Nanotechnologies - Guidelines for Life Cycle Assessment - Application of EN ISO 14044:2006 to Manufactured Nanomaterials

This document provides guidelines for application of Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of specific relevance to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), including their use in other products, according to EN ISO 14044:2006. It does not cover incidental nanomaterials.

Nanotechnologien - Leitfaden für Ökobilanzen - Anwendung von EN ISO 14044:2006 auf industriell hergestellte Nanomaterialien

Dieses Dokument stellt Anleitungen für die Anwendung von Ökobilanzen von spezieller Bedeutung für industriell hergestellte Nanomaterialien (MNM), einschließlich deren Verwendung in anderen Produkten, in Übereinstimmung mit EN ISO 14044:2006 zur Verfügung. Unbeabsichtigt hergestellte Nanomaterialien werden von ihm nicht abgedeckt.

Nanotechnologies - Lignes directrices pour l’analyse du cycle de vie - Application de l’EN ISO 14044:2006 aux nanomatériaux manufacturés

Nanotehnologija - Smernice za ocenjevanje življenjskega cikla - Uporaba EN ISO 14044:2006 za izdelane nanomateriale

Ta dokument vsebuje smernice za ocenjevanje življenjskega cikla (LCA) posebnega pomena za proizvedene nanomateriale (MNM), vključno z njihovo uporabo v drugih izdelkih, v skladu s standardom EN ISO 14044:2006. Ne vključuje naključnih nanomaterialov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
05-Dec-2018
Completion Date
05-Dec-2018

Buy Standard

Technical specification
-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
English language
61 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
01-februar-2019
Nanotehnologija - Smernice za ocenjevanje življenjskega cikla - Uporaba EN ISO
14044:2006 za izdelane nanomateriale
Nanotechnologies - Guidelines for Life Cycle Assessment - Application of EN ISO
14044:2006 to Manufactured Nanomaterials
Nanotechnologien - Leitfaden für Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) - Anwendung der EN
ISO 14044:2006 auf industriell hergestellte Nanomaterialien

Nanotechnologies - Lignes directrices pour l’analyse du cycle de vie - Application de l’EN

ISO 14044:2006 aux nanomatériaux manufacturés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 17276:2018
ICS:
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
13.020.60 Življenjski ciklusi izdelkov Product life-cycles
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
December 2018
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 07.120
English Version
Nanotechnologies - Guidelines for Life Cycle Assessment -
Application of EN ISO 14044:2006 to Manufactured
Nanomaterials

Nanotechnologies - Lignes directrices pour l'analyse du Nanotechnologien - Leitfaden für Life Cycle

cycle de vie - Application de l'EN ISO 14044:2006 aux Assessments (LCA) - Anwendung der EN ISO

nanomatériaux manufacturés 14044:2006 auf industriell hergestellte
Nanomaterialien

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 28 September 2018 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 17276:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Uncertainty analysis ................................................................................................................................... 14

4.1 Introduction to uncertainty ...................................................................................................................... 14

4.2 Characterization ........................................................................................................................................... 15

4.3 Identity and grouping ................................................................................................................................. 16

4.4 Life Cycle Inventory Data........................................................................................................................... 16

4.5 Exposure assessment .................................................................................................................................. 16

4.6 Toxicity assessment .................................................................................................................................... 17

4.7 Impact assessment ....................................................................................................................................... 17

5 Goal and scope definition (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2) ............................................................... 18

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 Scope of the study (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2.3) .......................................................................... 18

5.3 Function and functional unit (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2.3.2).................................................. 18

5.4 System boundary (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2.3.3)........................................................................ 19

5.5 LCIA methodology and types of impacts (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2.3.4) ............................ 19

5.6 Types and sources of data (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2.3.5) ....................................................... 19

5.7 Data quality requirements (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2.3.6) ..................................................... 20

5.8 Comparisons between systems (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.2.3.7) ............................................. 20

5.9 Examples ......................................................................................................................................................... 20

6 Life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.3) .............................................. 23

6.1 General (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.3.1) .............................................................................................. 23

6.2 Collecting data (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.3.2) ................................................................................ 24

6.3 Calculating data (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.3.3) .............................................................................. 25

6.4 Available LCA models.................................................................................................................................. 27

6.5 Allocation (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.3.4) .......................................................................................... 28

6.6 Examples ......................................................................................................................................................... 28

7 Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.4) .......................................... 30

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 30

7.2 Ecotoxicity studies ....................................................................................................................................... 30

7.3 Human toxicity .............................................................................................................................................. 30

7.4 Other midpoint categories ........................................................................................................................ 31

7.5 Damage categories ....................................................................................................................................... 31

7.6 Spatial and temporal differentiations .................................................................................................. 31

7.7 Examples ......................................................................................................................................................... 31

8 Life cycle interpretation (see EN ISO 14044:2006, 4.5) ................................................................. 37

9 Reporting (see EN ISO 14044:2006, Clause 5) ................................................................................... 39

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 39

9.2 Examples ......................................................................................................................................................... 39

10 Critical Reviews (see EN ISO 14044:2006, Clause 6) ....................................................................... 42

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)

Annex A (informative) Uncertainty Analysis in LCA of Manufactured Nanomaterials ....................... 45

Annex B (informative) LCA case studies in area of manufactured nanomaterials .............................. 48

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 53

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 17276:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 352

“Nanotechnologies”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

The purpose of this Technical Specification is to assist the use of the following Life Cycle Assessment

standards in their application to manufactured nanomaterials:

— EN ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and

framework (ISO 14040:2006)

— EN ISO 14044:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and

guidelines (ISO 14044:2006)

This document follows a similar structure to that used for ISO/TR 14047:2012 and ISO/TR 14049:2012,

which also provide guidance to the application of EN ISO 14044:2006 in terms of explaining more fully

the terminology; as follows:

— ISO/TR 14047:2012, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Illustrative examples on

how to apply EN ISO 14044 to impact assessment situations

— ISO/TR 14049:2012, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Illustrative examples on

how to apply EN ISO 14044 to goal and scope definition and inventory analysis

The main text is “normative” and represents best practice in the application of EN ISO 14044:2006 to

Manufactured Nanomaterials. However, it is generally not possible to obtain all the required data, in

particular the human and eco-toxicity data, so that alternative approaches are necessary. The current

approaches possible are described by three “informative” examples (see Introduction) drawn from

different areas of nano-materials that are used to illustrate each stage of the application of

EN ISO 14044:2006. It is intended that these examples be updated or replaced as more reliable data

becomes available.
Annex A (informative) includes additional discussion on measurement uncertainty.

Annex B (informative) records recent life-cycle-analyses that are provided to give further examples and

sources of data.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)
Introduction

This Technical Specification provides guidelines on the application of Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) to

manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), in the context of EN ISO 14044:2006. It does not cover incidental

nanomaterials. This document is not applicable to life-cycle based Risk Assessment (see [1], [2], [3] for

such studies).

The structure of this document follows the structure of EN ISO 14044:2006, and is similar to the related

technical reports from ISO [4], [5], showing illustrative examples on how to apply the various steps of the

LCA framework. Table 1 gives an overview of the linkage between the content of this Technical

Specification and the related content in EN ISO 14044:2006.

Table 1 — Cross references between EN ISO 14044:2006 and the content of this Technical

Specification
EN ISO 14044:2006 This Technical Specification
Nano-specificity Example(s)
1 Scope
Clause 1
2 Normative reference Clause 2
3 Terms and definitions Clause 3 - Definition & use of term for
manufactured nanomaterials and
LCA
Clause 4 - Causes of Uncertainty &
Variability in LCA of manufactured
nanomaterials
4 Methodological
framework for LCA
4.1 General requirements

4.2 Goal & scope definition Clause 5 - Choice of an appropriate E.1 Textiles with nano-Ag

functional unit
E.2 Façade coatings with nano-TiO
4.2.1 General 2
E.3 CNTs in electronics
4.2.2 Goal of the study
4.2.3 Scope of the study

4.3 Life cycle inventory analysis Clause 6 - LCI data of production of E.1 Textiles with nano-Ag

(LCI) manufactured nanomaterials;
E.2 Façade coatings with nano-TiO2
4.3.1 General Modelling of releases of
E.3 CNTs in electronics
manufactured nanomaterials
4.3.2 Collecting data
4.3.3 Calculating data
4.3.4 Allocation

4.4 Life cycle impact Clause 7 - Assessment of releases of E.1 Textiles with nano-Ag

manufactured nanomaterials
E.2 Façade coatings with nano-TiO2
assessment (LCIA)
E.3 CNTs in electronics

4.5 Life cycle interpretation Clause 8 - Interpretation of LCA with Lessons learnt from the three examples

limited information from
manufactured nanomaterials

5 Reporting Clause 9 - Highlight important aspect Lessons learnt from the three examples

when reporting nano-specific LCA
5.1 General requirements
5.2 Additional requirements
5.3 Further reporting
requirements

6 Critical review Clause 10 - Highlight important nano Lessons learnt from the three examples

aspects of critical review
6.1 General
6.2 Critical review by experts
6.3 Critical review by panel
Annexes (informative) Annexes A and B
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)

Three examples are provided as informative text to illustrate the application of LCA to products that

contain manufactured nanomaterials. The examples are nano-silver treated textiles [6], nano-enhanced

façade coating [7], and CNT enhanced electronics [8]. The selected examples are amongst the most

comprehensive LCA studies of manufactured nanomaterials published to date (i.e. mid - 2017). The

treatment of uncertainty is discussed in Clause 4 and Annex A. A brief overview of further examples (up

to mid-2017) is given in Annex B. The analysis shows the coverage of the studies in a form similar to an

earlier study [9].

The illustrative examples are presented in sections corresponding to the same section of the original text

in EN ISO 14044:2006 covering “inventory collection”, “environmental fate” and “impact assessment and

interpretation”. They are intended to highlight the particular features relevant to manufactured

nanomaterials when included in a LCA. “Fate” in this context refers to the presence in, and transfer

through, one or more environments or media (e.g.: air, soil and water) [10].

The presented aspects also include additional, non-published information and data that were particularly

useful and illustrative for this guidance document. The status quo of the three examples is summarized

in the three sub-sections below. It is noted that that manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) cover an

increasing range of nano-prefixed descriptors, including nano-object, nano-film, nano-fibre and

nano-tube. In some cases, or at some points in the life cycle, the MNMs may be in aggregated or

agglomerated forms.
Example 1 – "Textiles with nano-silver (nano-Ag)"

The objective of the example is to compare the environmental benefits and impacts of nanosilver treated

T-shirts with conventional T-shirts and T-shirts treated with triclosan, a commonly applied biocide to

prevent textiles from emitting undesirable odours.

Status Quo: Technical garments have to provide extra features such as enhanced durability or protection

for workers; water or oil impermeability for firefighters; or bacterial resistance for adhesive wound tapes,

clinical uniforms or sportswear. Silver has known antimicrobial properties and is applied – beside water

purification – also to textiles, in order to release toxic ions to kill bacteria. Nanosilver is particularly

effective because it can be easily integrated into textile fibres, has higher ion release rates in comparison

to the same mass of larger particles and has a longer durability than conventional silver salts. Applied to

sports textiles, nanosilver inhibits bacterial growth and therefore reduces unwanted odours. In

comparison to other antimicrobial agents for textiles, such as quarternary ammoniums salts or triclosan

(now banned in many countries), advanced integration of nanosilver shows less washing-out while

exhibiting higher microbial toxicity, based on the same mass. Another advertised property of nanosilver

T-shirts is that a lower washing frequency in combination with a lower washing temperature allows

saving of resources. On the downside, nanosilver may be harmful to antimicrobial communities in the

wastewater treatment plant and may accumulate in the environment over the long term. Moreover,

occupational exposure during the production of nanosilver can be elevated in cases when open production

systems with poor ventilation are in place. In absence of personal protection measures nanosilver might

be inhaled. Nanosilver can enter the deep lung region (alveolar region) and pass across the lung:blood

barrier with so far unknown health consequences over the long term. Consumers are less at risk because

abrasion tests showed that the probability of releasing free manufactured nanomaterials into the air

(followed by inhalation) is minimal. Penetration through intact skin is very unlikely. At the end of life of

the nanosilver T-shirts, waste management options that prevent release of manufactured nanomaterials

into the environment are preferred.

Scenario analysis allows varying sensitive parameters such as washing frequency and temperature,

market penetration and technological maturity to be studied. The scenarios are directly linked to LC

inventory data in order to run complete LCA for different possible future states of the system.

Nano-specific issues are captured as far as possible and the strengths and weaknesses of the LCA

framework regarding the inclusion of nanosilver are discussed.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)
Example 2 – "Façade coatings with nano titanium oxide (nano-TiO2)"

The objective of the study is to review the Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) impacts of

manufactured nanomaterials in paints and coatings used in house building. The latest developments in

view of inventory data and impact assessment factors for releases of manufactured nanomaterials are

used.

Status Quo: Modern façades of buildings have to meet several functional requirements. These

functionalities can influence each other; for example does the commended thermal insulation (related to

energy savings and climate change) of a house influence the requirements concerning the outside façade

coating and can lead to an increase in the growth of algae and fungi. During their use phase the outside

façade coatings are exposed to various impacts such as UV, rain, humidity, heat, temperature differences,

air pollution and scratch damage. Indoor façade coatings are also exposed to UV and scratches damage.

An integration of manufactured nanomaterials in such façade coatings is expected to hold considerable

potential for products that offer improved or novel functionalities during the use phase of these façade

coatings and enables in the end the development of materials that fulfil several functionalities at the same

time (i.e. so-called multifunctional materials). The manufactured nanomaterials are also expected to

optimize some processes during the production of the facade coatings for example by shortening drying

time for coatings, and they may also hold a potential for environmental sustainability by saving materials,

by substituting hazardous substances, or by improving the durability of the coating.

Three different types of paints containing different types of manufactured nanomaterials (paint A1:

nano-TiO , paint B1: nano-Ag, paint C1: nano-SiO ) are compared to the same paints without the added

2 2

MNMs (paints A2, B2 and C2 respectively). Table 2 summarizes some key data for this study.

Table 2 — Main characteristics of the façade coatings (values based on input from paint

industry)
Paint Paint Paint Paint Paint Paint
A1 A2 C1 C2 B1 B2
MNM integration “Substitution” “Addendum” “Addendum”
philosophy
Application field Outdoor Outdoor Outdoor Outdoor Indoor Indoor
a a a
Lifetime [years] 27 20 27 20 10 10
Composition [% w/w]
— MNM-content 3,0 - 5 - 0.3 -
— Type of MNM TiO2 - SiO2 - Ag -
— TiO , pigment-grade 13,58 16,58 - - - -
— Silicone defoamer 10,97 10,97 0,3 0,3 0,6 0,6
— Styrene/acrylic 14,62 14,62 23,3 23,3 28,1 28,1
copolymer
— Calcium carbonate 31,75 31,75 46 46 33,2 33,5
(filler)
— Talcum (filler) 6,58 6,,58 - - 10,1 10,1
— Further ingredients 5,2 5,2 1,7 1,7 2 4,7
— Water 11,3 14,3 15,2 28,7 23 23

Assumption (result of a discussion with representatives from the paint industry): in outdoor

applications MNM-containing paints have a 30 % longer lifetime; in indoor applications no longer

lifetime is assumed.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)
Example 3 "Carbon Nano-Tubes (CNTs) in electronics"

The objective of this example is to establish a comprehensive assessment of the ecological sustainability

of a field emission display (FED) television device by the use of the latest developments in the area of LCA

of manufactured nanomaterials (i.e. inventory modelling and impact assessment) in accordance with the

EN ISO 14040:2006. In a second step this new technology is then compared to television devices using

different versions of current display technologies.

Status Quo: CNTs are cylindrical carbon molecules with novel properties (extraordinary strength, unique

electrical properties) and they are efficient conductors of heat, making them particularly interesting for

the electronics industry. This material is seen as providing a large opportunity for making a new

generation of electronic and electric products – smaller, cleaner, stronger, lighter and more precise. One

of the most promising aspects is the unique electronic property of CNT. According to [11], ‘‘CNT can, in

principle, play the same role as silicon does in electronic circuits, but at a molecular scale where silicon

and other standard semiconductors cease to work’’. Therefore, ‘‘Nano’’ is considered in this industrial

sector not only as hype, but to represent a real future potential. Within the electronics sector, displays can

be seen as an important interface in machine-based communication among human beings. The area of

display technologies has been dominated by the cathode ray tube (CRT) technology since the 1920s – with

many different flat panel display technologies being developed since the late 20 century; among them

the field emission display (FED) technology. This FED technology can be best compared to the CRT

technology, as both of them are based on the principle of a cathode that (in a vacuum) launches electrons

towards a glass plate coated with phosphorous. However, whereas in the CRT technology just one such

cathode is used, the FED technology uses one individual cathode for each single pixel. In this way, this

technology allows the construction of devices with very promising features (e.g. thin, self-emissive screen,

distortion free image, wide viewing angle). A great challenge in the FED technology is the issue of micro

fabrication of the cathodes in order to have one cathode per pixel; with CNTs being a valuable option for

this purpose.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines for application of Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of specific relevance

to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), including their use in other products, according to

EN ISO 14044:2006. It does not cover incidental nanomaterials.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework (ISO

14040:2006)

EN ISO 14044:2006, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines

(ISO 14044:2006)

CEN/TS 17010:2016, Nanotechnologies - Guidance on measurands for characterising nano-objects and

materials that contain them

ISO 5725-2:1994, Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results — Part 2: Basic

method for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of a standard measurement method

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from larger sizes are predominantly exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
3.2
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each

other.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.3
manufactured nanomaterial
nanomaterial intentionally produced to have selected properties or composition
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.9]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17276:2019
CEN/TS 17276:2018 (E)
3.4
incidental nanomaterials
nanomaterial generated as an unintentional by-product of a process

Note 1 to entry: The process includes manufacturing, bio-technological or other processes.

Note 2 to entry: See “ultrafine particle” in ISO/TR 27628:2007, 2.21.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.10]
3.5
agglomerate

collection of weakly or medium strongly bound particles where the resulting external surface area is

similar to the sum of the surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an agglomerate together are weak forces, for example van der Waals forces

or simple physical entanglement.

Note 2 to entry: Agglomerates are also termed secondary particles and the original source particles are termed

primary particles.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-2:2017, 3.4]
3.6
aggregate

particle comprising strongly bonded or fused particles where the resulting external surface area is

significantly smaller than the sum of surface areas of the individual components

Note 1 to entry: The forces holding an aggregate together are strong forces, for example covalent or ionic bonds,

or those resulting from sintering or complex physical entanglement, or otherwise combined former primary

particles.

Note 2 to entry: Aggregates are also termed secondary particles and the original source particles are termed

primary particles.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-2:2017, 3.5]
3.7
nanotechnology
application of scientific knowledge to manipulate and control matter predomin
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.