Reference radiation fields for radiation protection - Definitions and fundamental concepts (ISO 29661:2012, including Amd 1:2015)

ISO 29661:2012 defines terms and fundamental concepts for the calibration of dosemeters and equipment used for the radiation protection dosimetry of external radiation -- in particular, for beta, neutron and photon radiation. It defines the measurement quantities for radiation protection dosemeters and doserate meters and gives recommendations for establishing these quantities. For individual monitoring, it covers whole body and extremity dosemeters (including those for the skin and the eye lens), and for area monitoring, portable and installed dosemeters. Guidelines are given for the calibration of dosemeters and doserate meters used for individual and area monitoring in reference radiation fields. Recommendations are made for the position of the reference point and the phantom to be used for personal dosemeters.
ISO 29661:2012 also deals with the determination of the response as a function of radiation quality and angle of radiation incidence.
ISO 29661:2012 is intended to be used by calibration laboratories and manufacturers.

Referenzstrahlungsfelder für den Strahlenschutz - Definitionen und grundlegende Konzepte (ISO 29661:2012, einschließlich Amd 1:2015)

Diese Internationale Norm definiert Begriffe und grundlegende Konzepte für die Kalibrierung von Dosimetern und Geräten, die für die Strahlenschutzdosimetrie von externer Strahlung – insbesondere für Beta-, Neutro-nen- und Photonenstrahlung – Verwendung finden. Sie definiert die Messgrößen für Strahlen¬schutzdosimeter zur Messung der Dosis und Dosisleistung und gibt Empfehlungen für die Darstellung dieser Messgrößen. Für die Personendosimetrie behandelt sie Ganzkörper- und Teilkörperdosimeter (einschließlich derjenigen für die Haut und die Augenlinse) und für die Ortsdosimetrie tragbare und fest installierte Dosimeter. Für die Kalibrie¬rung von Dosimetern zur Messung der Orts- und Personendosis und Orts- und Personendosisleistung in Referenzstrahlungsfeldern werden Leitfäden gegeben. Für Personendosimeter werden Empfehlungen für die Position des Bezugspunktes und für das zu verwendende Phantom gegeben.
Diese Internationale Norm behandelt ebenfalls die Bestimmung des Ansprechvermögens als Funktion der Strahlungsqualität und des Strahleneinfallswinkels.
Sie ist gedacht für die Anwendung in Kalibrierlaboratorien und bei Herstellern.

Champs de rayonnement de référence pour la radioprotection - Définitions et concepts fondamentaux (ISO 29661:2012, y compris Amd 1:2015)

L'ISO 29661:2012 définit des termes et des concepts fondamentaux pour l'étalonnage des dosimètres et pour l'équipement utilisé en dosimétrie de radioprotection pour l'exposition externe, en particulier pour les rayonnements bêta, neutroniques et photoniques. Elle définit les grandeurs de mesure pour les dosimètres et débitmètres de radioprotection et donne des recommandations pour l'établissement de ces grandeurs. Elle couvre, pour la surveillance individuelle, les dosimètres pour le corps entier et les dosimètres d'extrémités (y compris les dosimètres pour la peau et le cristallin), et pour la surveillance de zone, les dosimètres portatifs et installés. Des lignes directrices sont proposées pour l'étalonnage des dosimètres et des débitmètres utilisés pour la surveillance individuelle et la surveillance de zone dans des champs de rayonnement de référence. Des recommandations sont données pour la position du point de référence et le fantôme à utiliser pour les dosimètres individuels.
L'ISO 29661:2012 traite également de la détermination de la réponse en fonction de la qualité du rayonnement et de l'angle d'incidence du rayonnement.
Elle est destinée à fournir des conseils aux laboratoires d'étalonnage et aux fabricants.

Referenčna sevalna polja za zaščito pred sevanjem - Definicije in temeljni koncepti (ISO 29661:2012, vključno z dopolnilom Amd 1:2015)

Standard ISO 29661:2012 določa izraze in temeljne koncepte za umerjanje dozimetrov in opreme, ki se uporabljajo za dozimetrijo zaščite pred sevanjem pri zunanjem sevanju, še zlasti za beta, nevtronsko in fotonsko sevanje. Določa merilne količine za dozimetre za zaščito pred sevanjem in merilnike odmerkov ter podaja priporočila za določitev teh količin. Za nadzor posameznika zajema dozimetre za celo telo in okončine (vključno s tistimi za kožo in očesno lečo), za nadzor območja pa prenosne in nameščene dozimetre. Podane so smernice za umerjanje dozimetrov in merilnikov odmerkov, ki se uporabljajo za nadzor posameznika in območja na referenčnih območjih sevanja. Priporočila so podana za položaj referenčne točke in fantoma, ki se uporabljata za osebne dozimetre.
Standard ISO 29661:2012 opisuje tudi določanje odziva kot funkcije kakovosti sevanja in kota pojavnega sevanja.
Standard ISO 29661:2012 je namenjen za uporabo s strani laboratorijev za umerjanje in proizvajalcev.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Oct-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
18-Oct-2017
Completion Date
18-Oct-2017

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Reference radiation fields for radiation protection - Definitions and fundamental concepts

(ISO 29661:2012)

Champs de rayonnement de référence pour la radioprotection - Définitions et concepts

fondamentaux (ISO 29661:2012)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 29661:2017
ICS:
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
SIST EN ISO 29661:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
EN ISO 29661
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.280
English Version
Reference radiation fields for radiation protection -
Definitions and fundamental concepts (ISO 29661:2012,
including Amd 1:2015)
Champs de rayonnement de référence pour la
radioprotection - Définitions et concepts
fondamentaux (ISO 29661:2012, y compris Amd
1:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 September 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 29661:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
EN ISO 29661:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
EN ISO 29661:2017 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 29661:2012, including Amd 1:2015 has been prepared by Technical Committee

ISO/TC 85 “Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” of the International

Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 29661:2017 by Technical

Committee CEN/TC 430 “Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 29661:2012, including Amd 1:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 29661:2017

without any modification.
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 29661
First edition
2012-09-01
Reference radiation fields for
radiation protection — Definitions and
fundamental concepts
Champs de rayonnement de référence pour la radioprotection —
Défintions et concepts fondamentaux
Reference number
ISO 29661:2012(E)
ISO 2012
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
ISO 29661:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
ISO 29661:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Quantities and conversion coefficients ........................................................................................................ 9

4 Symbols ...............................................................................................................................................................15

5 Application of the measurement quantities and units ............................................................................17

5.1 Measurement quantities for area monitoring ............................................................................................17

5.2 Measurement quantities for individual monitoring ..................................................................................18

5.3 Establishing of the measurement quantities for area and individual monitoring ...........................18

6 Calibration and determination of the response in reference radiation fields ...................................18

6.1 General principles .............................................................................................................................................18

6.2 Calibration in reference radiation fields ......................................................................................................19

6.3 Determination of the response in reference radiation fields .................................................................21

6.4 Methods for the determination of the calibration coefficient ................................................................22

6.5 Special considerations for area dosemeters (area survey meters) .....................................................25

6.6 Special considerations for personal dosemeters .....................................................................................26

7 Uncertainty ..........................................................................................................................................................29

8 Certificates ..........................................................................................................................................................29

Annex A (normative) List of reference conditions and standard test conditions ...........................................30

Annex B (normative) Description of the calibration coefficient ..........................................................................31

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................33

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
ISO 29661:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through

ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 29661 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and

radiological protection, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiological protection.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
ISO 29661:2012(E)
Introduction
[1]...[12]

International Standards ISO 4037, ISO 6980, ISO 8529 and ISO 12789 , with focus on photon, beta and

neutron reference radiation fields, are each divided into several parts: one part gives the methods of production

and characterization of reference radiation fields, and others describe the dosimetry of the reference radiation

qualities and the procedures for calibrating and determining the response of dosemeters and doserate meters

in terms of the operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements

[25] [26] [27] [28] [31]
(ICRU) .

The subject of these four International Standards is the same; they differ only in the kind of radiation each

addresses. Their terms and definitions, and most of the descriptions of methods and procedures given are

basically the same — whatever the radiation. Nevertheless, they do differ, more or less, from one to the other

in detail. This International Standard brings together terms and definitions and fundamental concepts common

to all of them. Thus, it serves to harmonize International Standards on radiation protection.

Besides definitions relating to calibration primary quantities, the operational quantities for area and individual

monitoring are specified. For area monitoring, the operational quantities are ambient dose equivalent, H*(10),

 

directional dose equivalents,H'(0,07,Ω) and H'(3,)Ω , and the appropriate dose rates. For individual monitoring

using personal dosemeters, the dose equivalent quantities, H (10), H (0,07) and H (3), and the respective dose

p p p
rates are available.

The method used to represent these operational quantities is the following. First, a basic (primary) quantity, such

as air kerma free-in-air, fluence or absorbed dose to soft tissue, is measured. Then the appropriate operational

quantity is derived by the application of the conversion coefficient that relates the basic (primary) quantity to

the selected operational quantity. The procedure for the calibration and the determination of the response of

radiation protection dosemeters is described in general terms. Depending on the type of dosemeter under test,

the position of the reference point is specified differently and the irradiation is either carried out on a phantom

(for personal dosemeters) or free in air (for area dosemeters or area survey meters).

With the publication of this International Standard, it is intended that ISO 4037, ISO 6980, ISO 8529 and

ISO 12789 be revised successively for further harmonization since, among other aspects, certain of their

definitions differ from those published here and the symbols chosen for this International Standard are more

consistent with ICRU reports and other International Standards used for radiation protection purposes.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 29661:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 29661:2012(E)
Reference radiation fields for radiation protection — Definitions
and fundamental concepts
1 Scope

This International Standard defines terms and fundamental concepts for the calibration of dosemeters and

equipment used for the radiation protection dosimetry of external radiation — in particular, for beta, neutron

and photon radiation. It defines the measurement quantities for radiation protection dosemeters and doserate

meters and gives recommendations for establishing these quantities. For individual monitoring, it covers whole

body and extremity dosemeters (including those for the skin and the eye lens), and for area monitoring, portable

and installed dosemeters. Guidelines are given for the calibration of dosemeters and doserate meters used for

individual and area monitoring in reference radiation fields. Recommendations are made for the position of the

reference point and the phantom to be used for personal dosemeters.

This International Standard also deals with the determination of the response as a function of radiation quality

and angle of radiation incidence.
It is intended to be used by calibration laboratories and manufacturers.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

measurement (GUM:1995)

ISO/IEC 17025:2005, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.

Corrected by ISO/IEC 17025:2005/Cor 1:2006
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE These terms and definitions are relevant for the calibration of dosemeters and for the quantities and conversion

coefficients that are general to ISO 4037, ISO 6980, ISO 8529 and ISO 12789. Special terms and definitions can be found

in those International Standards.
3.1 General
3.1.1
angle of radiation incidence

angle, in the coordinate system of the dosemeter, between the direction of radiation incidence and the reference

direction of the dosemeter in unidirectional fields
3.1.2
area dosemeter
area survey meter

meter designed to measure the ambient dose equivalent (rate) or the directional dose equivalent (rate)

[SOURCE: IEV 394-22-08, modified.]
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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3.1.3
background indication

indication obtained from a phenomenon, body or substance similar to the one under investigation, but for which

a quantity of interest is supposed not to be present, or is not contributing to the indication

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 4.2.]
3.1.4
calibration

operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity values

with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and the corresponding indications with

associated measurement uncertainties and, in a second step, uses this information to establish a relation for

obtaining a measurement result from an indication
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.39.]

Note 1 to entry: A calibration may be expressed by a statement, calibration function, calibration diagram, calibration

curve, or calibration table. In some cases, it may consist of an additive or multiplicative correction of the indication with

associated measurement uncertainty.

Note 2 to entry: The measurement standard can be a primary standard, a secondary standard or a working

measurement standard.

Note 3 to entry: Often the first step alone in the above definition is perceived as being calibration.

3.1.5
calibration coefficient
N(U,α)

quotient of the conventional quantity value to be measured and the corrected indication of the dosemeter

normalized to reference conditions

Note 1 to entry: The calibration coefficient N(U,α) for the reference radiation quality U and the angle of incidence α is

equivalent to the calibration factor multiplied by the instrument coefficient (see Annex B). It is given by

N(,UUαα)(==Cc,)⋅ (1)
corr
where
H is the conventional quantity value;
G is the corrected indication;
corr

C (U,α) is the calibration factor for the radiation quality U and the angle of incidence α; and

c is the instrument constant.

Concerning the dimension of the calibration factor and the calibration coefficient, see the Notes to 3.1.7 and 3.1.17.

Note 2 to entry: The reciprocal of the calibration coefficient is the response under reference conditions. The value of the

calibration factor may vary with the magnitude of the quantity to be measured. In such cases a dosemeter is said to have

a non-constant response (or a nonlinear indication).

Note 3 to entry: To distinguish between the indication of the standard and the dosemeter, subscripts ‘s’ and ‘d’ are used

and the respective coefficients are named N(U,α) and N(U,α) .
s d
[SOURCE: ICRU Report 76 modified.]
3.1.6
calibration conditions

conditions within the range of standard test conditions actually prevailing during the calibration measurement

2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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3.1.7
calibration factor
C (U,α)

factor by which the product of the corrected indication, G , and the associated instrument constant, c , of the

corr i

dosemeter is multiplied to obtain the conventional quantity value to be measured under reference conditions

Note to entry: The calibration factor is dimensionless.
[SOURCE: ICRU Report 76, modified.]
3.1.8
conventional quantity value
quantity value attributed by agreement to a quantity for a given purpose

Note to entry: The conventional quantity value H is the best estimate of the quantity to be measured, determined by a

primary standard or a secondary or working measurement standard which are traceable to a primary standard.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.39.]
3.1.9
correction factor

numerical value by which the indication is multiplied to compensate for the deviation of measurement conditions

from reference conditions or for a systematic effect (e.g. ion recombination)

Note to entry: If the correction of the effect of an influence quantity requires a multiplicative factor, the influence quantity

is of type F, see Note to entry 1 for 3.1.16.
3.1.10
correction factor for non-constant response

numerical value by which the indication is multiplied to compensate for the non-constant response (or non-linear

indication) of the dosemeter, i.e. for the variation of the calibration factor or calibration coefficient with the

variation of the magnitude of the quantity to be measured

Note to entry: For a dosemeter with constant response with respect to the selected measuring quantity, k is equal to unity.

3.1.11
corrected indication
corr

indication of a dosemeter corrected for any differences of the values of the influence quantities from

reference conditions

Note 1 to entry: The corrected indication, G , can be calculated with the correction factor, k , for non-constant

corr n

response, the q correction factors, k , for the influence quantities of type F and the p correction summands, G , for the

f w
influence quantities of type S. It is given by
p q
Gk=⋅(GG−⋅) k (2)
corr n w f
∑ ∏
w=1 f=1

which is a model function of the measurement necessary for any determination of the uncertainty according to

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.

Note 2 to entry: To distinguish between the indication of the standard and the dosemeter, Subscripts ‘s’ and ‘d’ are used

and the respective indications are named G and G .
s,corr d,corr
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3.1.12
correction summand

value added to the indication to compensate the deviation of measurement conditions from reference conditions

or for a systematic error (e.g. zero indication)

Note to entry: If the correction of the effect of an influence quantity requires a summand, the influence quantity is of

type S, see Note 1 to entry 3.1.16.
3.1.13
ICRU tissue

material equivalent to the human soft tissue with a density of 1 g·cm and a mass composition of 76,2 %

oxygen, 11,1 % carbon, 10,1 % hydrogen and 2,6 % nitrogen
[SOURCE: ICRU Report 33.]
3.1.14
ICRU sphere
spherical phantom of 30 cm in diameter made of ICRU tissue

Note to entry: This phantom is only used for the calculation of conversion coefficients to ambient or directional dose

equivalent and not for dosemeter calibration.
[SOURCE: ICRU Report 33, modified.]
3.1.15
indication
quantity value provided by a measuring instrument or a measuring system

Note 1 to entry: A measuring instrument or a measuring system may consist of several parts, e.g. the ionisation chamber

plus the electrometer, or the complete instrument in one housing, but always without the phantom (if used). In this

International Standard it is always termed a dosemeter.

Note 2 to entry: The units of the indication of the dosemeter are not necessarily the same as that of the measurand. For

example, for measurements with ionisation chambers the instrument indication is, in general, the value of the current I or

of the charge Q. It is necessary to document whether the indication is normalized to the reference conditions to account for

influence quantities and is corrected for intrinsic background and other influences. The corrected indication is named G .

corr

Note 3 to entry: To distinguish between the indication of the standard and the dosemeter, subscripts ‘s’ and ‘d’ are used

and the respective indications are named G and G .
s d
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 4.1.]
3.1.16
influence quantity

quantity that, in a direct measurement, does not affect the quantity that is actually measured, but affects the

relation between the indication and the measurement result

Note 1 to entry: The correction of the effect of the influence quantity can require a correction factor (influence quantity

of type F) and/or a correction summand (influence quantity of type S) to be applied to the indication of the dosemeter, e.g.

energy for type F and microphony or electromagnetic disturbance for type S, see 3.1.9 and 3.1.12.

Note 2 to entry: The dose rate is an influence quantity when measuring the dose.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.52.]
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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3.1.17
instrument constant

constant by which the indication of the dosemeter, G, or — if corrections or a normalization were applied — the

corrected indication, G , is multiplied to convert it to the same unit as the measurand

corr

Note to entry: If the instrument’s indication is already expressed in the same unit as the measurand, c is unnecessary.

[SOURCE: ICRU Report 76.]
3.1.18
measurand
quantity intended to be measured
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.3.]
3.1.19
measured quantity value
measured value
quantity value representing a measurement result
Note to entry: See 6.2.4.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.10.]
3.1.20
monitor device

device installed in an irradiation facility to monitor the fluence or dose (rate) of the irradiation field

3.1.21
personal dosemeter
meter designed to measure the personal dose equivalent (rate)

Note to entry: A personal dosemeter can be worn on the trunk (whole-body personal dosemeter), at the extremities

(extremity personal dosemeter) or close to the eye lens (eye lens dosemeter).
[SOURCE: IEV 394-22-08, modified.]
3.1.22
phantom

artefact constructed to simulate the scattering properties of the human body or parts of the human body such

as the extremities

Note to entry: A phantom can be used for the definition of a quantity and made of artificial material, e.g. ICRU tissue,

or for the calibration and then be made of physically existing material, see 6.6.2 for details.

3.1.23
point of test
point in the radiation field at which the conventional quantity value is known
[SOURCE: ICRU Report 76.]
3.1.24
primary measurement standard
primary standard

measurement standard established using a primary reference measurement procedure, or created as an

artefact, chosen by convention

EXAMPLE Free-air chambers as primary measurement standards of the measurand air kerma free-in-air.

Note 1 to entry: A primary standard has the highest metrological quality in a given field of metrology.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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Note 2 to entry: The quantity value of the primary standard is equated to the best estimate of the quantity to be measured,

i.e. the conventional quantity value.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 5.4.]
3.1.25
quantity

property of a phenomenon, body or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can be expressed as

a number and a reference
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 1.1.]

Note to entry: The quantities considered in the scope of this International Standard are the operational quantities for

radiation protection purposes (ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent, personal dose equivalent and the

respective dose rates) and the basic quantities such as air kerma free-in-air, fluence and absorbed dose to soft tissue.

3.1.26
quantity value
number and reference together expressing magnitude of a quantity
EXAMPLE 1,52 µGy h as the dose rate in a given radiation field.

Note to entry: A quantity value is a product of a number and a measurement unit (the unit one is generally not indicated

for quantities of dimension one).
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 1.19.]
3.1.27
radiation detector

apparatus or substance used to convert incident ionizing radiation energy into a signal suitable for indication

and/or measurement
[SOURCE: IEV 394-24-01.]
3.1.28
radiation quality

characteristic of ionizing radiation determined by the spectral distribution of radiation with respect to energy

Note to entry: The characteristic is expressed by parameters which are given together with their values in ISO 4037,

ISO 6980, ISO 8529 and ISO 12789. Examples of the parameters are effective energy, half-value layer, X-ray tube voltage

and filtration.
[SOURCE: IEV 881-02-22, modified.]
3.1.29
reference direction

direction, in the coordinate system of the dosemeter, with respect to which the angle of radiation incidence is

measured in reference fields

Note 1 to entry: At the angle of incidence of 0° the reference direction of the dosemeter is parallel to the direction of radiation

incidence. At the angle of 180° the reference direction of the dosemeter is anti-parallel to the direction of radiation incidence.

Note 2 to entry: The reference direction, in the coordinate system of the dosemeter, points into the dosemeter (see

Figure 1). For parts to be irradiated consisting of a personal dosemeter and a cylindrical phantom such as a pillar or rod

phantom the reference direction points into the phantom and is perpendicular to the centre line of the phantom.

3.1.30
reference operating condition
reference condition

operating condition prescribed for evaluating the performance of a measuring instrument or measuring system

or for comparison of measurement results
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 4.11.]
6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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