Metallic materials - Knoop hardness test - Part 1: Test method (ISO 4545-1:2005)

ISO 4545-1:2005 specifies the Knoop hardness test method for metallic materials, for test forces from 0,098 07 N to 19,614 N. The method is recommended only for indentations with diagonals greater than or equal to 0,020 mm.

Metallische Werkstoffe - Härteprüfung nach Knoop - Teil 1: Prüfverfahren (ISO 4545-1:2005)

In diesem Teil von ISO 4545 ist das Verfahren für die Härteprüfung nach Knoop an metallischen Werkstoffen für Prüfkräfte von 0,098 07 N bis 19,614 N festgelegt. Das Verfahren wird nur für Eindrücke mit Diagonalen ³ 0,020 mm empfohlen.

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de dureté Knoop - Partie 1: Méthode d'essai (ISO 4545-1:2005)

L'ISO 4545-1:2005 spécifie la méthode d'essai de dureté Knoop pour les matériaux métalliques, pour des forces d'essai comprises entre 0,098 07 N et 19,614 N. La méthode est recommandée seulement pour des empreintes de diagonales supérieures ou égales à 0,020 mm.

Kovinski materiali – Preskus trdote po Knoopu – 1. del: Preskusna metoda (ISO 4545-1:2005)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
14-Nov-2005
Withdrawal Date
06-Mar-2018
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
07-Mar-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
01-marec-2006
Kovinski materiali – Preskus trdote po Knoopu – 1. del: Preskusna metoda (ISO
4545-1:2005)
Metallic materials - Knoop hardness test - Part 1: Test method (ISO 4545-1:2005)

Metallische Werkstoffe - Härteprüfung nach Knoop - Teil 1: Prüfverfahren (ISO 4545-

1:2005)

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de dureté Knoop - Partie 1: Méthode d'essai (ISO 4545-

1:2005)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 4545-1:2005
ICS:
77.040.10 Mehansko preskušanje kovin Mechanical testing of metals
SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 4545-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2005
ICS 77.040.10
English Version
Metallic materials - Knoop hardness test - Part 1: Test method
(ISO 4545-1:2005)

Matériaux métalliques - Essai de dureté Knoop - Partie 1: Metallische Werkstoffe - Härteprüfung nach Knoop - Teil 1:

Méthode d'essai (ISO 4545-1:2005) Prüfverfahren (ISO 4545-1:2005)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 October 2005.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 4545-1:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
EN ISO 4545-1:2005 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 4545-1:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 164

"Mechanical testing of metals" in collaboration with Technical Committee ECISS/TC 1 "Steel -

Mechanical testing", the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2006, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2006.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 4545-1:2005 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 4545-1:2005 without any

modifications.
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4545-1
First edition
2005-11-15
Metallic materials — Knoop hardness
test —
Part 1:
Test method
Matériaux métalliques — Essai de dureté Knoop —
Partie 1: Méthode d'essai
Reference number
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
ISO 2005
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
PDF disclaimer

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© ISO 2005

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ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Principle................................................................................................................................................. 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 2

5 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Test piece .............................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Uncertainty of the results .................................................................................................................... 5

9 Test report ............................................................................................................................................. 6

Annex A (informative) Procedure for periodic checking of the testing machine by the user .................... 7

Annex B (informative) Uncertainty of the measured hardness values ......................................................... 8

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 4545-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 164, Mechanical testing of metals, Subcommittee

SC 3, Hardness testing.

ISO 4545-1 cancels and replaces ISO 4545:1993, which has been technically revised.

ISO 4545 consists of the following parts, under the general title Metallic materials — Knoop hardness test:

— Part 1: Test method
— Part 2: Verification and calibration of testing machines
— Part 3: Calibration of reference blocks
— Part 4: Table of hardness values
iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
Introduction

The periodic checking of the testing machine described in informative Annex A is good metrological practice. It

is intended to make this annex normative in the next revision of this part of ISO 4545.

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
Metallic materials — Knoop hardness test —
Part 1:
Test method
1 Scope

This part of ISO 4545 specifies the Knoop hardness test method for metallic materials, for test forces from

0,098 07 N to 19,614 N. The method is recommended only for indentations with diagonals W 0,020 mm.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4545-2:2005, Metallic materials — Knoop hardness test — Part 2: Verification and calibration of testing

machines

ISO 4545-3:2005, Metallic materials — Knoop hardness test — Part 3: Calibration of reference blocks

ISO 4545-4, Metallic materials — Knoop hardness test — Part 4: Table of hardness values

3 Principle

A diamond indenter, in the form of a rhombic-based pyramid with angles α and β between opposite faces

respectively equal to 172,5° and 130° at the vertex, is forced into the surface of a test piece followed by

measurement of the long diagonal, d, of the indentation remaining in the surface after removal of the test force,

F (see Figures 1 and 2).
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
Figure 1 — Principle of the test and indenter geometry
Figure 2 — Knoop indentation

The Knoop hardness is proportional to the quotient obtained by dividing the test force by the projected area of

the indentation, which is assumed to be a rhombic-based pyramid, and having at the vertex the same angles

as the indenter.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 See Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2.
4.2 The following is an example of the designation of Knoop hardness.
2 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
EXAMPLE
Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviated terms
Symbol/
abbreviated Designation
term
F Test force, in newtons
d Length of the long diagonal, in millimetres

c Indenter constant, relating projected area of the indentation to the square of the length of the long

diagonal
tan
Indenter constant, c= , ideally c = 0,070 28
2tan

where α and β are the angles between the opposite edges at the vertex of the diamond pyramid (see

Figure 1)
HK Test force
Knoop hardness = Constant ×
Projected area of indentation
F F
= 0,102×= 1,451
cd d
NOTE Constant = 0,102= , where 9,806 65 is the conversion factor from kgf to N.
9,806 65
5 Apparatus

5.1 Testing machine, capable of applying a predetermined force or forces from 0,098 07 N to 19,614 N, in

accordance with ISO 4545-2.

5.2 Indenter, a diamond in the shape of a rhombic-based pyramid, as specified in ISO 4545-2.

5.3 Measuring system, as specified in ISO 4545-2.

The optical portion of the measuring system should have Kohler illumination. See Annex A of ISO 4545-3:2005.

Magnifications should be provided so that the diagonal can be enlarged to greater than 25 % but less than

75 % of the field of view.
The measuring system should report the diagonal lengths in 0,1 µm increments.

NOTE A suggested procedure for checking the testing machine by the user is given in Annex A.

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 4545-1:2006
ISO 4545-1:2005(E)
6 Test piece

6.1 The test shall be carried out on a polished surface, which is smooth and even, free from oxide scale

and foreign matter and, in particular, completely free from lubricants, unless otherwise specified in product

standards The finish of the surface shall permit accurate determination of the diagonal length of the

indentation.

6.2 Preparation shall be carried out in such a way that any alteration of the surface hardness, due to

excessive heating or cold work, for example, is minimized.

6.3 Due to the small depth of Knoop hardness indentations, it is essential that special precautions be taken

during preparation. It is recommended to use a polishing/electropolishing technique that is adapted to the

material to be measured.

6.4 No deformation shall be visible at the back of the test piece after the test.

6.5 For test pieces of small cross-section or of irregular shape, it may be necessary to provide some form of

additional support, for example, mounting in plastic material. The test piece shall be adequately supported by

the mounting medium so that the test piece does not move during the force application.

7 Procedure

7.1 The test is normally carried out at a temperature of (23 ± 5) °C. If the test is carried out at a temperature

outside this range, it shall be noted in the test report.
7.2 The test forces given in Table 2 are recommended.

7.3 The test piece shall be placed on a rigid support. The support surfaces shall be clean and free from

foreign matter (scales, oil, dirt, etc.). It is important that the test piece lies firmly on the support so that

displacement cannot occur during the test.
7.4 Focus the measuring microscope so that the specimen surface can be observed.

7.5 Bring the indenter into contact with the test surface and apply the test force in a direction perpendicular

to the surface, without shock or vibration, until the applied force attains the specified value. The approach

velocity of the indenter shall be within the range of 15 µm/s to 70 µm/s. The time from the initial application of

the force until the full test f
...

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