Wind energy generation systems - Part 1: Design requirements

IEC 61400-1:2019 is available as IEC 61400-1:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61400-1:2019 specifies essential design requirements to ensure the structural integrity of wind turbines. Its purpose is to provide an appropriate level of protection against damage from all hazards during the planned lifetime. This document is concerned with all subsystems of wind turbines such as control and protection functions, internal electrical systems, mechanical systems and support structures. This document applies to wind turbines of all sizes. For small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 can be applied. IEC 61400-3-1 provides additional requirements to offshore wind turbine installations. This document is intended to be used together with the appropriate IEC and ISO standards mentioned in Clause 2. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) general update and clarification of references and requirements; b) extension of wind turbine classes to allow for tropical cyclones and high turbulence; c) Weibull distribution of turbulence standard deviation for normal turbulence model (NTM); d) updated design load cases (DLCs), in particular DLC 2.1 and 2.2; e) revision of partial safety factor specifications The contents of the corrigendum of September 2019 have been included in this copy.

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 1: Auslegungsanforderungen

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 1: Exigences de conception

IEC 61400-1:2019 est disponible sous forme de IEC 61400-1:2019 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 1. del: Zahteve za načrtovanje (IEC 61400-1:2019)

Ta del standarda IEC 61400 določa temeljne zahteve za načrtovanje, s katerimi se zagotovi konstrukcijska celovitost vetrnih turbin. Njegov namen je zagotoviti ustrezno raven zaščite pred poškodbami zaradi vseh nevarnosti v predvideni življenjski dobi.
Ta dokument obravnava vse podsisteme vetrnih turbin, kot so funkcije nadzora in zaščite, notranji električni sistemi, mehanski sistemi ter podporne konstrukcije. Ta dokument se uporablja za vetrne turbine vseh velikosti. Za majhne vetrne turbine se lahko uporabi standard IEC 61400-2. Standard IEC 61400-3-1 določa dodatne zahteve za namestitve vetrnih turbin na morju.
Ta dokument je namenjen za uporabo skupaj z ustreznimi standardi IEC in ISO, omenjenimi v točki 2.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Apr-2019
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
05-Apr-2019
Completion Date
05-Apr-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
01-junij-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 61400-1:2006
SIST EN 61400-1:2006/A1:2011
Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 1. del: Zahteve za načrtovanje (IEC
61400-1:2019)
Wind energy generation systems - Part 1: Design requirements (IEC 61400-1:2019)
Windenergieanlagen - Teil 1: Auslegungsanforderungen (IEC 61400-1:2019)

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 1: Exigences de conception (IEC

61400-1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 61400-1:2019
ICS:
27.180 Vetrne elektrarne Wind turbine energy systems
SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 61400-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2019
ICS 27.180 Supersedes EN 61400-1:2005
English Version
Wind energy generation systems - Part 1: Design requirements
(IEC 61400-1:2019)

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 1: Windenergieanlagen - Teil 1: Auslegungsanforderungen

Exigences de conception (IEC 61400-1:2019)
(IEC 61400-1:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2019-03-15. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 61400-1:2019 E
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
EN IEC 61400-1:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 88/696/FDIS, future edition 4 of IEC 61400-1, prepared by IEC/TC 88 "Wind

energy generation systems" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 61400-1:2019.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2019-12-15

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2022-03-15

document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 61400-1:2005.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61400-1:2019 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60146 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60146 (series)
IEC 60269 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60269 (series)
IEC 60898 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60898 (series)
IEC 61000-6-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 61000-6-1
IEC 61000-6-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61000-6-4
IEC 61310-1:2007 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61310-1:2008 (not modified)
IEC 61310-2:2007 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61310-2:2008 (not modified)
IEC 61400-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61400-2
1 2
IEC 61400-3-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 61400-3-1
3 4
IEC 61400-6 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 61400-6
To be published. Stage at time of publication: IEC CDV 61400-3-1:2017
To be published. Stage at time of publication: FprEN IEC 61400-3-1:2018
To be published. Stage at time of publication: IEC CDV 61400-6:2017
To be published. Stage at time of publication: pr EN IEC 61400-6:2017
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
EN IEC 61400-1:2019 (E)
IEC 61400-12-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61400-12-1
IEC 61400-13 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61400-13
IEC 61400-21 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61400-21
IEC 61508 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 61508 (series)
IEC 61508-1:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61508-1:2010 (not modified)
IEC 61508-6 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61508-6
IEC 62061:2005 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62061:2005 (not modified)
IEC 62061:2005/AMD1:2012 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62061:2005/A1:2013 (not modified)
IEC 62061:2005/AMD2:2015 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62061:2005/A2:2015 (not modified)
IEC 62305-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62305-1
ISO 12100:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 12100:2010 (not modified)
ISO 9001 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 9001
ISO 13849-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 13849-2
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
EN IEC 61400-1:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60034 series Rotating electrical machines - series
IEC 60038 - IEC standard voltages EN 60038 -
IEC 60071-1 - Insulation co-ordination - Part 1: EN 60071-1 -
Definitions, principles and rules
IEC 60071-2 - Insulation co-ordination - Part 2: EN IEC 60071-2 -
Application guidelines
IEC 60076 series Power transformers EN 60076 series
IEC 60204-1 - Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment EN 60204-1 -
of machines - Part 1: General requirements
IEC 60204-11 2000 Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment EN 60204-11 2000
of machines - Part 11: Requirements for
HV equipment for voltages above 1 000 V
a.c. or 1 500 V d.c. and not exceeding 36
- - + corrigendum 2010
Feb.
IEC 60364 series Low-voltage electrical installations HD 60364 series
IEC 60529 - Degrees of protection provided by - -
enclosures (IP Code)
IEC 60664-1 - Insulation coordination for equipment EN 60664-1 -
within low-voltage systems - Part 1:
Principles, requirements and tests
IEC 60664-3 - Insulation coordination for equipment EN 60664-3 -
within low-voltage systems - Part 3: Use of
coating, potting or moulding for protection
against pollution
IEC 60721 series Classification of environmental conditions - EN 60721 series
IEC 61000-6-2 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part EN IEC 61000-6-2 -
6-2: Generic standards - Immunity
standard for industrial environments
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
EN IEC 61400-1:2019 (E)
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 61400-3 - Wind turbines - Part 3: Design EN 61400-3 -
requirements for offshore wind turbines
IEC 61400-4 - Wind turbines - Part 4: Design EN 61400-4 -
requirements for wind turbine gearboxes
IEC 61400-24 - Wind turbines - Part 24: Lightning EN 61400-24 -
protection
IEC 61439 series Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear EN 61439 series
assemblies
IEC 61800-4 - Adjustable speed electrical power drive EN 61800-4 -
systems - Part 4: General requirements -
Rating specifications for a.c. power drive
systems above 1 000 V a.c. and not
exceeding 35 kV
IEC 61800-5-1 - Adjustable speed electrical power drive EN 61800-5-1 -
systems - Part 5-1: Safety requirements -
Electrical, thermal and energy
IEC 62271 series High-voltage switchgear and controlgear EN 62271 series
IEC 62305-3 - Protection against lightning - Part 3: EN 62305-3 -
Physical damage to structures and life
hazard
IEC 62305-4 - Protection against lightning - Part 4: EN 62305-4 -
Electrical and electronic systems within
structures
IEC 62477-1 2012 Safety requirements for power electronic EN 62477-1 2012
converter systems and equipment - Part 1:
General
- - + A11 2014
ISO 76 - Rolling bearings - Static load ratings - -
ISO 281 - Rolling bearings - Dynamic load ratings - -
and rating life
ISO 2394 - General principles on reliability for - -
structures
ISO 2533 - Standard Atmosphere - -
ISO 4354 - Wind actions on structures - -
ISO 6336-2 - Calculation of load capacity of spur and - -
helical gears – Part 2: Calculation of
surface durability (pitting)
ISO 6336-3 2006 Calculation of load capacity of spur and - -
helical gears – Part 3: Calculation of tooth
bending strength
ISO 12494 2001 Atmospheric icing of structures - -
ISO 13850 - Safety of machinery - Emergency stop EN ISO 13850 -
function - Principles for design
ISO/TS 16281 - Rolling bearings -- Methods for calculating - -
the modified reference rating life for
universally loaded bearings
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
IEC 61400-1
Edition 4.0 2019-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 1: Design requirements
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-6253-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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SIST EN IEC 61400-1:2019
– 2 – IEC 61400-1:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 10

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 12

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 13

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 13

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 15

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 23

4.1 Symbols and units................................................................................................. 23

4.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 26

5 Principal elements ......................................................................................................... 27

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

5.2 Design methods .................................................................................................... 27

5.3 Safety classes ...................................................................................................... 27

5.4 Quality assurance ................................................................................................. 27

5.5 Wind turbine markings .......................................................................................... 27

6 External conditions ........................................................................................................ 28

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

6.2 Wind turbine classes ............................................................................................. 28

6.3 Wind conditions .................................................................................................... 30

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 30

6.3.2 Normal wind conditions .................................................................................. 31

6.3.3 Extreme wind conditions ................................................................................ 33

6.4 Other environmental conditions ............................................................................. 38

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

6.4.2 Normal other environmental conditions .......................................................... 39

6.4.3 Extreme other environmental conditions ........................................................ 39

6.5 Electrical power network conditions ...................................................................... 39

7 Structural design ........................................................................................................... 40

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 40

7.2 Design methodology ............................................................................................. 40

7.3 Loads.................................................................................................................... 40

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 40

7.3.2 Gravitational and inertial loads ...................................................................... 41

7.3.3 Aerodynamic loads ........................................................................................ 41

7.3.4 Actuation loads .............................................................................................. 41

7.3.5 Other loads .................................................................................................... 41

7.4 Design situations and load cases .......................................................................... 41

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 41

7.4.2 Power production (DLC 1.1 to 1.5) ................................................................. 44

7.4.3 Power production plus occurrence of fault or loss of electrical network

connection (DLC 2.1 to 2.5) ........................................................................... 45

7.4.4 Start-up (DLC 3.1 to 3.3) ............................................................................... 47

7.4.5 Normal shutdown (DLC 4.1 to 4.2) ................................................................. 47

7.4.6 Emergency stop (DLC 5.1) ............................................................................. 48

7.4.7 Parked (standstill or idling) (DLC 6.1 to 6.4) .................................................. 48

7.4.8 Parked plus fault conditions (DLC 7.1) ........................................................... 49

7.4.9 Transport, assembly, maintenance and repair (DLC 8.1 and 8.2) ................... 49

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7.5 Load calculations .................................................................................................. 49

7.6 Ultimate limit state analysis................................................................................... 50

7.6.1 Method .......................................................................................................... 50

7.6.2 Ultimate strength analysis .............................................................................. 53

7.6.3 Fatigue failure ............................................................................................... 56

7.6.4 Stability ......................................................................................................... 57

7.6.5 Critical deflection analysis ............................................................................. 57

7.6.6 Special partial safety factors .......................................................................... 58

8 Control system .............................................................................................................. 58

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 58

8.2 Control functions ................................................................................................... 58

8.3 Protection functions .............................................................................................. 59

8.4 Control system failure analysis ............................................................................. 59

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 59

8.4.2 Independence and common-cause failures .................................................... 60

8.4.3 Fault exclusions ............................................................................................. 60

8.4.4 Failure mode return periods ........................................................................... 60

8.4.5 Systematic failures ........................................................................................ 60

8.5 Manual operation .................................................................................................. 60

8.6 Emergency stop button function ............................................................................ 60

8.7 Manual, automatic, and remote restart .................................................................. 61

8.8 Braking system ..................................................................................................... 62

9 Mechanical systems ...................................................................................................... 62

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 62

9.2 Errors of fitting ...................................................................................................... 63

9.3 Hydraulic or pneumatic systems ............................................................................ 63

9.4 Main gearbox ........................................................................................................ 63

9.5 Yaw system .......................................................................................................... 63

9.6 Pitch system ......................................................................................................... 64

9.7 Protection function mechanical brakes .................................................................. 64

9.8 Rolling element bearings ....................................................................................... 64

9.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 64

9.8.2 Main shaft bearings ....................................................................................... 64

9.8.3 Generator bearings ........................................................................................ 64

9.8.4 Pitch and yaw bearings .................................................................................. 65

10 Electrical system ........................................................................................................... 65

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 65

10.2 General requirements for the electrical system ..................................................... 65

10.3 Internal environmental conditions .......................................................................... 65

10.4 Protective devices ................................................................................................. 67

10.5 Disconnection from supply sources ....................................................................... 67

10.6 Earth system ......................................................................................................... 67

10.7 Lightning protection .............................................................................................. 67

10.8 Electrical cables .................................................................................................... 68

10.9 Self-excitation ....................................................................................................... 68

10.10 Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse ............................................ 68

10.11 Power quality ........................................................................................................ 68

10.12 Electromagnetic compatibility ................................................................................ 69

10.13 Power electronic converter systems and equipment .............................................. 69

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10.14 Twist/drip loop ...................................................................................................... 69

10.15 Slip rings .............................................................................................................. 69

10.16 Vertical power transmission conductors and components ...................................... 70

10.17 Motor drives and converters .................................................................................. 70

10.18 Electrical machines ............................................................................................... 71

10.19 Power transformers ............................................................................................... 71

10.20 Low voltage switchgear and controlgear ................................................................ 71

10.21 High voltage switchgear ........................................................................................ 71

10.22 Hubs ..................................................................................................................... 72

11 Assessment of a wind turbine for site-specific conditions ............................................... 72

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 72

11.2 Assessment of the topographical complexity of the site and its effect on

turbulence ............................................................................................................. 72

11.2.1 Assessment of the topographical complexity .................................................. 72

11.2.2 Assessment of turbulence structure at the site ............................................... 75

11.3 Wind conditions required for assessment .............................................................. 76

11.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 76

11.3.2 Wind condition parameters ............................................................................ 76

11.3.3 Measurement setup ....................................................................................... 77

11.3.4 Data evaluation ............................................................................................. 78

11.4 Assessment of wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines ............................... 78

11.5 Assessment of other environmental conditions ...................................................... 78

11.6 Assessment of earthquake conditions ................................................................... 79

11.7 Assessment of electrical network conditions ......................................................... 80

11.8 Assessment of soil conditions ............................................................................... 80

11.9 Assessment of structural integrity by reference to wind data ................................. 80

11.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 80

11.9.2 Assessment of the fatigue load suitability by reference to wind data .............. 80

11.9.3 Assessment of the ultimate load suitability by reference to wind data ............ 82

11.10 Assessment of structural integrity by load calculations with reference to site-

specific conditions ................................................................................................ 82

12 Assembly, installation and erection ................................................................................ 83

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 83

12.2 Planning ............................................................................................................... 84

12.3 Installation conditions ........................................................................................... 84

12.4 Site access ........................................................................................................... 84

12.5 Environmental conditions ...................................................................................... 84

12.6 Documentation ...................................................................................................... 84

12.7 Receiving, handling and storage ........................................................................... 85

12.8 Foundation/anchor systems .................................................................................. 85

12.9 Assembly of wind turbine ...................................................................................... 85

12.10 Erection of wind turbine ........................................................................................ 85

12.11 Fasteners and attachments ................................................................................... 85

12.12 Cranes, hoists and lifting equipment ..................................................................... 85

13 Commissioning, operation and maintenance .................................................................. 86

13.1 General ................................................................................................................. 86

13.2 Design requirements for safe operation, inspection and maintenance ................... 86

13.3 Instructions concerning commissioning ................................................................. 87

13.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 87

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13.3.2 Energization .................................................................................................. 87

13.3.3 Commissioning tests ...................................................................................... 87

13.3.4 Records ......................................................................................................... 87

13.3.5 Post commissioning activities ........................................................................ 87

13.4 Operator’s instruction manual ............................................................................... 87

13.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 87

13.4.2 Instructions for operations and maintenance records ..................................... 88

13.4.3 Instructions for unscheduled automatic shutdown .......................................... 88

13.4.4 Instructions for diminished reliability .............................................................. 88

13.4.5 Work procedures plan .................................................................................... 88

13.4.6 Emergency procedures plan .......................................................................... 89

13.5 Maintenance manual .........................
...

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