Plastics - Phenolic resins - Definitions and test methods (ISO 10082:1991)

Kunststoffe - Phenolharze - Begriffe und Prüfverfahren (ISO 10082:1991)

Die in dieser Norm in Abschnitt 2/1) festgelegten Begriffe dienen dazu, die notwendigen Beschreibungen des chemischen Aufbaus, des physikalischen Zustandes und des Kondensations- bzw. Polykondensationsgrades von Phenolharzen zu ermöglichen. In Abschnitt 3 wird ein Überblick über Prüfverfahren gegeben. Diese Prüfverfahren dienen der Bestimmung von Eigenschaften, die technisch wichtig für die Herstellung, Handhabung und Anwendung von den in Abschnitt 2 beschriebenen Phenolharzen sind. Der Anwender sollte jene Prüfverfahren aussuchen, die für den speziellen Einsatzzweck geeignet sind.

Plastiques - Résines phénoliques - Définitions et méthodes d'essai (ISO 10082:1991)

Polimerni materiali – Fenolne smole – Definicije in preskusne metode (ISO 10082:1991)

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
Polimerni materiali – Fenolne smole – Definicije in preskusne metode (ISO
Plastics - Phenolic resins - Definitions and test methods (ISO 10082:1991)
Kunststoffe - Phenolharze - Begriffe und Prüfverfahren (ISO 10082:1991)
Plastiques - Résines phénoliques - Définitions et méthodes d'essai (ISO 10082:1991)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 10082:1995
83.080.10 Duromeri Thermosetting materials
SIST EN ISO 10082:1999 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
First edition
199 1-05-l 5
Plastics - Phenolic resins - Definitions and
test methods
- DMnitions et m&thodes d’essai
Plastiques - Rbines phenoliques
Reference number
IS0 10082: 1991 (E)

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
IS0 10082:1991(E)
IS0 (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national standards bodies (IS0 member bodies). The work
of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through IS0
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for
which a technical committee has been established has the right to be
represented on that committee. International organizations, govern-
mental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the
work. IS0 collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an lnter-
national Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member
bodies casting a vote.
International Standard IS0 10082 was prepared by Technical Committee
ISO/TC 61, Plastics.
It includes the contents of Technical Report ISO/TR 8244:1988.
0 IS0 1991
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without
permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case Postale 56 l Cl-i-1211 Geneve 20 * Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
IS0 10082:1991(E)
This International Standard gives an overview of the different types of
phenolic resin used in the manufacture of thermosetting plastics (sec-
tion 2) and a summary of available test methods (section 3).
. . .

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
- Phenolic resins - Definitions and test methods
Section 1: General
1.1 Scope 1.2 Normative reference
The following standard contains provisions which,
This International Standard defines, in section 2’1,
through reference in this text, constitute provisions
terms relating to the chemical structure of phenolic
of this International Standard. At the time of publi-
resins, their physical state and their degree of
cation, the edition indicated was valid. All standards
condensation and polycondensation.
are subject to revision, and parties to agreements
In section 3, a summary of test methods is given. based on this International Standard are encour-
These methods apply to the determination of prop- aged to investigate the possibility of applying the
erties which are technical significant for the pro- most recent edition of the standard indicated below.
duction, processing and application of phenolic Members of IEC and IS0 maintain registers of cur-
resins as described in section 2. The user should rently valid International Standards.
select from the tests those that are appropriate for
IS0 472:1988, Plastics - Vocabulary.
a particular application. For a given method, only the
standard(s) listed may be used.
1) Previously published as lSO/TR 8244:1988, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Basis for classification.

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
IS0 10082:1991(E)
Section 2: Definitions
This section defines terms relating to the chemical p-tert-nonylphenol), arylphenols (for example
phenylphenol and naphthols) and divalent phenols
structure of phenolic resins, their physical state and
their degree of condensation and polycondensation, (such as resorcinol and bisphenol A).
for classification purposes in the manufacture and
processing of these resins.
2.2.2 Aldehydes
The definitions apply to all fields of application of
The most important aldehyde component is formal-
phenolic resins in plastics (see also related deli-
dehyde, which is used in various forms, including
nitions in IS0 472).
aqueous solution and solid paraformaldehyde, and
also as compounds which give rise to formaldehyde.
2.1 General Other aldehydes (for example acetaldehyde,
acrolein, benzaldehyde and furfural) are employed
to a more limited extent, as also are ketones.
2.1.1 The term “phenolic resins” as used in this
International Standard refers to
2.3 Types of phenolic resin
a) synthetic resins or modified products obtained
by condensation of phenol with aldehydes, par-
2.3.1 Unmodified phenolic resins
ticularly formaldehyde;
Unmodified phenolic resins are produced by
b) products of the addition of phenols to unsatu-
condensation reactions of phenols with an aldehyde.
rated compounds (for example acetylene,
Depending on factors such as the volume and molar
terpenes and natural resins)*).
ratio of the raw materials, the reaction conditions
and the catalysts employed, two different classes of
NOTE 1 Resins in which the original properties are so
product are obtained: novolaks and resols.
changed by the modification (for example by rosin) that
they resemble more closely those of the modifying me-
dium are not regarded as phenolic resins.
2.3.1 .I Novolaks (two-step)
Novolaks are non-self-curing, soluble, fusible
2.1.2 Phenolic resins may be classified in a num-
phenolic resins that remain stable when stored, the
ber of ways, such as by
phenol nuclei of which are linked primarily by
methylene bridges. Novolaks can be made to react
a) the type of raw material (see clause 2.2);
further and crosslink by the addition of hardeners
(see 2.6.2); heating is also usually necessary.
b) the type of resin produced (see clause 2.3);
See also novolak in IS0 472.
c) the type of modifying agent (see 2.3.2); Resols (one-step)
d) the physical form of the commercial product (see
clause 2.4);
Resols are soluble, fusible phenolic resins which, in
contrast to novolaks, contain methylol groups and
e) the degree of condensation (see clause 2.5);
methylene-ether and sometimes also methylene-
amine bridges. Resols are self-curing; they crosslink
f) the type of catalyst (see 2.6.1);
into insoluble products when heated and/or mixed
with catalysts, without addition of further reaction
g) the type of hardener (see 2.6.2).
components. Resols are perishable and can be
stored for a limited time only.
2,2 Raw materials
See also resol in IS0 472.
2.2.1 Phenols
2.3.2 Modified phenolic resins
Besides unsubstituted phenol, derivatives of phenol
used for the manufacture of phenolic resins include Phenolic resins can be modified by chemical re-
cresols, xylenols and other alkylphenols (for exam- action of the methylol or the phenolic hydroxyl
p-terf-butylphenol, p-fert-octylphenol and groups and/or by physical dispersion of the modify-
2) Strictly speaking, these resins are not what are normally regarded as resins for the production of plastics. They are
used particularly in certain surface coatings.

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
IS0 10082:1991(E)
ing agent. Such modified phenolic resins can be ei-
2.5 Degree of condensation
ther self-curing or non-self-curing, depending on
their structure.
Phenolic resins can be crosslinked by the use of
heat and/or hardeners and/or catalysts. They pass
through the following transitional stages of
2.3.3 Phenolic addition resins
A-stage: S tarting state esol or novolak); liquid
Phenolic resins can also be produced without
or fusible, and soluble in alcohol and acetone;
condensation with formaldehyde by reaction of phe-
nol with unsaturated hydrocarbons. Examples of
B-stage: Intermediate state (resitol); infusible,
these are phenol/acetylene and phenol/terpene re-
but still mouldable with heat and capable of
sins, which are not always self-curing.
swelling in alcohol or acetone;
C-stage: Final state (resite); infusible and insolu-
ble in alcohol or acetone.
See also A-stage; B-stage; C-stage; resite; resitol in
2.4 Forms of commercia I product
IS0 472.
Phenolic resins are manufactu red and used in vari-
ous forms, such as
2.6 Catalysts and hardeners
a) liquids;
2.6.1 Catalysts
solids, pelletize flake, granular or finely
as d,
Catalysts accelerate the crosslinking reaction. Both
powde red products;
acid and basic compounds are suitable for this pur-
c) solutions or dispersions in water and/or organic
2.6.2 Hardeners (crosslinking agents)
A so-called “aqueous solution” (it is not a real
Formaldehyde, or compounds that release formal-
aqueous solution) is one that has a water content
dehyde, for example hexamethylenetetramine
of more than 5 % (172/m) and an organic solvent
(hexamine), can be used as hardeners. Resols and
content of less than 5 % (nz/rn). (Free phenol is not
isocyanates can also be used as hardeners.
counted as organic solvent.)
Hardeners are generally added only to non-self-
A solvent-cant ainin nolic resin solution is one curing phenolic resins and cure by chemical re-
g Phe
th at has more than ml m) of organic solven ts. action (three-dimensional crosslinking).
5 % (

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SIST EN ISO 10082:1999
IS0 10082:1991(E)
Section 3: Test methods
IS0 9371:1990, Plastics - Phenolic resins in the liq-
3.1 Numerical list
uid state or in solution - Determination of viscosity,
IS0 9396:1989, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
IS0 60: 1977, Plastics - Determination of apparent
mination of the gel time at a given temperature using
density of material that can be poured from a speci-
automatic apparatus.
fied funnel.
IS0 9397:1989, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
IS0 565:1990, Test sieves - Metal wire cloth, perfo-
mination of free formaldehyde content.
rated metal plate and electroformed sheet - Nominal
sizes of openings.
IS0 9771:1989, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
mina tion of reactivity of resols under acid
IS0 760:1978, Determination of water - Karl Fischer
method (General method).
IS0 9944:1990, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
IS0 2555:1989, Plastics - Resins in the liquid state
mination of electrical conductivity of resin extracts.
or as emulsions or dispersions - Determination of
apparent viscosity by the Brookfield Test method.
IS0 2811:1974, Paints and varnishes - Determination
of density.
3.2 Alphabetical list
IS0 3146:1985, Plastics - Determination of melting
behaviour (melting temperature or melting range) of
is0 Sub-clause
semi-crystalline polymers.
Acid reactivity of
phenolic resols 9771
IS0 3219:1977, Plastics - Polymers in the liquid,
emulsified or dispersed state - Determination of
Ash, determination of 3451-1
viscosity with a rotational viscometer working at de-
Conductivity, elec-
fined shear rate.
trical, phenolic resins,
measurement of 9944
IS0 3451-1:1981, Plastics - Determinaiion of ash -
Part I: General methods.
Density, apparent,
determination of 60
IS0 3675:1976, Crude petroleum and liquid petro-
Density or relative
leum products - Laboratory determination of density
density, determi-
or relative density - Hydrometer method.
nation of, hydrometer
IS0 8618:1987, Plastics - Liquid phenolic resins - method 3675
Conventional determination of non-volatile matter.
Density, paints and
varnishes, determi-
IS0 8619:1988, Plastics - Phenolic resin powder -
nation of
Determination of f7ow distance on a glass plate.
Flow distance on a
IS0 8620:1986, Plastics - Phenolic resin powder -
glass plate, phenolic
Sieve analysis using air-jet sieve apparatus.
resins, determination
of 8619
IS0 8974:1988, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
Formaldehyde, free,
mination of residual phenol content by gas chro-
content in phenolic
resins 9397
IS0 8975:1989, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
Gel time at a given
mination of pH.
temperature by auto-
matic apparatus, de-
IS0 8987:1988, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
termination of 9396
mination of reactivity on a B-transformation test
content in phenolic
IS0 8988:1989, Plastics - Phenolic resins - Deter-
resins 8988
mination of hexamethylenetetramine content.
Melting behaviour of

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