades.
Proportion of grades allowed within a boule is given in Table 1:
Table 1 — Proportion of grades allowed within one boule
Stated grade
≥ 65%
< 25% One grade lower
Two grades lower
< 10%

Pieces presenting features which are not in conformity with the boule grade shall be graded in accordance

with reduced width rules (see 3.2).
4.3 Criteria to be taken into account
4.3.1 General

Quality is determined on the basis of the rules in tables given in this standard and measurement rules

according to EN 1310 and EN 1311.
The moisture content of the timber at the time of grading shall be stated.
The following criteria are sufficient for the appearance grading:
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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
4.3.2 Criteria linked to the structure of the timber
 Knots (size, nature, degree of intergrowth, frequency);
 Shakes and checks;
 Slope of grain;
 Bark-pocket;

 Sapwood (for oak); unless specified in the contract, sound sapwood is permitted without limit in all

grades;

NOTE Unsound sapwood is considered according to grading criteria given in Tables of Clause 7.

 Included sapwood.
4.3.3 Sawing characteristics
 Boxed heart;
 Exposed pith;

NOTE Presence of pith on un-edged boards is not a qualitative element for downgrading but width reduction may be

considered.
 Wane.
4.3.4 Warp
 Bow;
 Spring;
 Cup;
 Twist.
4.3.5 Fungal and insect attacks
4.3.6 Stains
 Red heart (in beech);
 Black streaks;
 Dote;
 Rot;
 Brown oak;
 Other discolorations.
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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
4.3.7 Other characteristics

Characteristics as texture, grain, quarter and plain sawn timber are not taken into account in the grading.

5 Denomination of grades
5.1 General
The denomination includes from three to six characters.
5.1.1 The first character is the species' initial in Latin:
 Q for oak;
 F for beech.
5.1.2 The next character indicates the type of product:
 B for boules;
 S for individual selected boards;
 F for strips and square edged timber;
 P for baulks;
 D for prepared timber.
5.1.3 The next character indicated the quality grade
 "A" indicates exceptional quality;
 1, 2 , etc. represent the other grades.

In some cases, these are subdivided, denoted by the addition of lower case letters and suffixes (see below).

The grades for oak and beech are specified in 5.2 and 5.3.
5.2 Oak (Q)
 Boules Q-BA – Q-B1 – Q-B2 – Q-B3 – Q-B4
 Individual selected boards Q-SA – Q-S1 – Q-S2 – Q-S3 – Q-S4
 Strips and square edged timber Q-F1a – Q-F1b – Q-F2 – Q-F3 – Q-F4
 Baulks Q-PA – Q-P1 – Q-P2

For strips and square edged timber, the addition, at the end of class denomination:

 Of the letter X indicates the presence of sapwood on one face of strips or square edged pieces in limit

given by Table 3,

 Of letters XX indicates the presence of sapwood on all faces and edges of strips or square edged pieces

if it is over the limit given by Table 3.
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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
5.3 Beech (F)
 Boules F-BA – F-B1 – F-B2 – F-B3
 Individual selected boards F-SA – F-S1 – F-S2 – F-S3
 Strips and squared edged timber F-F1 – F-F2 – F-F3
 Prepared timber F-DA – F-D1 – F-D2
The addition of the letter R at the end indicated the presence of red heart.
6 Acceptance of batches
6.1 Un-edged boards

Unless otherwise specified by the purchase, reception with quality acceptance of individual selected un-edged

boards and boules shall take place on the seller's premises to allow width or length reduction to be carried out

if necessary (see 4.2.2).
6.2 Square edged timber

Reception can be carried out either on the seller's or the buyer's premises, as mutually agreed, using random

sampling method given in CEN/TS 12169.
7 Grading rules
7.1 Grading face
a) For individual selected un-edged boards

Take into account features which are on the "falling" face, which is defined as the face which is visible on the

production line, after sawing.

In the case of specific measurement, the quality is determined by the face, the width of which is measured.

b) For boules

Take into account features which are on the upper face in the stacking position to form the boule.

c) For strips and square edged timber
Take into account features which are on the best face.
7.2 Un-edged boards
7.2.1 Grading area

A notional area of 0,2m x 2,0 m containing the maximum number or the largest features on the grading face

determines the grade of each board.

Features located less than 10 cm from edges or ends of un-edged boards are not considered, unless the

resulting width and length is insufficient to inscribe in an area of 0,20 m x 2 m. This manner of doing is not

valid for Q-BA and Q-SA classes; only width reduction can be used and it is limited to 1/3 of the width.

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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
7.2.2 Presence of a solitary feature (only one)

Un-edged boards cannot be downgraded by the presence of only one feature which is not accepted in a

grading. Consequently, this feature is accepted with a width or length reduction.

7.3 Strips and square edged timber
7.3.1 Knots

Take into account knots in the most penalized linear metre or the whole piece if the length is < 1 m.

Equivalence concept, except for Q-F1a. This allows any repartition of knots, providing:

 each knot diameter is under maximum allowed diameter;
 the sum of diameters is below the maximum permitted.
Example for QF-2:
 the maximum allowed diameter of knot is 25 mm;
 the maximum number is 3, so the sum is 75 mm (25 mm x 3).

One possible repartition is 4 knots of 10 mm, 1 knot of 15 mm and 1 knot of 20 mm.

7.3.2 Other features
These features are taken into account on the whole piece.
7.4 Baulks

Take into account features on the whole piece, except for dead knots where the maximum number is

determined by linear metre.
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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
7.5 Appearance grading Tables
Table 2 — Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards
GRADE
Dimensional
Q-B A and Q-S A Q-B 1and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and Q-S 2 Q-B 3and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4
Characteristics

Minimum acceptable for Minimum acceptable for Minimum acceptable for Minimum acceptable for Minimum acceptable for

grade grade grade grade grade
Length
2 m and more

Narrowest width 100 mm excluding sapwood 80 mm excluding sapwood 60 mm excluding sapwood measured at the mid-length of the

120 mm excluding sapwood

on the entire length of the measured at the mid-length of measured at the mid-length of loose un-edged timber

piece the loose un-edged timber the loose un-edged timber
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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Table 2 — Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards (continued)
GRADE
Features (reminding : Grading area of 0,2 m x 2,0 m)
Q-B A and Q-S A Q-B 1and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and Q-S 2 Q-B 3and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4

Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for

grade grade grade grade grade
Sound, intergrown or Only one of size < 20 mm Permitted
Knots < 5 mm : maximum 8 Knots < 5 mm : not limited Knots < 10 mm : not limited
partially intergrown
Max diameter : 25 mm Max diameter : 40 mm Max diameter : 70 mm
knots

Sum of knots from 5 mm to Sum of knots from 5 mm to 40 Sum of knots from 10 mm to

25 mm < 50 mm mm < 100 mm 70 mm < 160 mm
a a a
Not intergrown, dead

Not permitted 1 of 25 mm with reduction 1 of 40 mm with reduction 1 of 70 mm with reduction Permitted

or rotten knots

Solitary knots 15% of the width of the piece 20% of the width of the piece 25% of the width of the piece 30% of the width of the piece Permitted

a a a a
with reduction with reduction with reduction with width reduction
Heart shake

Permitted with width reduction Permitted with width reduction Permitted Permitted

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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Table 2— Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards (continued)
GRADE
Features (reminding : Grading area of 0,2 m x 2,0 m)
Q-B A and Q-S A Q-B 1 and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and Q-S 2 Q-B 3 and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4

Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for

grade grade grade grade grade
Ring shakes and frost

Not permitted Permitted with reduction max Permitted with reduction max Permitted with reduction Permitted

crack 1/5 of width 1/3 of width
a a a
Straight shakes

Permitted with reduction if the Permitted with reduction Permitted with reduction Permitted Permitted

length of shakes is < width of
the board a a
Oblique shakes

single Not permitted Permitted with reduction if the Permitted with width reduction Permitted with reduction Permitted

length of shakes is < width of
the board
multiple Permitted with length
Not permitted Permited with length reduction Permitted with reduction Permitted
reduction

Spiral grain Permitted with maximum slope No limitation unless specified No limitation unless specified No limits unless specified No limits

of 8 %
Slope of grain

No limitation unless specified No limitation unless specified No limitation unless specified No limitation unless specified No limitation unless specified

---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Table 2— Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards (continued)
GRADE
Features (reminding : Grading area of 0,2 m x 2,0 m)
Q-B A and Q-S A Q-B 1 and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and Q-S 2 Q-B 3 and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4

Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for

grade grade grade grade grade
Bark pocket
Not permitted Permitted if solitary with reduction Permitted Permitted
Unsound sapwood
Not permitted Permitted
Permitted if solitary with width reduction
Included sapwood Not permitted Permitted with width reduction Permitted
brown streak

Not permitted Permitted with length Permitted with length Permitted Permitted

c c
reduction reduction
b a

Brown heart Not permitted 25 % of the width with a width reduction Permitted

Rot Not permitted Not permitted Permitted if solitary with a reduction Permitted

Insect attack in Permitted with width reduction Permitted with width reduction Permitted

sapwood a
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Table 2— Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards (concluded)
GRADE
Features (reminding : Grading area of 0,2 m x 2,0 m)
Q-B A and Q-S A Q-B 1 and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and Q-S 2 Q-B 3 and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4

Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for

grade grade grade grade grade
Insect attack in heart
Not permitted Permitted on edges with width reduction for QB-1 Permitted
wood
Permitted with length or/and width reduction for QB-2 and Q-B3

Generally, the length and/or width reduction shall be agreed between buyer and seller.

Sawn timber with values above limit values are traded under the denomination "brown oak".

Localized natural colour variation need not necessarily be considered as downgrade where it is not related to decay in the wood.

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SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Table 3 — Appearance grading of oak strips and square edged timber
GRADE
Features (reminding : Grading area of 0,2 m x 2,0 m)
Q-F 1a Q-F 1b Q-F 2 Q-F 3 Q-F 4
(3 to 4 clear faces)

Maximum acceptable Maximum acceptable Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable

for grade for grade grade grade for grade

Sound, intergrown or For Width < 120 mm, Knots with diameters < 5 Knots with diameters < 5 mm Knots with diameters < 10 mm

partially intergrown
mm are not taken into are not taken into account are not taken into account.
knots account.
1 knot of 10 mm 70 mm
For Width < 120 mm, For Width < 120 mm,
For Width < 120 mm,
for width ≥ 120 mm No restriction providing the
appearance and integrity of
3 knots of 12 mm the piece are suitable for
2 knots of 10 mm
3 knots of 25 mm 3 knots of 40 mm its intended purposes.
20% of pieces may have
a a
one more sound knot of 10
mm on the surface. For Width ≥ 120 mm
1 extra knot permitted in
each additional 40 mm of
for Width ≥ 120 mm for Width ≥ 120 mm
width.
1 extra knot permitted in each 1 extra knot permitted in each
additional 40 mm of width additional 40 mm of width

Dead and rotten knots Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted 1 of 20mm 1 of 35 mm

1 of 20 mm
Check
Not permitted Not permitted Permitted Permitted Permitted
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Table 3 — Appearance grading of oak strips and square edged timber (continued)
GRADE
Features (reminding : Grading area of 0,2 m x 2,0 m)
Q-F 1a Q-F 1b Q-F 2 Q-F 3 Q-F 4
(3 to 4 clear faces)

Maximum acceptable Maximum acceptable for Maximum Maximum acceptable Maximum acceptable

for grade grade acceptable for grade for grade for grade

Shake Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Up to 20% of pieces Length of the shake up to

permitted with the length of the width of the piece
the shake no more than the
width of piece
Slope of grain

3 % Without restriction Without restriction Without restriction Without restriction

Bark pocket
Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Permitted
Black streak

Not permitted Up to 10 % of the pieces Up to 20% of the pieces Permitted Permitted

Brown heart
Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Permitted
Brown streak
Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Up to 10 % of the pieces Permitted
Rot
Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted
Insect attacks
Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted
Boxed heart
Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Permitted
---------------------- Page: 19 ----------------------
SIST EN 975-1:2009
EN 975-1:2009 (E)
Table 3 — Appearance grading of oak strips and square edged timber (continued)
GRADE
Features (reminding : Grading area of 0,2 m x 2,0 m)
Q-F 1a Q-F 1b Q-F 2 Q-F 3 Q-F 4
(3 to 4 clear faces)

Maximum acceptable Maximum acceptable Maximum acceptable Maximum acceptable for Maximum acceptable for

for grade for grade for grade grade grade
Exposed pith Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Permitted

Wane Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Up to 3 mm on face and on Up to 10 % of the width and up to

edge 20 % of the length
Deformations (bow,
2mm/m of length 5mm/m
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.XNHYSchnittholz - Sortierung nach dem Aussehen von Laubholz - Teil 1: Eiche und BucheBois sciés - Classement d'aspect des bois feuillus - Partie 1: Chene et hetreSawn timber - Appearance grading of hardwoods - Part 1: Oak and beech79.040Les, hlodovina in žagan lesWood, sawlogs and sawn timberICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:prEN 975-1kSIST prEN 975-1:2008en,fr,de01-december-2008kSIST prEN 975-1:2008SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMFINAL DRAFTprEN 975-1October 2008ICS 79.040Will supersede EN 975-1:1995

English VersionSawn timber - Appearance grading of hardwoods - Part 1: Oakand beechBois sciés - Classement d'aspect des bois feuillus - Partie1: Chêne et hêtreSchnittholz - Sortierung nach dem Aussehen von Laubholz- Teil 1: Eiche und BucheThis draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for formal vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC175.If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations whichstipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other languagemade by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has thesame status as the official versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice andshall not be referred to as a European Standard.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2008 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. prEN 975-1:2008: EkSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................4 1.1 Oak sawn timber....................................................................................................................................4 1.2 Beech sawn timber................................................................................................................................4 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................4 3 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................5 4 Method of determination of sawn timber quality................................................................................5 4.1 Rules for grading...................................................................................................................................5 4.2 Grading principles.................................................................................................................................5 4.3 Criteria to be taken into account..........................................................................................................7 5 Denomination of grades........................................................................................................................8 5.1 General....................................................................................................................................................8 5.2 Oak (Q)....................................................................................................................................................9 5.3 Beech (F).................................................................................................................................................9 6 Acceptance of batches..........................................................................................................................9 6.1 Un-edged boards and boules...............................................................................................................9 6.2 Square edged timber.............................................................................................................................9 7 Grading rules........................................................................................................................................10 7.1 Grading face.........................................................................................................................................10 7.2 Boules and un-edges boards.............................................................................................................10 7.3 Strips and suare edged timber...........................................................................................................10 7.4 Baulks...................................................................................................................................................11 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................36

kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 3 Foreword This document (prEN 975-1:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 175 “Round and sawn timber”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This document is currently submitted to the Formal Vote. This document will supersede EN 975-1:1995. kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 4 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the rules determining the quality of appearance graded sawn timber. It describes various grades of temperate hardwood rough sawn timber and regularized timber for which it lays down denominations and definitions. It also gives rules for composition and acceptance of batches. This standard gives minimum requirements for each grade classification. Sawn timber not included within limits given in this standard may be defined, if necessary, by contract specifications established on the basis of this standard. This standard applies to grading of green and dried timber. Characteristics apply at the time of grading. This standard does not apply to the strength grading of structural timber or to sawn timber for pallets. This standard is applicable to the following products: 1.1 Oak sawn timber, in the following categories:  Un-edged boards: individual selected pieces and boules;  Square edged timber and strips (not exceeding 41 mm thickness);  Baulks (sum of thickness + width ≥ 200 mm and thickness ≥ 80 mm). 1.2 Beech sawn timber, in the following categories:  Un-edged boards: individual selected pieces and boules;  Square edged timber and strips;  Prepared timber (dried timber). 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 844-1: 1995, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 1: General terms common to round timber and sawn timber EN 844-3: 1995, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 3: General terms relating to sawn timber EN 844-4: 1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 4: Terms relating to moisture content EN 844-6: 1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 6: Terms relating to dimensions of sawn timber EN 844-7: 1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 7: Terms relating to anatomical structure of timber EN 844-9: 1997, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 9: Terms relating to features of sawn timber EN 844-10: 1998, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 10: Terms relating to stain and fungal attack EN 844-11: 1998, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 11: Terms relating to degrade by insects kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 5 EN 844-12: 2000, Round and sawn timber – Terminology – Part 12: Additional terms and general index EN 1310, Round and sawn timber – Method of measurement of features EN 1311, Round and sawn timber – Method of measurement of biological degrade EN 1313-2, Round and sawn timber – Permitted deviations and preferred sizes – Part 2: Hardwood sawn timber 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 844-1:1995, EN 844-3:1995, EN 844-4:1997, EN 844-6:1997, EN 844-7:1997, EN 844-9:1997, EN 844-10:1998, EN 844-11:1998 and EN 844-12:2000 and the following apply. 3.1 dried timber timber with a stipulated reduced moisture content

3.2 green timber (EN 844-4) timber that has not been dried to or below the fibre saturation point NOTE Green timber has a moisture content normally above 30 %. 3.3 width or length reduction notional decrease in the actual dimensions of a board to exclude features that may subsequently be removed 4 Method of determination of sawn timber quality 4.1 Rules for grading Hardwood (oak and beech) can be put into grades using the principles laid down in 4.2, the criteria defined in 4.3 and the following tables:  Table 2 gives rules for grading oak un-edged boards and boules;  Table 3 gives rules for grading oak strips and square edged timber;  Table 4gives rules for grading oak baulks;  Table 5 gives rules for grading beech un-edged boards and boules;  Table 6 gives rules for grading beech strips and square edged timber;  Table 7gives rules for grading beech prepared timber. 4.2 Grading principles 4.2.1 Assessment of the quality For single un-edged boards and boules grading is made on the faces. For other pieces grading is made on faces and edges. The size, position and frequency of features, sawing defects and deteriorations are taken kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 6 into account. Non conformity with the conditions applicable to any one of these elements is sufficient to downgrade the piece. Dimensional variation is not taken into account for quality grading of the pieces. It is already covered by EN 1313-2 or by any specific requirements defined contractually. Only the following categories can be reduced in width and/or length:  un-edged boards,

 boules. 4.2.2 Cases of un-edged boards 4.2.2.1 Individual selected boards No more than 10% of pieces one grade lower than the lowest one stated for the batch is allowed. For mixed grade batches the minimum proportion of each grade shall be identified. 4.2.2.2 Boules Recognising the characteristics inherent in a growing tree, a boule comprises a number of un-edged boards of different grades. kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 7

Proportion of grades allowed within a boule is given in Table 1: Table 1 — Proportion of grades allowed within one boule ≥ 65% Stated grade < 25% One grade lower < 10% Two grades lower

Pieces presenting features which are not in conformity with the boule grade, shall be graded in accordance with reduced width rules (see 3.2). 4.3 Criteria to be taken into account 4.3.1 General Quality is determined on the basis of the rules in tables given in this standard and measurement rules according to EN 1310 and EN 1311. The moisture content of the timber at the time of grading shall be stated. The following criteria are sufficient for the appearance grading: 4.3.2 Criteria linked to the structure of the timber  Knots (size, nature, degree of intergrowth, frequency);  Shakes and checks;  Slope of grain;  Bark-pocket;  Sapwood (for oak); unless specified in the contract, sound sapwood is permitted without limit in all grades. NOTE Unsound sapwood is considered according to grading criteria given in Tables of Clause 7.  Included sapwood. 4.3.3 Sawing characteristics  Boxed heart;  Exposed pith; NOTE Presence of pith on un-edged boards is not a qualitative element for downgrading but width reduction may be considered.  Wane. kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 8 4.3.4 Warp  Bow;  Spring;  Cup;  Twist. 4.3.5 Fungal and insect attacks 4.3.6 Stains  Red heart (in beech);  Black streaks;  Dote;  Rot;  Brown oak;

 Other discolorations. 4.3.7 Other characteristics Characteristics as texture, grain, quarter and plain sawn timber are not taken into account in the grading. 5 Denomination of grades 5.1 General The denomination includes from three to six characters. 5.1.1 The first character is the species' initial in Latin:

 Q for oak;  F for beech. 5.1.2 The next character indicates the type of product:  B for boules;  S for un-edged boards;  F

for strips and square edged timber;  P for baulks;  D for prepared timber. kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 9 5.1.3 The next character indicated the quality grade  "A" indicates exceptional quality;  1, 2 , etc. represent the other grades. In some cases, these are subdivided, denoted by the addition of lower case letters and suffixes (see below). The grades for oak and beech are specified in 5.2 and 5.3. 5.2 Oak (Q)  Boules

Q-BA – Q-B1 – Q-B2 – Q-B3 – Q-B4  un-edged boards
Q-SA – Q-S1 – Q-S2 – Q-S3 – Q-S4  Strips and square edged timber
Q-F1a – Q-F1b – Q-F2 – Q-F3 – Q-F4  Baulks

Q-PA – Q-P1 – Q-P2 For strips and square edged timber, the addition, at the end of class denomination:  Of the letter X indicates the presence of sapwood on one face of strips or square edged pieces,  Of letters XX indicates the presence of sapwood on all faces and edges of strips or square edged pieces. 5.3 Beech (F)  Boules

F-BA – F-B1 – F-B2 – F-B3  un-edged boards
F-SA – F-S1 – F-S2 – F-S3  Strips and squared edged timber
F-F1 – F-F2 – F-F3  Prepared timber

F-DA – F-D1 – F-D2 The addition of the letter R at the end indicated the presence of red heart. 6 Acceptance of batches 6.1 Un-edged boards and boules Unless otherwise specified by the purchase, reception with quality acceptance of individual selected un-edged boards and boules shall take place on the seller's premises to allow width or length reduction to be carried out if necessary (see 4.2.2). 6.2 Square edged timber Reception can be carried out either on the seller's or the buyer's premises, as mutually agreed, using random sampling method given in ENV 12169. kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 10 7 Grading rules 7.1 Grading face a) For individual selected un-edged boards, take into account features which are on the "falling" face, which is defined as the face which is visible on the production line, after sawing. In the case of specific measurement, the quality is determined by the face, the width of which is measured. b) For boules Take into account features which are on the upper face in the stacking position to form boules. c) For strips and square edged timber

Take into account features which are on the best face. 7.2 Boules and un-edges boards 7.2.1 Grading area A notional area of 0,2m x 2,0 m containing the maximum number or the largest features on the grading face determines the grade of each board. Features located less than 10 cm from edges or ends of un-edged boards are not considered, unless the resulting width and length is insufficient to inscribe in an area of 0,20 m x 2 m. This manner of doing is not valid for Q-BA and Q-SA classes only width reduction can be used and it is limited to 1/3 of the width. 7.2.2 Presence of a solitary feature (only one) Un-edged boards cannot be downgraded by the presence of only one feature which is not accepted in a grading. Consequently, this feature is accepted with a width or length reduction.

7.3 Strips and suare edged timber 7.3.1 Knots Take into account knots in the most penalized linear metre or the whole piece if the length is < 1 m. Equivalence concept, except for Q-F1a. This allows any repartition of knots, providing:  each knot diameter is under maximum allowed diameter;  the sum of diameters

is below the maximum permitted. Example for QF-2:  he maximum allowed diameter of knot is 25 mm;  the maximum number is 3, so the sum is 75 mm (25 mm x 3). One possible repartition is 4 knots of 10 mm, 1 knot of 15 mm and 1 knot of 20 mm.

7.3.2 Other features These features are taken into account on the whole piece. kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 11 7.4 Baulks Take into account features on the whole piece, except for dead knots where the maximum number is determined by linear metre. kSIST prEN 975-1:2008

prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 12 Table 2 — Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards and boules

GRADE Q-B A and
Q-S A Q-B 1and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and Q-S 2 Q-B 3and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4

Dimensional Characteristics Minimum acceptable for grade Minimum acceptable for grade Minimum acceptable for grade Minimum acceptable for grade Minimum acceptable for grade Length 2 m and more

Narrowest width 120 mm excluding sapwood on the entire length of the piece 100 mm excluding sapwood measured at the mid-length of the loose un-edged timber 80 mm excluding sapwood measured at the mid-length of the loose un-edged timber 60 mm excluding sapwood measured at the mid-length of the loose un-edged timber

kSIST prEN 975-1:2008
prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 13
Table 2 — Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards and boules (continued)

GRADE Q-B A and Q-S A Q-B 1and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and Q-S 2 Q-B 3and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4

Features Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Sound, intergrown or partially intergrown knots Only one of size < 20 mm

Knots < 5 mm : maximum 8 Max diameter : 25 mm Sum of knots

from 5 mm to 25 mm < 50 mm Knots < 5 mm : not limited Max diameter : 40 mm Sum of knots from 5 mm to 40 mm < 100 mm

Knots < 10
mm : not limited Max diameter : 70 mm Sum of knots from 10 mm to 70 mm < 160 mm
Permitted
Not intergrown, dead or rotten knots Not permitted
1 of 25 mm with reduction
(NOTE 1)
1 of 40 mm with reduction
(NOTE 1)
1 of 70 mm with reduction
(NOTE 1) Permitted
Solitary knots
15% of the width of the piece with reduction
(NOTE 1)
20% of the width of the piece with
reduction
(NOTE 1)
25% of the width of the piece with reduction
(NOTE 1) 30% of the width of the piece with width reduction
(NOTE 1) permitted
Heart shake Permitted with width reduction (NOTE 1),
Permitted with width reduction (NOTE 1) Permitted
Permitted
kSIST prEN 975-1:2008
prEN 975-1:2008 (E) 14

Table 2— Appearance grading of oak un-edged boards and boules (continued) GRADE Q-B A and Q-S A Q-B 1 and Q-S 1 Q-B 2 and

Q-S 2 Q-B 3 and Q-S 3 Q-B 4 and Q-S 4
Features

Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Maximum acceptable for grade Ring shakes and frost crack,

Not permitted
Permitted with reduction max 1/5 of width (NOTE 1)
Permitted with reduction max
1/3 of width
(NOTE 1)
Permitted with reduction (NOTE 1)
Permitted
Straight shakes

permitted with reduction if the length of shakes is < width of the board permitted with reduction (NOTE 1) permitted with reduction (NOTE 1) Permitted Permitted Oblique shakes single

multiple
Not permitted
Not permitted
permitted with reduction if the length of shakes is < width of the board
permited with length reduction
Permitted with width reduction
permited with length reduction
permitted with reduction
(NOTE 1) permitted with reduction
Permitted
Permitted
Spiral grain
Permitted with maximum slope of
8 %
no limitation unless specified
no limitation unless specified
no limits unless specified
no limi
...

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