Intelligent transport systems - Location Referencing Harmonisation for Urban-ITS - Part 2: Transformation methods

This document specifies requirements, recommendations, and permissions related to translations between location referencing methods applicable in the urban transport environment.

Intelligente Verkehrssysteme - Ortsreferenzierungsharmonisierung für Urbane ITS - Teil 2: Umwandlungsmethoden

Élément introductif - Élément central - Partie 2 : Élément complémentaire

Inteligentni transportni sistemi - Uskladitev lokacijskih referenc za mestni ITS - 2. del: Metode pretvarjanja

Ta dokument določa zahteve, priporočila in dovoljenja, ki so povezana s prevodi med metodami navajanja lokacije, ki se uporabljajo v okolju mestnega prevoza.

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Publication Date
24-Sep-2019
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6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
25-Sep-2019
Completion Date
25-Sep-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17297-2:2019
01-november-2019

Inteligentni transportni sistemi - Uskladitev lokacijskih referenc za mestni ITS - 2.

del: Metode pretvarjanja

Intelligent transport systems - Location Referencing Harmonisation for Urban-ITS - Part

2: Transformation methods

Intelligente Verkehrssysteme - Ortsreferenzierungsharmonisieung für Urbane ITS - Teil

2: Übersetzungsmethoden
Élément introductif - Élément central - Partie 2 : Élément complémentaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 17297-2:2019
ICS:
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
prometu
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17297-2:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17297-2:2019
CEN/TS 17297-2
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
September 2019
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 35.240.60
English Version
Intelligent transport systems - Location Referencing
Harmonisation for Urban-ITS - Part 2: Transformation
methods

Élément introductif - Élément central - Partie 2 : Einführendes Element - Haupt-Element - Teil 2:

Élément complémentaire Ergänzendes Element

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 21 July 2019 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 17297-2:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symbols and abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 6

5 Basics on transformations between location reference systems ........................................ 6

6 Transformation requirements ....................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Examples of Transformations ........................................................................ 34

Annex B (informative) Illustration of transformation to linear ..................................................... 40

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 43

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 17297-2:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 278

“Intelligent transport systems”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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Introduction

Whilst some location data are based on a latitude/longitude system or other coordinate systems, others

are based on the gazetteer reference to physical objects, e.g. bus stops, streets or bays in a car park.

Translations between different location referencing systems are, therefore, a key feature for moving data

between systems and between applications. Nearly all ITS applications need some form of location

determination and referencing to put the data or information into a spatial context.

In data terms, for most systems, we need to know values and where the data was collected. For example,

a loop detector is referenced to a particular point defined generally by a description of the road, the

direction, the lane and a stated distance from a known reference point like a junction. Data from a moving

probe vehicle will often be defined by XY coordinates based on an agreed location referencing systems

such as WGS84. Similarly, public transport information is often referenced to identified routes and stops

but historically, without the need to be concerned about where these routes and stops are in

geographically physical space.

Historically, applications in the transport sector have spawned location referencing systems that have

properties that suit the application itself; this silo approach has resulted in a significant number of

incompatible location referencing systems, often within the same organization. A typical road authority

can have 10 or more different location referencing systems for traffic control, pavement management,

detectors, asset management and content dissemination etc.; none of which are compatible or easily

translated from one to another because of different business rules or definitions. An example of this is

‘lanes’; is a long exit lane from a motorway counted as a running lane, and where does it start and end?

In public transport information services, location references – where they exist – can be both inconsistent

with location information on the infrastructure. For example, even where a bus stop is geo-located as a

point in space, this is often unmatched with the road along which the bus will be travelling. Also, there is

a logical divergence on whether the “stop” is the point where passengers are expected to stand or the

point where the vehicle will stand; whilst this distinction will generally be of no significance for end users

of itself, it makes multimodal information – for example, planning a walk-then-bus journey – difficult and

unreliable.

More generally, in the Urban-ITS context, multiple applications are required to cooperate. So, in a

multimodal environment, the disparity between location referencing systems becomes a major issue.

The only solution is to first identify the characteristics of location referencing that can be “application

independent” and then evolve (a) a conversion strategy for the short-term, and (b) a migration strategy

for the long term; with constant pressure on budgets, this represents a major challenge.

This document has been produced by the CEN/TC 278/WG 17 Project Team PT 1703 “Location

Referencing Harmonisation” under the mandate M/546 on urban ITS (U-ITS).

This document, in examples, mentions tools that can support transformation processes. It is noted that

reference to particular tool does not imply that it is the only or best tool for achieving a task, or that it is

currently available.

The audience for this document are those who need to combine data which use different location

referencing methods due to their different applications, modes or vendors.

The informative Clause 5 describes basics on transformations between location reference systems:

— The concept of transformation is presented in 5.2.
— Data quality in the context of transformations is discussed in 5.3.

The normative Clause 6 specifies transformation requirements and presents transformation examples.

Location referencing inside buildings is not considered in this document.
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1 Scope

This document specifies requirements, recommendations, and permissions related to translations

between location referencing methods applicable in the urban transport environment.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 14819-3:2013, Intelligent transport systems — Traffic and travel information messages via traffic

message coding — Part 3: Location referencing for Radio Data System — Traffic Message Channel (RDS-

TMC) using ALERT-C
ISO 19157:2013, Geographic information — Data quality

INSPIRE Technical Guidelines, INSPIRE, Data Specification on Coordinate Reference Systems — Technical

Guidelines. 2014
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in CEN/TR 17297-1 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
accuracy

closeness of agreement between a test result or measurement result and the true value

[SOURCE: ISO 6709:2008, definition 4.1]
3.2
area of use
geographical area in which a specific map projection applies
3.3
location reference
description of an identifiable geographic place

Note to entry: ISO 17572-1 defines a location reference as a “label which is assigned to a location”, while

ISO TS 21219-7. TPEG2-LRC defines location referencing as “means to provide information that allows a

system to identify accurately a location”
3.4
resolution
unit associated with the least significant digit of a coordinate
[SOURCE: ISO 6709:2008, definition 4.10]
3.5
transformation

operations to change the description of a location (a location reference) from one LRS to another LRS

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4 Symbols and abbreviations
AVM automatic vehicle monitoring
CRS coordinate reference system
CS coordinate system
EPSG European Petroleum Survey Group
ETRS European terrestrial reference system
EU European Union
GALILEO name of the European satellite navigation and time reference system
GIS geographic information system
GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System
NOTE 1 Russian: globalnaja nawigazionnaja sputnikowaja sistema
NOTE 2 name of the satellite navigation and time reference system of the
Russian Federation
GLR geographic location referencing
GML geography markup language
GNSS global navigation satellite system
GPS global positioning system
NOTE 3 name of the satellite navigation and time reference system of the
United States of America
INSPIRE infrastructure for spatial information in Europe
NOTE 4 Name of a directive on the EC; aims on creating a European Union
spatial data infrastructure
IOGP International association of oil and gas producers
ITRS international terrestrial reference system
ITS intelligent transport systems
LLRM linear LRM
LRM location referencing method
LRS location referencing system
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OGC open geospatial consortium
TN-ITS transport networks for ITS
U-ITS urban ITS
UTM universe transverse Mercator
5 Basics on transformations between location reference systems
5.1 Location referencing

The concept of location referencing with location referencing methods (LRMs) and location referencing

systems (LRSs) is described in CEN/TR 17297-1.
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5.2 The concept of a transformation
5.2.1 General

Several definitions exist for the term transformation, both in international standards and in other

literature. In this document, the term will be used for operations that are performed to change the

description of a location (a location reference) from one LRS to another LRS. The operation can be done

to change from a location reference in one LRS to another LRS, both based on the same LRM, or to change

between two LRSs based on different LRMs. The transformations that are described in this document are

valid for LRMs and will be employed to transform between LRSs.

The individual LRMs described in CEN/TR 17297-1 have different approaches for describing a location,

both in terms of how the location is described within an LRM, and also how the LRM is used to connect a

location reference to the real world, see Figure 1 in CEN/TR 17297-1:2019 and Figure 1 in this document.

As a result of a transformation between LRSs from two different LRMs is likely to change the location

reference significantly, including the representational shape and the positional accuracy of the location

reference.

Figure 1 illustrates the basic concepts of location referencing and transformation between location

references in different location referencing systems. Two real-world locations are described, i.e. L and

L . The location references LR and LR with different LRSs and LRMs, describe location L ; and

β A1,α B2,α α

the location references LR and LR describe location L . A transformation can be applied to

A1,β B1,β β

transform location reference LR to LR and vice versa, and to transform LR to LR and

A1,α B2,α A1,β B1,β
vice versa.
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Figure 1 — Basic concepts of location referencing and transformation

There exist several commercial, free and open source tools for transformation of location references,

mainly applications and libraries developed within the domain of geographic information (GIS). These

are not referred to in this document, but the principles described will apply when using them.

5.2.2 Concept of preferred location referencing method

In theory, location references in one LRS can be transformed to become location references in any other

LRS, based on any LRM. However, to be able to set up a transformation, common ground for the two LRSs

in question is needed. This common ground can be parameters that describe the relation between

location references in the two LRSs directly, but more likely, it will be a common LRS that both LRSs can

refer to.

All LRMs have in common that they are methods for describing locations in the real world, and in the end,

they depend on location referencing by coordinates. Location referencing by identifiers and ALERT-C

depends on pre-coded locations described with coordinates, and both linear referencing systems and

dynamic LRSs depend on linear networks described with coordinates. Due to this, location references in

any LRS can be transformed to location referencing by coordinates. On the other hand, there is rarely any

described direct connection between different LRSs.

The preferred location referencing method considered in this document is location referencing by

coordinates.
Table 1 describes the possible direct transformations.
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Table 1 — Common direct transformations
to Coordinates Identifier Linear ALERT-C AGORA-C™ OpenLR™
from
Coordinates
yes yes yes yes yes yes
(coordinates)
Identifier
yes
(pre-coded)
Linear
yes yes
(pre-coded)
ALERT-C
yes
(pre-coded)
AGORA-C™
yes
(dynamic)
OpenLR™
yes
(dynamic)
5.2.3 Preferred method for transformations

This document describes transformations between different LRSs by transforming from the source LRS

to a preferred method, and then transforming to the target LRS from the preferred method. As location

referencing by coordinates is a LRM that all LRMs can relate to, this is the preferred location referencing

method. Requirements for the preferred location referencing method are described in 6.1.

6.1 indicates CRSs that are acknowledged as the common basis for reference and transformation in

conjunction with the INSPIRE Directive, and regulations which for application in the European context

are considered in this document to form the acceptable baseline of preferred location referencing

method. These systems will be called “preferred CRSs”.

The preferred method of transformation of source location reference S to a target location reference T

consists of either one or two steps.

If the target CRS is coordinate-based, the transformation consists only of Step 1:

Step 1: The source location reference S is transformed to a location reference in the preferred location

referencing method (i.e. by coordinates), in particular using the CRS as recommended by the Directive

2007/2/EU.

If the target CRS is not coordinate-based, the transformation consists of two steps:

Step 1: As above.

Step 2: Location reference from Step 1 (T ) is transformed to the target location reference T in the

target system (T ).
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Figure 2 — Illustration of the Preferred Transformation Method with two steps
5.2.4 Legislation concerning technical aspects
5.2.4.1 The INSPIRE Directive

To solve problems of interoperability, quality, accessibility and sharing of spatial information, measures

have been taken by the European Commission and expressed in the Directive 2007/2/EC of the European

Parliament and of the Council, called INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European

Community).

INSPIRE developed two types of documents: INSPIRE Implementing Rules (IR, legally binding),

describing “what Member States must implement” and INSPIRE Technical Guidelines, specifying “how

Member States might implement the legally binding requirements”. Even if the Technical Guidelines are

not technically binding, they propose specific technical implementation for satisfying the legally binding

requirements.
5.2.4.2 Coordinate reference systems

Whilst INSPIRE concerns a whole range of data domains, i.e. the INSPIRE “data themes”, such as

Addresses, Transport Networks Cadastral Parcels, and Coordinate Reference Systems, the latter play a

special role in INSPIRE; they are considered reference data, i.e. data that represent a link to information

belonging to the different data themes. The CRSs allow for a harmonized and interoperable geographic

localization of spatial features in the different data domains.
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Among of a range of CRS, INSPIRE identifies a short list of CRSs to be used to guarantee a common basis

for the geographical harmonization between all the other themes defined in the Annexes of the Directive.

The general legally binding document is the COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1089/2010 of 23

November 2010 implementing Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as

regards interoperability of spatial data sets and services, in particular its ANNEX II entitled

“Requirements for spatial data themes listed in Annex I to Directive 2007/2/EC”. The requirements

concerning the CRS are based on the ISO 19100 series of standards, essentially on ISO 19111.

This legally binding document above requires the use of a specific datum and of at least one out of a list

of CRSs (or, by exception, of another CRS, but defined by parameters allowing for conversion operations);

in particular:

a) “(…) the datum shall be the datum of the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) in areas

within its geographical scope, or the datum of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) or

other geodetic coordinate reference systems compliant with ITRS in areas that are outside the

geographical scope of ETRS89. Compliant with the ITRS means that the system definition is based on

the definition of the ITRS and there is a well-documented relationship between both systems, according

to EN ISO 19111 (…)”.
b) “At least one of the following CRSs shall be used for the spatial data sets:
— Three-dimensional CRS:

— three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates based on a datum specified as in a) above and using

the parameters of the Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS80) ellipsoid,

— three-dimensional geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height) based on a

datum based on a datum specified as in a) above and using the parameters of the GRS80

ellipsoid.
— Two-dimensional CRS:

— two-dimensional geodetic coordinates (latitude and longitude) based on a datum specified as

in a) above and using the parameters of the GRS80 ellipsoid,

— plane coordinates using the ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area coordinate reference

system,

— plane coordinates using the ETRS89 Lambert Conformal Conic coordinate reference system,

— plane coordinates using the ETRS89 Transverse Mercator coordinate reference system,”

— “Compound CRS where the horizontal component of the compound coordinate reference system is

one of the coordinate reference systems above. For the vertical component on land, the European

Vertical Reference System (EVRS) shall be used to express gravity-related heights (within its

geographical scope).”

The related INSPIRE Technical Guidelines provide practical guidance for implementation based on all

relevant requirements for the CRS, in particular, as regards “map projections”; it requires, beyond others,

“Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (ETRS89-LAEA) for pan-European spatial analysis and reporting, where

true area representation is required”, which is of particular interest for this document.

The INSPIRE Technical Guidelines contain also the identifiers for the different types of coordinate

reference systems that “shall” be used according to it.
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5.2.4.3 Pan-European Grids

Geographical grid systems are considered as reference data, similarly to the CRS, i.e. data that constitute

the spatial frame for linking and/or pointing to other information that belong to specific thematic fields

of INSPIRE. In the COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1089/2010 of 23 November 2010 implementing

Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards interoperability of spatial

data sets and services INSPIRE fully specifies:

— the Equal Area Grid (Grid_ETRS89-LAEA) intended more for statistical reporting purposes,

— the Zoned Geographic Grid (Grid_ETRS89-GRS80zn_res) intended for the provision of gridded spatial

information (i.e. raster, coverage-based data) for reference data themes.
See also Permissions 1 and 2 in 6.1.
As regards the Zoned Geographic Grid, INSPIRE requires:
— it shall be based on the ETRS89-GRS80 geodetic coordinate reference system;

— the origin of the grid shall coincide with the intersection point of the Equator with the Greenwich

Meridian (GRS80 latitude φ = 0; GRS80 longitude λ = 0);

— the grid orientation shall be south-north and west-east according to the net defined by the meridians

and parallels of the GRS80 ellipsoid.
INSPIRE specifies further the subdivision of the grid in zones.

The INSPIRE Technical Guidelines recognize that existing standards enable different modelling of gridded

data. It recommends that “(…) data exchanged using numerical modelling theme-specific grids shall use

standards in which the grid definition is either included with the data, or linked by reference to an

appropriate scientific document describing the grid (...)”. It further states that “the Zoned Geographic Grid

may be used as a geo-referencing framework”.

Transforming existing data to the Zoned Geographic Grid requires interpolating original data with the

subsequent degradation; but it is a proposal for future convergence at European level to achieve

interoperability. The underlying idea is to promote that new raster reference data sets are produced

based on this grid. In this case, data would be originally stored using this common framework from the

beginning. Hence, no more re-projection, interpolation and degradation will be necessary for INSPIRE

data provision.
In conclusion, the use of the Zoned Geographic Grid is not mandatory.
5.3 Data quality in transformations
5.3.1 Basic principles of data quality

The data quality of a transformed target location reference can never be better than the data quality of

the source location reference. In the best cases, the data quality can be maintained through the

transformation, but more likely it will be reduced, as the transformation will change the representative

shape of the location and/or describe it in a different representation of the real world. The data quality

of the target location reference will be a function of:
— the data quality of the source LRS, see 5.3.3;
— the data quality of the source location reference within the source LRS;
— the quality of the transformation (rounding of decimals and more);

— and the data quality of the LRS for the transformed location reference (how precise the LRS describes

the real world)
DataQuality = f (DataQuality , DataQuality , DataQuality , DataQuality ).
target LRSsource source Transformation LRStarget
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The model for describing data quality of geographic information is specified in ISO 19157. The core

component of the model is the data quality unit, which consists of a scope and data quality reported with

one or more data quality elements as shown in Figure 3. The scope of the data quality unit specifies the

extent, spatial and/or temporal, and/or common characteristics that identify the data on which data

quality is to be evaluated.

One particular aspect of data quality is positional accuracy with the following three data quality element

types:

a) Absolute external positional accuracy – closeness of reported coordinate values to values accepted

as or being true.

This element typically describes how accurate the positions in location references are in relation to

actual positions in the LRS, e.g. a coordinate tuple in the ETRS89 Cartesian LRS (EPGS:4936) can have

an absolute external positional accuracy of 20 cm, compared to the actual position in this LRS.

b) Relative internal positional accuracy – closeness of the relative positions of features in the scope to

their respective relative positions accepted as or being true.

This element typically describes how accurate positions in location references are in relation to each

other. Positions can be more accurate in relation to each other than their absolute external positional

accuracy; a distance between two positions can be measured accurately, while the positions

themselves can be less accurate.

c) Gridded positional accuracy – closeness of gridded data position values to values accepted as or being

true.

This element describes how accurate positions are in relation to a grid; it is mostly used for raster

image data.

Figure 3 illustrates the model for the data quality unit and the data quality elements for positional

accuracy.

Figure 3 — Data quality unit and positional accuracy elements from ISO 19157:2013

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The data quality elements are further described with measures, evaluation methods and results as shown

in Figure 4. ISO 19157:2013 requires “At least one data quality result shall be provided for each data

quality element.”
Figure 4 — Data quality element descriptors from ISO 19157:2013

Standardized data quality measures are defined in Annex D of ISO 19157:2013; these can be referred to

with their identifier. In addition,
...

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